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date: 25 August 2019

(p. 582) Subject Index

(p. 582) Subject Index

absenteeism:
and attendance dynamics 8
and attendance management 20–3, 166–7
and Co‐operative Bank 551–2
as coping mechanism 18–19
and definition of 7
and downsizing 11
and employment status 11–12
and FRC Group 556–7
and illness 12–14
and injustice 9
and job insecurity 11–12
and job satisfaction 8, 58
and productivity 13
and psychological strain 250
and social integration 15–16
and stress 9–10, 135
and tradition of research on 7–8
and well‐being:
beneficial effects on 18–20
damaging effects on 16–17
and work adjustment 8–9
and work attitudes 8–9
accidents 31
and job insecurity 393
and organizational climate 308–9
and working hours 308 see also safety climate
AccountAbility 549, 559
adaptation, and happiness 74–5
adjustment latitude, and presenteeism 20
adult learning, and coaching/mentoring 512
affective enrichment 186
affective states, and measurement of well‐being 164
Affects Events Theory (AFT) 225–6
age:
and happiness 76
and impact of aging population 181
and part‐time work 315, 316
and prolongation of career span 317–19
and stress 147–9
and working speed 323
Agenda 21, 545
aggression, and negative effects of 218
alternative work arrangements 310
and assessing benefits/drawbacks 311–12
and autonomy 312
and compressed work weeks 311, 316
definition 311
and contingent employment 311, 413
definition 311
and flexi‐time 311
definition 311
and implementation of 379
and new technologies:
smart buildings 375
smart rooms 374–5
ubiquitous computing 374
wearable computers 375–7
and part‐time work 311, 315–16
definition 311
and shift work:
psychology of 319–20
stress 241–2
and teleworking 312–14
advantages of 313
attractions of 365
definition 311, 363–4
disadvantages of 365
increase in 312–13
issues concerning 313–14
physical health 365–6
prevalence of 364
stress 366–7
technological aids 364
work‐family conflict 367–9
and work‐life balance 312 see also computer‐mediated collaboration
ambivalence, and happiness 80
ambulatory diaries, and stress measurement 117
American Psychological Association 219
anxiety:
and fear 221–2
and job demands 325
(p. 583)
and job insecurity 392
and psychological strain 248
and unemployment 391
and working hours 309
arousal, and happiness 59, 60–1
ASDA 559
assessment centres (AC) 170
ASSET (A Shortened Stress Evaluation Tool) 133–4
and ASSET model 135–7
and design of questionnaire 137
communication 139
control 139
employee commitment 140
job security 138–9
nature of job 139
organizations' commitment 140
overload 138
pay and benefits 139
physical health 140
psychological well‐being 140
resources 139
structure of 137
work relationships 137–8
work‐life balance 138
and emotional labor 143–7
and factor structure of 141
and measurement of well‐being 164–5
and most stressful occupations 143–7
and purpose of 135
and reliability of 141–2
and sources of stress 136
and stress and age 147–9
and stress and productivity 150–2
and validity of 142
AT&T 313
attendance dynamics 8
and employment status 11–12
and illness 12–14
and injustice 9
and job insecurity 11–12
and management of 20–3
and social integration 15–16
and stress 9–10
and well‐being 8, 16–20
beneficial effects of absenteeism and presenteeism 18–20
damaging effects of absenteeism and presenteeism 16–18
and work attitudes 8–9 see also absenteeism; presenteeism
attendance management 20–3, 166–7
attentional deployment 225
attitudes 215
and emotions 226
and health 216
authentic leadership 176, 423
and psychological safety 424
autonomy:
and alternative work arrangements 312
and ASSET questionnaire 139
and coping 258
and demands‐control model of stress 113–14
and happiness 67
and safety climate 41–2, 47
and stress 240–1
and well‐being 168
and work‐family enrichment 192
availability, and engagement 417
promotion by supervisors 424–7
avoidance behavior, and fear 221–2
back pain 359
and absenteeism 12
behavioral safety, and safety climate 35
beliefs, and workaholism 285
Belstress Study 250
Ben and Jerry's 549
Best Place to Work Index 559
body mass index (BMI), and carpel tunnel syndrome (CTS) 359
Body Shop 546
boundaryless career 395
brain, and cognition and emotion 217–18
Bulky Bob's 554 see also FRC Group
burnout 86–7, 104–5
and Burnout Mental Disability (BOMD) 100
and Burnout Stress Syndrome (BOSS) 100
and contrasted with:
neutral worklife 102–3
work engagement 103–4
and coping 257
and cynicism 90, 99
and definition of 88–90, 102
key dimensions 89, 90, 143
lack of agreement on 88–9
theoretical development 89
and depersonalization 89, 90, 91, 93–4, 99
and diagnosis 101–2
and efficacy 89, 90, 91–2, 94, 100
and exhaustion 89, 90, 91, 93, 98–9
and history of concept 87–8
and interpersonal context 87
(p. 584)
and issues in measurement of 96
continuous or dichotomous construct 100–2
multiple or single dimensions 96–7
scoring challenges 97–8
single dimension of exhaustion 98–9
and job insecurity 392
and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) 86–7
alternative versions of 94–5
development of 90–1
initial qualitative research 91–2
MBI subscales 93–4
psychometric research 92–3
and measurement of 88, 104
development of 89–90
and Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) 99
and productivity 150
and research on 88
and understanding 104–5
Burnout Mental Disability (BOMD) 100
Burnout Stress Syndrome (BOSS) 100
Business for Social Responsibility 549
calm computing 374
Carbon Neutral Company 547
