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date: 04 April 2020

(p. x) List of Figures

(p. x) List of Figures

  1. Map. Places referred to in more than one contribution xxviii

  2. 5.1 Greensted Church, Essex 72

  3. 5.2 Limestone grave slab from St Paul's Churchyard, London 75

  4. 7.1 Reconstructions of early Anglo‐Saxon female dress 99

  5. 7.2 Three types of masculine dress 102

  6. 7.3 Male and female dress 104

  7. 7.4 Pagan belief on dress accessories 107

  8. 7.5 Christian belief on dress accessories 108

  9. 9.1 An Anglo‐Saxon house with entrances and lines of symmetry indicated 129

  10. 9.2 Suggested chronological development of Anglo‐Saxon earthfast timber buildings 130

  11. 9.3 Superimposed plans of three early Anglo‐Saxon buildings from Mucking 131

  12. 9.4 Building A from Steyning 133

  13. 9.5 Building 9150 from Renhold Water End 135

  14. 9.6 Cowdery's Down Building A1 137

  15. 9.7 Late Saxon long halls from Cheddar, Sulgrave, Goltho, and Bicester 139

  16. 9.8 Plans of four Late Saxon long halls superimposed 142

  17. 9.9 Late Saxon narrow‐aisled halls from Portchester, Faccombe Netherton, Raunds, and Ketton 144

  18. 9.10 A probable barn from Higham Ferrers 145

  19. 9.11 Reconstruction of a Grubenhaus as a sunken‐floored structure 147

  20. 10.1 The settlement at Mucking 158

  21. 10.2 The seventh‐century royal site at Yeavering (Phase IIIc) 160

  22. 10.3 Cheddar: the early tenth‐century royal complex (Period 2) 166

  23. 11.1 Kirk Hammerton, North Yorks 173

  24. 11.2 Map of Worcestershire from Thomas Badeslade's Chorographia Britanniae (1742) 175

  25. (p. xi) 11.3 Earl's Barton, Northamptonshire: architecturally elaborate early eleventh‐century tower‐church (extended later) co‐located with ringwork 179

  26. 11.4 Coin of Edward the Elder (899–924) bearing image of a structure that suggests features in common with aristocratic towers of a century later 180

  27. 11.5 Spofforth, North Yorks 182

  28. 11.6 Stonegrave, North Yorks 187

  29. 11.7 Appleton‐le‐Street, North Yorks 188

  30. 11.8 Middleton‐by‐Pickering, North Yorks 190

  31. 11.9 Open fields and rural resources at Weston‐by‐Welland, Ashley and Sutton Bassett 191

  32. 11.10 Extracts from geomagnetic survey in the Vale of Pickering, North Yorks 192

  33. 12.1 Enclosures around settlements at North Shoebury Hall and Whitehouse Road, Ipswich 201

  34. 12.2 Enclosures with gates at Steyning and Little Paxton 202

  35. 12.3 The development of the enclosures at West Cotton 204

  36. 12.4 The development of the manorial site at Goltho,Phases 3 to 5 205

  37. 12.5 Peasant farmsteads at North Elmham and Stratton Biggleswade 209

  38. 14.1 Artist's impression of a wealthy late sixth‐century cremation ceremony 244

  39. 14.2 Cinerary urn with bossed decoration and artefacts found in grave C23 from the mixed‐rite early Anglo‐Saxon cemetery at Worthy Park, Kingsworthy 247

  40. 14.3 A wealthy sixth‐century grave of an adult female from Butler's Field, Lechlade 251

  41. 14.4 Adult male aged between 40 and 50 years of age interred with a spearhead and knife from grave 83, Worthy Park, Kingsworthy 252

  42. 14.5 Artist's impression of the Finglesham cemetery 256

  43. 15.1 Diagrammatic 3D reconstruction of Prittlewell burial 270

  44. 15.2 Eccles Grave 19 buckle, front and back views 272

  45. 15.3 Milton Regis gold cross pendant and other pendants 274

  46. 15.4 Riseley grave group pendants 282

  47. 16.1 Plan of the late Anglo‐Saxon cemetery excavated at York Minster 289

  48. (p. xii) 16.2 A coffined burial in a cemetery dated to the tenth/eleventh century at Swinegate in York, possibly associated with the ‘lost’ church of St Benet 292

  49. 16.3 Late Saxon burials from York Minster 293

  50. 16.4 Iron hinge straps, stapled hasps, and locks found during excavations at Ailcy Hill, Ripon 298

