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date: 15 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This articleanalyses archaeological evidence concerning the condition and developments in Phoenicia during the Iron Age II. It suggests that the Phoenician history during this period is aligned with the history of Tyre, which took the initiative in transforming Phoenicia into a commercial, territorial and colonial power. The article explains the causes of Tyre’s ascendancy during this period. These include the destruction of Ugarit at the beginning of the twelfth century BC, the decline of Egypt (which left Phoenicia free of administrative interference), and the absence of competitors in Levantine trade after the ‘crisis years’ that left the Phoenician cities in a position to resume the long-range economic strategy which had caused cities such as Byblos and Ugarit to prosper.

Keywords: Phoenicia, Iron Age II, Tyre, colonial power, Ugarit, Egypt, Levantine trade, crisis years

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