cardiovascular disease, and stress 118
care provisions, and work‐life policies 200–1
careers:
and boundaryless careers 395
and new work arrangements 413
and portfolio careers 413
and protean careers 395, 413
and vocational support 426
careers counseling, and coaching 513
carpel tunnel syndrome (CTS) 358–9
challenge:
and psychological well‐being 167–8
and stressors 238
challenge‐threat appraisal theory 529
change, and well‐being 168–9
Chartered Institute of Personnel Development (CIPD) 497, 551–2
Chicago Council on Global Affairs 543
circadian rhythms, and shift work 319, 320
city planning 321
class, and leisure 322
climate:
and cultural adaptation 523
and impact of 523 see also climato‐economic factors
climate change 543, 546
and lack of clarity over response to 549
and public attitudes 548–9 see also sustainability
Climate Change Levy (UK) 547
climato‐economic factors:
and climato‐economic contexts 528
and demands‐resources theories 528–30
and human functioning 527
and organizational phenomena 529–30
and psychosocial functioning 529–30
and societal needs satisfaction 528
and voluntary workers 537–8
and well‐being 530–1, 536
cold‐temperate‐hot study 531–2
estimates of global variations in happiness 531
practical implications 537
theoretical implications 537–8
winter and summer temperatures 532–6
coaching:
and applications of 503
and coaching behaviors 509–10
and counseling 499
and definition of 498–9
and development of 501–3
and effectiveness of:
combined coaching and training 506
development of flexibility 506–7
limited knowledge of 497, 504, 509
management 507
non‐work studies 508
return on investment (ROI) 504–5
360‐degree feedback 505–6
and future research on 513–14
and growth of 497
and individual dimension of 499
and learning 512
and mentoring, compared with 500–1
and objective of 498, 500
and organizational dimension of 499
and role of 503
and theoretical models 511–13
adult learning 512
careers counseling 513
counseling 512
goal‐setting 512
sports psychology 513
and training 499 see also mentoring
cognition, and emotions 217–18
(p. 585) cognitive change, and antecedent‐focused emotion regulation 225
cognitive routines, and happiness 75–6
cognitive stress theory 528
cognitive‐behavioral programs, and stress prevention 445
communication:
and ASSET questionnaire 139
and organizational change 400
realistic downsizing preview 399–400
realistic merger preview 399
and safety climate 48
and well‐being interventions 485
commuting 320–1
compensation, and work‐life policies 203
competence, and happiness 72–3
competency‐based assessment 176
competition:
and balancing with cooperation 219–20
and emotionally healthy workplace 219–20
competitive advantage, and well‐being 171
competitors 525
composition, and improving organizational outcomes 166
compressed shifts 242
compressed work weeks 311, 316
and definition of 311
computer‐mediated collaboration 369–70
and future research 380–1
and interpersonal stressors 371–2
and satisfaction 372–3
outcome satisfaction 372, 373
process satisfaction 372–3
and technology‐induced stressors 370–1
computers, and health, see technology, and health
conservation of resources theory 19
constructive drives 216
contentment, as positive emotion 223
contingency planning, and well‐being interventions 484
contingent employment 311, 413
and definition of 311
contract work, and happiness 78
contracts, and social and economic exchange 195–6
control:
and ASSET questionnaire 139
and coping 257–8
and demands‐control model of stress 113–14, 246
and happiness 67
and stress 240–1
prevention interventions 446
and well‐being 168
and work‐family enrichment 192
cooperation, and balancing with competition 219–20
Co‐operative Bank 546, 549
and absence through sickness 551–2
and accountability 551
and Ecological Mission Statement 551
and employee well‐being 552
and Ethical Policy 550–1
and Partnership Report 551
and Sustainability Report 551, 552
and sustainable business 550
employee awareness 553
coordination group, and well‐being interventions 473–4
coping 236–7
and absenteeism 18–19
and burnout 257
and control 257–8
as dynamic process 253
and exercise 258
and measurement of:
limitations of 256–7
qualitative methods 254–5
quantitative methods 255–7
state‐based coping 253
trait‐based coping 253
and methodological challenges 260
and palliative coping 257
and research on:
challenge of 252
future‐oriented proactive coping 258
meaningful coping 259
modest outcomes 252
positive coping 259
and state‐based coping 252–3
and trait‐based coping 252–3
and well‐being 257–8
coronary heart disease:
and psychological strain 247–8
and working hours 307
corporate social responsibility 544, 546
counseling:
and coaching 499, 512
and reducing workaholism 289–90
counterfactuals, and happiness 70
creativity:
and job insecurity 393–4
and negative emotions 222
(p. 586) cultural adaptation, and climate 523
customer evaluation, and emotional displays 337–8
customer mood 338, 339
information display 338, 339–40
customer satisfaction, and engagement 416
Cybernetic Coping Scale (CCS) 256
cynicism, and burnout 90, 99
Debbie Branger v Trinity Industries (1995) 228–9
decent working time 281
decision process theory, and work‐family policies
care provisions 200–1
creating enrichment 203–4
flexibility policies 197–9
leave arrangements 199–200
supportive arrangements 202–3
and work‐life policies 195–7
decision‐making, participative 400–1
deep acting:
and customer evaluation 338
and emotion regulation 224, 331, 334–5
and well‐being 345