  51. 16.5 Organic remains at Barton‐upon‐Humber 300

  52. 16.6 Plan of a cemetery dated to the eighth to tenth centuries excavated at Addingham 303

  53. 17.1 Estate linkages in the West Midlands 320

  54. 18.1 Variation in representation of wild mammals on Anglo‐Saxon sites of different type 329

  55. 18.2 Variation in representation of wild birds on Anglo‐Saxon sites of different type 330

  56. 18.3 Anatomical representation of red and roe deer remains from elite sites dating to the mid Saxon period 335

  57. 18.4 Anatomical representation of red and roe deer remains from elite sites dating to the late Saxon period 340

  58. 20.1 Relative abundance of the three main domesticates in the Anglo‐Saxon assemblages discussed in this chapter 366

  59. 21.1 The putative extent of irregular open‐field systems in England 378

  60. 21.2 The distribution of common‐field systems in England 379

  61. 22.1 Seventh‐century composite disc brooch from Harford Farm, Caistor St Edmund 408

  62. 22.2 Slotted iron tool with holes of uneven diameter, from Tattershall Thorpe Length 114 mm 410

  63. 22.3 Iron file, with remains of wooden handle 411

  64. 22.4 Lead‐alloy brooch from London 416

  65. 24.1 Reconstruction of the ninth‐century water mill at Tamworth, and Anglo‐Saxon wood‐working tools 442

  66. 24.2 Textile production 446

  67. 24.3 Ironsmithing 450

  68. 24.4 Metalwork production 452

  69. 25.1 Beginnings (late Roman style) 462

  70. 25.2 The fifth‐century Quoit‐Brooch style 464

  71. 25.3 The fifth‐century Saxon Relief style 466

  72. (p. xiii) 25.4 The later fifth and sixth centuries: Style 1 468

  73. 25.5 The later sixth and seventh centuries: Style 2 473

  74. 25.6 The later seventh and eighth centuries: Christian art, new influences and directions 477

  75. 25.7 The eighth century: the emergence of a Mercian style 481

  76. 25.8 The ninth century: the rise of Wessex, and innovations of King Alfred's reign 485

  77. 25.9 The tenth and eleventh centuries: the ‘Winchester’ Style 488

  78. 25.10 The tenth and eleventh centuries: Anglo‐Scandinavian influences 492

  79. 27.1 Plan of Verulamium and surrounding area in the fifth and sixth centuries 518

  80. 27.2 Roman baluster shaft (note mouldings at the base) with incised Ogham inscription, found in a well in Silchester 521

  81. 27.3 Fragment of a gold tremissis, struck in the late fifth century, found in Canterbury 523

  82. 29.1 The location of the principal emporia, wics, ‘productive’, and other sites, plotted against the navigable extent of rivers c.1750 558

  83. 29.2 Metal‐detected finds from the high‐status site at Bawsey 564

  84. 29.3 Lundenwic and Gippeswic in their wider landscape settings 567

  85. 29.4 Hamwic and Eoforwic in their wider landscape settings 568

  86. 29.5 The rewards for an emergent elite: gold and garnet pendant, and composite disc brooches 571

  87. 29.6 The environs of Venta Icenorum, Caistor St Edmund, showing the relationship between the ‘productive’ site, settlement area, and the surrounding cemeteries 572

  88. 30.1 (a) Early penny, Series Q, East Anglia c.725–40; (b) Offa of Mercia, penny, London, c.780–92; (c) Egbert of Wessex, penny, London, 829–30 583

  89. 30.2 Histograms reflecting coin loss at particular sites, 600–1100 (a) Hamwic; (b) Lincoln; (c) London 588

  90. 30.3 Iron obverse die for Sword St Peter penny from 16–22 Coppergate, York 594

  91. 31.1 Anglian York in the seventh to mid ninth centuries; a speculative interpretation, superimposed on the modern plan 603

  92. 31.2 Composite picture of a sunken‐floored building constructed at Hungate, York, c.970, incorporating timbers from a boat built in southern England ten to fifteen years earlier 612

  93. (p. xiv) 31.3 Minting‐places in 975 and 1066 as guide to urban places at those dates 616

  94. 32.1 Adult‐artefact pathways into the archaeological record through child agency 629

  95. 33.1 Mill Hill, Deal: Distribution of age categories 647

  96. 33.2 Blacknall Field, Pewsey: Distribution of age categories 652

  97. 33.3 Norton: Distribution of age categories 657

  98. 34.1 Map indicating the available stable isotope evidence for Anglo‐Saxons 672

  99. 34.2 A plot showing the average animal and human isotope values for the sampled sites 674

