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date: 15 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This article describes the condition in the Levant during the Chalcolithic Period. It explains that the word ‘Chalcolithic’ was formed to recognise the importance of the adoption of metal technology, and distinguishes this formative period from the preceding Neolithic and succeeding Bronze Age linked to early urbanism. The article suggests that while there are differences concerning the trajectories, tempo and measures of complexity of Chalcolithic societies in the southern Levant, there is no question that social, economic, ideological and technological developments during the fifth through fourth millennia BCE played a key role in setting the stage for the archaic states which evolved in the eastern Mediterranean during the third millennium. It also highlights the need to use higher precision radiocarbon dating in order to more accurately test cultural models for this formative period.

Keywords: Levant, Chalcolithic Period, metal technology, urbanism, archaic states, radiocarbon dating, cultural models

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