delegation, and workaholism 284
demands‐control model, and stress 113–14
behavioral outcomes 121–3
challenges facing 124–6
measurement 116–17
practice and policy implications 126–8
prospective epidemiological studies 118–19
psychological strain 246–7
strengths and limitations of 123–4
studies of psychobiological mechanisms 119–21
demands‐control‐support model, and stress 246–7, 361–2
demands‐resources theories, and climato‐economic factors 528–30
dependency, and effort‐reward imbalance 115
depersonalization, and burnout 89, 90, 91, 93–4, 99
depression:
and absenteeism 13
and engagement 416
and job discretion 325
and job insecurity 392
and psychological strain 248
and stress 119
and unemployment 391
destructive drives 216
discounting 549
disengagement 230–1
Dove Designs 554
downsizing:
and absenteeism 11
and determining approach to 403
and doubtful benefits of 402–3
and realistic downsizing preview 399–400 see also job insecurity
drinking, and absenteeism 12
Earth Summit (Rio, 1992) 545
economic development, and well‐being 526–7
economic exchange 195–6
effort, and emotional labor 342
Effort‐Recovery model, and working hours 274, 275
effort‐reward imbalance model, and stress 114–16
behavioral outcomes 121–3
challenges facing 124–6
measurement 117
practice and policy implications 126–8
prospective epidemiological studies 118–19
strengths and limitations of 123–4
studies of psychobiological mechanisms 119–21
embedding 559
emotional intelligence:
and definition of 218–19, 423
and intrapersonal dialogue 219
and leadership 218, 219
and psychological safety 423–4
emotional labor:
and characteristics of 144
and deep acting 224, 331, 334–5
customer evaluation 338
well‐being 345
and meaning of 331–2
and performance:
customer evaluation 337–40
emotional displays 337–8, 348
impact on 339–40, 347
and process model of 332, 333
deep acting 334–5
display rules 332, 335–6
emotion displays 336
emotion regulation 334–6
emotion rules 332–4
emotional dissonance 334
feeling rules 332
suppression or amplification of emotions 335, 336
surface acting 335
(p. 587)
and research on:
consensus on key components 349
effects on performance 350
effects on well‐being 349–50
emotion‐rule dissonance 349
intrapersonal focus of 350
need for differentiated approach 349
and stress 143–7
and surface acting 331, 335
customer evaluation 338
well‐being 344–5
and well‐being 332
contextual factors 347, 348
deep acting 345
display rules 346
effort 342
emotion regulation 344–5
emotional displays 343–4
impact on 342–3, 346–7
individual factors 347–8
relationship with 340–2
self‐authenticity 342
self‐efficacy 341–2
social relationships 341–2
surface acting 344–5
and work intensity 280–1
emotions 214–15
and accentuating the positive 223–4
and Affects Events Theory (AFT) 225–6
and antecedent‐focused emotion regulation 225
and attitudes 226
and awareness of 224
and cognition 217–18
and effects of 221
and emotional contagion 338, 339
and emotional intelligence 218–19
and emotionally healthy workplace 219–20, 231–2
secure base 229
and engagement 228
and focus 228–9
and increased interest in 220
and leadership 427–8
and management of 331
and metabolizing the negative 224–5
and motivation 228
and operants 223–4
and organizational influences 225–6
and performance 337
and playing to strengths 230
and range of 221
and regulation of 225, 334–6
deep acting 224, 331, 334–5
display rules 332, 335–6
emotion displays 336
emotion rules 332–4
emotional dissonance 334
feeling rules 332
suppression or amplification of emotions 335, 336
surface acting 331, 335
well‐being 344–5
and respondents 223–4
and social functions of 338
and transformational leadership 420
and work actions/attitudes 226 see also emotional labor
employee commitment, and productivity 151–2
employee participation, and safety climate 48
employer choice 543–4
employment contract:
and dependency 115
and effort‐reward imbalance model 114–16
and social reciprocity 115
and strategic choice 115 see also psychological contracts
employment relationships, and work‐family interactions 195–7
employment status:
and absenteeism 11–12
and happiness 77–8
engagement:
and benefits of 412
and cognitive engagement 415
as combination term 161
and concept of 412, 415
contrasted with burnout 103–4
and cross‐national comparison of 412
and definition of 228
and emotional engagement 415
and eustress 416, 417–18
and future research on role of supervisors 429–31
and health 416
and hope 418, 428–9
and increased interest in 160–1
and lack of agreed definition 161
and model of psychological conditions enhancing 418–19
and outcomes of 415–16
and physical engagement 415
and positive affect 418
promotion by supervisors 427–8
(p. 588)
and psychological availability 417
promotion by supervisors 424–7
and psychological meaningfulness 416–17
promotion by supervisors 422
and psychological safety 417
promotion by supervisors 422–4
and retention of employees 412
and supervisory support 425–7
and transformational leadership 418, 421
supervisors 419–22
and well‐being interventions 475–6
enhancement theory, and work‐family interactions 184
environmental issues, see sustainability
environmental legislation 545
environmental temperature, and physical activity 306–7
epidemiological studies, and stress 118–19
equity theory, and social comparisons 70
eudaimonia, and well‐being 162
European Commission 126
European Survey of Working Conditions 14
European Union:
and Directive on Working Time 304, 315
and Labor Force Survey 304
EUROTEACH study 247