  100. 34.3 Stable isotope results for δ15N plotted for male burials with and without weapons 676

  101. 34.4 Stable isotope results for Anglo‐Saxon cemeteries and Weingarten, Germany 680

  102. 34.5 Stable isotope results for East Anglia categorized by phase 682

  103. 35.1 Grave 1 from Westfield Farm, Ely 690

  104. 35.2 Male and female Anglo‐Saxon costumes 698

  105. 35.3 Concentrations of textile equipment at Bloodmoor Hill 700

  106. 37.1 Catholme: liminal burials in relation to the boundaries and enclosures of the Anglo‐Saxon settlement 730

  107. 37.2 Yeavering: grave AX in relation to the axis of the great hall A4 731

  108. 37.3 Bishopstone, late Anglo‐Saxon occupation next to the minster church: excavations in progress, 2003 734

  109. 37.4 A Saami shrine, pictured by the early ethnographer Johann Schefferus in his Lapponia 737

  110. 37.5 A modern example of a ‘wooden tomb in the form of a little house having a hole in one wall’: the grave of Klaudia Fomin (d.1990) at Nilsiä, eastern Finland 738

  111. 38.1 A landscape view of Harrow‐on‐the‐Hill, Middlesex, London 746

  112. 38.2 Detail showing a stylized rocky cleft as a place of torment or entrance to hell 747

  113. 38.3 Avebury from the air 752

  114. 38.4 Yeavering: an aerial view 754

  115. 41.1 Knives associated with writing figures depicted in a cross‐section of Anglo‐Saxon manuscripts 801

  116. (p. xv) 41.2 Ink‐holders associated with writing figures depicted in a cross‐section of Anglo‐Saxon manuscripts 804

  117. 41.3 Quill pens associated with writing figures depicted in a cross‐section of Anglo‐Saxon manuscripts 807

  118. 41.4 Düsseldorf, Universitätsbibliothek, A.14, fol. 119v. Pauline and other Epistles: early ninth century 809

  119. 41.5 Canterbury Cathedral Archives and Library, MS Add. 172. Pauline Epistles and other texts: late eleventh century 815

  120. 45.1 Style I decorated brooch of gilt silver from Vedstrup, Zealand, East Denmark 868

  121. 45.2 C‐bracteate from Funen, Denmark; Øvre Tøyen, Norway; Sletner, Norway 872

  122. 45.3 D‐bracteate from Finglesham, Kent 875

  123. 45.4 Reconstruction of two‐strand necklace from Finglesham, Kent 878

  124. 45.5 Reconstruction of two‐strand necklace from Gudme, Funen, Denmark 879

  125. 45.6 Design on embossed mounts of tinned copper alloy, decorating the helmet from Sutton Hoo, Mound 1 883

  126. 46.1 Distribution of excavated execution cemeteries in England 900

  127. 46.2 Plan of the execution burials at Stockbridge Down 903

  128. 46.3 South‐facing view of execution burials at Meon Hill 905

  129. 46.4 Prone burial 159 with the hands tied behind the back from Guildown 907

  130. 46.5 Double burial S441/S442 (upper) and triple burial S432/S433/S434 (lower) from Staines 908

  131. 47.1 Cemetery evolution at Wasperton, fourth to seventh centuries 920

  132. 47.2 Changes of alignment: distribution of artefacts that occur at Wasperton in the earlier sixth century 921

  133. 47.3 Location of Sutton Hoo by the River Deben in Suffolk 924

  134. 47.4 Plan of the Sutton Hoo cemetery, sixth to tenth centuries 925

  135. 47.5 Monastic geography: the Portmahomack excavations 927

  136. 47.6 The Tarbat peninsula 929

  137. 47.7 Plan of Stafford town, showing the sites of excavation to 1990 931

  138. 47.8 Stafford Ware 932

  139. 47.9 Four territorial mosaics for Britain 936

  140. 47.10 Late Saxon pottery distributions, tenth and eleventh centuries 939

  141. (p. xvi) 47.11 Iron Age pottery zones, sixth to fourth centuries bc 940

  142. 47.12 Architectural preferences in Anglo‐Saxon churches, tenth and eleventh centuries 942

  143. 48.1 Silver‐gilt head, late tenth/early eleventh century from Winchester 963

  144. 49.1 Artefacts from the Prittlewell, Essex chamber‐grave 981

  145. 52.1 The visitor centre at Sutton Hoo 1030

  146. 52.2 A re‐enactment tableau featuring the seventh‐century hanging bowl from Oliver's Battery 1031