eustress 230
and engagement 416, 417–18
evaluation, and intervention initiatives 467, 487
evaluation questions 488–90
audience for evaluation 489
available resources 488–9
expected and unexpected outcomes 489
learning needs 488
reasons for evaluation 489
reliability and validity 489
timeframe 488
methods and tools 490–1
need for improvement 468
rationale for intervention 487–8
stress intervention:
difficulties with 459–60
subgroup analysis 457–9
exchange relationships, and work‐family interactions 195–6
exercise 321–2
and coping 258
and workstation treadmills 359
exhaustion:
and burnout 89, 90, 91, 93, 98–9
and emotion regulation 345
externally generated goals, and happiness 67
extreme jobs:
and characteristics of 271
and working hours 271–2
extroversion, and happiness 76
familiarity, and happiness 73
family:
and new forms of 181
and workaholism 285, 290 see also work‐family interactions
family‐friendly policies, see work‐family interactions
fear:
as negative emotion 221–2
and positive/negative effects of 221
Federation of European Employers 304
feedback:
and levels of well‐being 169
and well‐being interventions 477
fertility rates 182
financial performance, and well‐being 170–2
fitness breaks 322
Five‐Factor model of personality 174–5
flexibility:
and development of 506–7
and employer/employee understanding of 194
and working hours 269
and work‐life policies 197–9
flexi‐time 311
focus 228–9
Framingham Offspring Study 248
FRC Group 553–8
and absence through sickness 556–7
and experience of John Hopkins 557–8
and interaction with staff 555
and objectives of 554–5
and recycling 554
and Sustainability Report 555
and sustainable business 550
and values of 555–6
Furniture Resource Centre, see FRC Group
Future Inquiry, and well‐being interventions 476–7
future‐oriented proactive coping 258
Gallop Organization 416
gender:
and happiness 76–7
and psychological strain 250
and work‐family conflict 189–90
and working speed 323
General Health Questionnaire, and psychological strain 251
(p. 589) genetics, and happiness 76
globalization, and impact of 125
goal attainment:
and happiness 70, 80
and life coaching 508
and performance management 166
and well‐being 167–8
goal‐setting:
and coaching/mentoring 512
and goal‐setting theory 168
and motivation 163
and well‐being interventions 478–9
Great Place to Work Institute (GPTW) 559–61
group cohesion, and safety climate 40–1
growth need strength (GNS) 72
guilt, as negative emotion 222
habituation, and happiness 73–4
happiness (and unhappiness):
and age differences 76
and ambivalence 80
and appraisal judgments:
comparison with other people 69–70
comparison with other situations 70
comparison with other times 70–1
novelty or familiarity 73
personal salience 71–2
situation‐related self‐efficacy 72–3
and arousal 59, 60–1
and aspects of 59–61
and behavior 57–8
and cognitive routines 75–6
and employment status 77–8
and environmental influences 58
job characteristics 62–3
non‐linear relationship 63–8
vitamin model 63–8
and genetic make‐up 76
and impact of 57–8
and interdependence of 80–1
and international comparisons 160
and job characteristics 62–3
and material wealth 160
and measurement of 60–1
and personality dispositions 76
and person‐centered approach to 58–9
adaptation 74–5
appraisal processes 69–75
consistency of 75
habituation 73
and pleasure 59, 60–1
and productivity 80–1
and scope of 61
and self‐validation 61
and sex differences 76–7
and vitamin model 63–8
and work values 78–9
health, and well‐being:
ASSET questionnaire 140
definition of 2, 110, 390
driver of socio‐economic progress 1
duties of organizations 2
emotional intelligence 218–19
emotionally healthy workplace 219–20
engagement 415–16
health promotion programs 467
integrity 217
job insecurity 390, 391–2
locus of control 324
organizational features 109, 110
organizational health 390
organizational performance 1
positive organizational behavior (POB) 215–16
positive psychology 215–16
psychological strain 247
physical illness 247–8
psychological illness 248–9
shift work 319
stress 112, 442
sustainability 544
sustainability policies 549–50
Type A behavior 324
unemployment 390, 391
work 1–2
workaholism 287–8
work‐family conflict 185, 368
working hours 241, 272–6, 278, 304, 307–10 see also technology, and health
health and safety:
and job insecurity 393
and working hours 274, 308 see also safety climate
Health and Safety Executive (HSE) (UK) 31
and stress 134–5, 446
Stress Indicator Tool 133
health and safety legislation 2
health management, and attendance dynamics 21
heuristics 549
Hewlett‐Packard 313
high‐performance work system (HPWS), and safety climate 38
hindrance, and stressors 238
(p. 590) hope:
and definition of 428
and engagement 418, 428–9
and leadership 428–9
and meaningfulness 429
Hordaland Health Study 250
Human Development Index 526
hypertension, and working hours 308
illness:
and attendance dynamics 12–14
and productivity 13
and psychological strain:
physical illness 247–8
psychological illness 248–9
improvers 525
income, and happiness 66–7
income inequality 125, 535–6, 538
individual behavior, and well‐being 168–9
inequality 125
injustice:
and absenteeism 9
and presenteeism 9
innovation, and job insecurity 393
instrumental enrichment 186
integrity:
and health 217
and mind‐body connections 217–18
and psychological dimensions of 217
interest, as positive emotion 223
International Labor Organization (ILO) 126
International Telework Association and Council 364
interpersonal relations:
and computer‐mediated collaboration 371–2
and stress 239
and supervisor's role 423
and virtual work arrangements 379–80
intervention initiatives, and organizational well‐being:
action plans 481–2
purpose of 482
creating desire for change 472
designing interventions 480–1
generic interventions 480
incorporating relevant research 481
use of outside consultants 480–1
establishing/identifying coordinating group 473–4
evaluation of 467, 487
audience for evaluation 489
available resources 488–9
evaluation questions 488–90
learning needs 488
methods and tools 490–1
need for improvement 468
rationale for intervention 487–8
reasons for evaluation 489
reliability and validity 489
timeframe 488
health issues analysis 474–7
implementation of 482–3
barriers to 483
contingency planning 484
external communication 485
identifying changing needs 486
identifying threats and opportunities 485–6
internal communication 485
monitoring resources 484
problems with 482–3, 486
process evaluation 483–4
management support 471–2
methodical approach to 466–7
needs assessment 474–7
feedback 477
Future Inquiry 476–7
qualitative diagnostic techniques 475–6
situational analysis 476
organizational development (OD) 468, 469
planning, implementation and evaluation framework 469–71
challenges of 492–3
chaotic nature of 492
integrating phases of 491–2
learning from experience 471
prioritizing issues 477–8
criteria for 478
setting goals 478–9
criteria for 479
importance of 479
shortcomings of 467–8
complexity 467
evaluation failures 467–8
workplace health promotion (WHP) 468–9 see also stress intervention
iso‐strain 114
job characteristics:
and happiness 62–3
vitamin model 63–8
and stress 240
Job Content Questionnaire 116
job demands‐control model, see demands‐control model
job demands‐control support model, see demands‐control support model
(p. 591) job insecurity 388
and absenteeism 11–12
and burnout 392
and causes of 388
and countering negative effects of 399–402, 403
communication 400
participative decision‐making 400–1
realistic downsizing preview 399–400
realistic merger preview 399
safety climate 401–2
and desire for 396
and generational differences in attitudes to 396
and health 390
and organizational consequences of 392–3
creativity 393–4
health and safety 393, 401–2
innovation 393
organizational citizenship behavior 394
and organizational well‐being 388, 390
and physical and psychological consequences of 391–2
and presenteeism 11
and prevalence of 388–90
and stress 243–4, 391–2, 393
and worker safety 393 see also downsizing; unemployment
job performance:
and happiness 57
and psychological strain 249
and safety climate 42–3
job satisfaction:
and absenteeism 8, 58
and adaptation 75
and ASSET questionnaire 139
and computer‐mediated collaboration 372–3
and engagement 415–16
and happiness 57
and job insecurity 392
and literature on 160
and locus of control 324
and productivity 58
and safety climate 43
and stress 136–7
and supervisory support 425, 426
and Type A behavior 324
and well‐being 8
and workaholism 286–7
job security, and ASSET questionnaire 138–9
job strain model, and psychological strain 245–7
joy, as positive emotion 222–3
just‐in‐time information retrieval (JITIR) 376
key performance indicators (KPIs) 489
keyboards:
and carpel tunnel syndrome (CTS) 359
and design of 360
knowledge workers 413–14
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 546
labor market:
and changing nature of 412, 413–14
and segmentation of 125
and skills shortages 414
and women's participation in 180–1
leadership:
and authentic leadership 176
psychological safety 424
and coaching 507
and effective/ineffective 173–4
and emotional intelligence 218, 219
and emotions 427–8
and failures of 173–4
and Five‐Factor model of personality 174–5
and hope 428–9
and Leadership Impact model 174, 175
and personal development 421
and psychological well‐being 160, 172–6
role in enhancing 167
and safety climate 38–9
and stress 239 see also transformational leadership
learning:
and coaching 512
and fear 222
and levels of well‐being 169
and mentoring 500, 512
leave arrangements, and work‐life policies 199–200
leisure, and class 322
life coaching 508
Life Satisfaction Scale 163
lifetime employability 395–6
line managers:
and leadership and well‐being 172–6
role in building well‐being 167 see also supervisors
locus of control:
and health 324
and working speed 323–4
management:
and balancing challenge and support 167
and coaching 507
and creating family‐friendly culture 205–7
and leadership and well‐being 172–6
(p. 592)
and motivation 228
and psychological well‐being 160
and working hours 268, 309 see also supervisors
management by objectives (MBO), and flexibility policies 198
management commitment, and safety climate 33
management development, and safety climate 48
management practices:
and safety climate 37–8
and virtual work arrangements 379–80
and workforce reactions 167
management support:
and safety climate 39–40
and well‐being interventions 452–3, 471–2
Marks and Spencer 550
Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) 86–7
and alternative versions of 94–5
and development of 90–1
and diagnosis of burnout 101–2
and initial qualitative research 91–2
and issues in measurement of burnout 96
continuous or dichotomous construct 100–2
multiple or single dimensions 96–7
scoring challenges 97–8
single dimension of exhaustion 98–9
and MBI subscales 93–4
and psychometric research 92–3
maternity leave 199
meaningful coping 259
meaningfulness:
and engagement 416–17
promotion by supervisors 422
and hope 429
Media Richness Theory 369
medical malpractice, and stress interventions 444
mentoring:
and benefits of 504
and coaching, compared with 500–1, 502
as common practice 507
and definition of 498, 499–500
and development of 501–4
and effectiveness of:
limited knowledge of 497, 507, 509
need for further research 508
and future research on 513–14
and learning 500, 512
and mentor behaviors 509–10
and objective of 500
and supervisors as mentors 426
and theoretical models 511–13
adult learning 512
careers counseling 513
counseling 512
goal‐setting 512
sports psychology 513 see also coaching
mergers, and realistic merger preview 399
Metrix Global 505
middle‐range theories 111
migraine, and absenteeism 13
mind‐body connections 217–18
monochronic time 305, 323
Montreal Protocol (1987) 545
motivation:
and challenge stressors 238
and goal‐setting theory 163
and nature of 228
and transformational leadership 422
multimodal interfaces, and new technologies 377
muscoskeletal disorders (MSDs) 358
and On‐body Attached Load Disorders (OBALDs) 377
and teleworking 366
National Environmental Policy Act (USA, 1969) 545
National Population Health Survey 310
National Study of the Changing Workforce 181
Natural Step 551
needs assessment, and well‐being interventions 474–7
feedback 477
Future Inquiry 476–7
qualitative diagnostic techniques 475–6
situational analysis 476
negative emotions 214–15
and Affects Events Theory (AFT) 226
and coping 259
and creativity 222
and effect of continual experience of 225
and fear 221–2
and guilt 222
and negative emotional attractors 218
and positive effects of 222, 224
and psychological contracts 227
and sadness 222
and well‐being 343, 344
neutral worklife, contrasted with burnout 102–3
NEXT study 121–2
novelty, and happiness 73
(p. 593) observational data, and stress measurement 116–17
obstructive behavior 122
occupational diseases 110
occupational medicine 110
Occupational Stress Indicator 133
occupational values, and happiness 78–9
Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) 99
On‐body Attached Load Disorders (OBALDs) 377
operants, and emotions 223–4
Operation Enduring Freedom 173
optimal experiences, and workaholism 287
organizational change:
and countering negative effects of 399–402, 403
communication 400
participative decision‐making 400–1
realistic downsizing preview 399–400
realistic merger preview 399
safety climate 401–2
and downsizing:
approach to 403
doubtful benefits of 402–3
and management support 472
as norm 397, 411
organizational citizenship behavior:
and happiness 57–8
and job insecurity 394
organizational climate:
and accidents 308–9
and creating family‐friendly culture 205–7
and safety climate 36–7, 42, 45–6
and taxonomy of 37
and work‐family enrichment 193
organizational commitment:
and ASSET questionnaire 140
and encouragement of 559
and job insecurity 393
and productivity 151–2
and stress 136–7
organizational culture, and workaholism 286
organizational development (OD) 468, 469
and qualitative diagnostic techniques 475–6
organizational features, and health 109, 110
organizational health, and definition of 390
organizational outcomes, and well‐being 169–70
organizational performance, and health 1
organizational processes:
and building well‐being:
attendance management 166–7
challenging goals 167–8
congruence of employee/organization interests 167
leadership 167
performance management 166
role of line manager 167
and safety climate 37–8
organizational support:
and creating family‐friendly culture 205–7
and work‐family enrichment 193–4
organizational values, and workaholism 286
outcome satisfaction, and computer‐mediated collaboration 372, 373
overcommitment, and effort‐reward imbalance 115–16
overload, and ASSET questionnaire 138
overtime 316–17
Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) 163
Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) 163
pace of life, and cross‐cultural differences 306–7
palliative coping 257
parental leave 199
participative decision‐making 400–1
part‐time work 311, 315–16
and age 315, 316
and definition of 311
and happiness 77–8
paternity leave 199
pay and benefits, and ASSET questionnaire 139
perfectionism, and workaholism 284, 289
performance:
and challenge stressors 238
and emotional labor:
customer evaluation 337–40
emotional displays 337–8, 348
impact of 339–40, 347
and emotions 337
and job insecurity 393
and monitoring of 306
and psychological strain 249
and well‐being 169, 170, 171
performance management 166
personal development, and leadership 421
personal salience, and happiness 71–2
personality:
and approach to time 325
and Five‐Factor model of (FFM) 174–5
and happiness 76
and psychological well‐being 165
and work‐family conflict 190
and work‐family enrichment 191
and working speed 323
(p. 594) petty tyranny 173
planned behavior theory 528
pleasure:
and happiness 59, 60–1
and well‐being 162–3
pollution legislation 545
polychronic time 305, 323
portfolio careers 413
positive and negative affect scale (PANAS) 164
positive coping 259
positive emotions 215
and contentment 223
and coping 259
and effect of continual experience of 225
and engagement 418, 427–8
and health 216
integrity 217
and interest 223
and joy 222–3
and negative effects of 223
and positive effects of 224
and positive emotional attractors 218
and positive organizational behavior (POB) 215
and positive psychology 215
and well‐being 162, 343, 344
positive organizational behavior (POB), and focus of 215
positive psychology:
and definition of 215
and well‐being 162
presenteeism:
and attendance dynamics 8
and attendance management 20–3
and definition of 7
and downsizing 11
and injustice 9
and job insecurity 11
and productivity 9, 13, 21
and research on 8
and social integration 15–16
and stress 10
and well‐being:
beneficial effects on 18–20
damaging effects on 17–18
problem‐solving, and levels of well‐being 169
process evaluation, and well‐being interventions 483–4
process satisfaction, and computer‐mediated collaboration 372–3
productivity:
and absenteeism 13
and burnout 150
and commitment 151–2
and engagement 416
and happiness 80–1
and illness 13
and job satisfaction 58
and presenteeism 9, 13, 21
and productivity paradox 361
and stress 150–2
and well‐being 169
and women's labor market participation 182
and working hours 304
optimal time 325
profane time 305
profitability, and engagement 416
protean career 395, 413
psychobiological processes, and stress 119–21
psychological climate, and safety climate 32–3
psychological contracts 215
and boundaryless careers 395
and breaches of 227
and contemporary nature of 395–6
and definition of 227
and lifetime employability 395–6
and negative emotions 227
and protean careers 395
and safety climate 43
and traditional nature of 395 see also employment contract
psychological disorders, and absenteeism 13
psychological strain:
and definition of 245
and health:
physical illness 247–8
psychological illness 248–9
and job insecurity 391–2
and job strain model 245–7
and methodological issues 251–2
and organizational outcomes 249
absenteeism 250
gender 250
job performance 249
turnover 249–50
and research questions 245–6
and technological change 360–1
mitigation 361
and unemployment 391 see also coping; stress
psychological well‐being:
and ASSET questionnaire 140
and benefits of higher levels of:
financial 170–2
individual behavior 168–9
organizational outcomes 169–70
(p. 595)
performance 169, 170, 171
productivity 169
and conceptual and measurement confusion 161
and definition of:
lack of agreement on 160
workplace well‐being 164
and dynamic nature of 169
and impact of 159–60
and increasing levels of 166–8
attendance management 166–7
challenging goals 167–8
congruence of employee/organization interests 167
leadership 167
management processes 167
performance management 166
role of line manager 167
and job insecurity 391–2
and leadership 160
impact of 172–6
and management 160
and measurement of 163–6
affective states 164
ASSET model 164–5
environmental factors 165–6
eudaimonic approach 162
hedonic approach 161–2
Life Satisfaction Scale 163
Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) 163
Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) 163
personality 165
positive and negative affect scale (PANAS) 164
time horizon 164
variety of measures 163
workplace well‐being 164
and positive emotions 162
and purpose 162–3
and unemployment 391
and unique nature of 161 see also well‐being
psychometric research, and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) 92–3
punctuality:
and time‐blind cultures 305
and time‐bound cultures 305
Puritans, and time 307
purpose, and well‐being 162–3
Radio‐Frequency Identifications (RFID) tags 374
Rand Corporation 414
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) 290
rationality 549
recovery 230–1
recruitment, and improving organizational outcomes 166
relational contracts 196
resources, and ASSET questionnaire 139
respites 230–1
respondents, and emotions 223–4
retention:
and engagement 412, 415–16
as organizational priority 414
retirement:
and challenge of 322–3
and prohibition of mandatory age of 317
return on investment (ROI), and coaching 504–5
risk, and safety climate 33
robots 377
role demands, and stress 242–3
role ambiguity 242–3
role conflict 243
role overload 243
role theory:
and work‐family conflict 184–5, 195
and work‐family interactions 183–4
sacred time 305
sadness, as negative emotion 222
safety, psychological, and engagement 417
promotion by supervisors 422–4
safety climate:
and accident involvement 34–5
and components of 33–4
and definitions of:
multidimensional construct 36
psychological climate 32–3
role of supervisors 33
safety culture 32
and further research 49
and group cohesion 40–1
and injury involvement 35
and job autonomy/control 41–2
and job challenges/demands 41
and job insecurity 393, 401–2
and leadership style 38–9
and management practices 37–8
and management support 39–40
and measurement of 35
and model of 45–6
and organizational climate 36–7, 42, 45–6
and organizational processes 37–8
and perceptions of 35–6
(p. 596)
and rise in popularity of concept 31
and safety culture 32
and safety interventions 47
autonomy 47
communication 48
employee participation 48
management development 48
self‐managing work teams 47–8
and safety‐related behavior 35–6
and stress 43–5
and well‐being 43–5
and work attitudes 42–3
and work role 42
safety culture, and safety climate 32
safety management systems, and safety climate 33
salience, and happiness 71–2
scientific management 220
secure base, and emotionally healthy workplace 229
secure employment:
and organizational benefits 403
and organizational consequences of 394
self‐assessment of professional competence 94
and burnout 91–2
self‐authenticity, and emotional labor 342
self‐concepts, and work‐family enrichment 191–2
self‐efficacy:
and burnout 89, 90, 91–2, 94, 100
and definition of 113
and demands and resources 528
and emotional labor 341–2
and happiness 72–3
and stress 113
self‐esteem:
and definition of 113
and social reciprocity 116
and stress 113
self‐managing work teams, and safety climate 47–8
self‐report questionnaires:
and coping measurement 255–6
and stress measurement 116–17
and well‐being measurement 163–4
self‐validation, and happiness 61
servant leadership 176
sex differences, and happiness 76–7
shame 222
SHARE study 122
shift work 241–2
and health 319
and psychology of 319–20
sickness absence:
and determinants of 121
and sustainability policies:
Co‐operative Bank 551–2
FRC Group 556–7 see also absenteeism
situational analysis, and well‐being interventions 476
situational engineering, and improving organizational outcomes 166
skilled workers 413–14
skills shortages 414
smart buildings 375
smart rooms 374–5
smoking:
and absenteeism 12
and working hours 310
social contact, and happiness 67–8
social enterprise, and definition of 553–4
social exchange 195–6
and well‐being and absenteeism 9
social integration, and attendance dynamics 15–16
social production function theory 528–9
social reciprocity:
and employment contract 115
and self‐esteem 116
social relationships:
and emotional labor 341–2
and supervisor's role 423
social support:
and leadership 172
and stress 114, 239, 246, 247
and supervisors 425–6
socio‐cognitive theory, and work‐family conflict 195
Southwest Airlines 559
spillover effects, and work‐family interactions 185–7
spiritual leadership theory 290
sports psychology, and coaching/mentoring 513
stability balls, and prevention of back pain 359
state‐based coping 252–3
Stern Report (UK) 547
strategic choice, and effort‐reward imbalance 115
stress 236–7
and absenteeism 9–10, 135
and age 147–9
and autonomy 240–1
and behavioral outcomes 121–3
leaving job 121–2
obstructive behavior 122
sickness absence 121
(p. 597)
and challenge stressors 10
and computer‐mediated collaboration:
future research 380–1
interpersonal relations 371–2
technology‐induced stressors 369–70
and control 240–1
prevention interventions 446
and costs of 135
and definition of 245
and demands‐control model 113–14
challenges facing 124–6
measurement 116–17
practice and policy implications 126–8
prospective epidemiological studies 118–19
psychobiological studies 119–21
strengths and limitations of 123–4
and demands‐control‐support model 246–7, 361–2
and effort‐reward imbalance model 114–16
challenges facing 124–6
measurement 117
practice and policy implications 126–8
prospective epidemiological studies 118–19
psychobiological studies 119–21
strengths and limitations of 123–4
and emotional labor 143–7
and health 112, 442
and hindrance stressors 10
and impact of 134–5
and job characteristics 240
and job insecurity 243–4, 391–2, 393
and job satisfaction 136–7
as major workplace hazard 134
and management of 397
and methodological challenges 260
and monitoring of 133
and most stressful occupations 143–7
and organizational commitment 136–7
and organizational factors 244–5
and presenteeism 10
and productivity 150–2
and prospective epidemiological studies 118–19
and psychobiological processes 119–21
and psychosocial stressors 112
and reducing levels of 146–7
and research challenges 260
and role demands 242–3
role ambiguity 242–3
role conflict 243
role overload 243
and safety climate 43–5
and self‐efficacy 113
and self‐esteem 113
and shift work 241–2, 319
and social support 114, 239, 246, 247
and sources of 136, 446
and stressors 112
challenge and hindrance 238
combined effects of 237–8
definition 245
typologies of 237–8
and supervisory support 425
and technological change 242, 360–1
demands‐control‐support model 361–2
ICST model 362–3
implementation problems 360–3
and teleworking 366–7
future research 380–1
and transactional perspective on 238
and Type A behavior 324
and unemployment 391
and vitamin model 241
and work relationships 239
and workaholism 284
and work‐family conflict 368
and working hours 241–2, 307–8
and work‐life balance 244
stress intervention 441–2
and evaluation of:
difficulties with 459–60
subgroup analysis 457–9
and moderators of effectiveness of work‐oriented interventions 451, 455
contextual factors 452–4
criteria for success 453
expectations 454, 456
identifying variables 456–7
intervention characteristics 454–7
management support 452–3
need for change 454–6
non‐specific effects 456–7
process factors 452
resource allocation 453
stakeholder characteristics 454–7
and prevention approaches 398
communication 400
ecological 398
participative decision‐making 400–1
primary 397, 398–9
safety climate 401–2
secondary 397, 398
success of 398
tertiary 397–8
(p. 598)
and research gaps 448–51
implementation process 449, 450
intervention mechanisms 450–1
process 449–50
program failure 450
and reviews of effectiveness of 442–3
findings of 443, 448
inconsistent results 448, 459
meta‐analyses 446–7
methodological weakness 448–9
recommendations 459
specific country reviews 447–8
systematic reviews 443–6 see also intervention initiatives; stress
subgroup analysis, and stress intervention evaluation 457–9
success, and nature of 291
supervision, and stress 239
supervisors:
and promotion of engagement:
future research on 429–31
positive affect 427–8
psychological availability 424–7
psychological meaningfulness 422
psychological safety 422–4
and role in building well‐being 167, 172–6
and role of 419–20
and safety climate 33
and skills required by 420
and support provided by 425–6
as transformational leaders 418, 419–22
surface acting:
and customer evaluation 338
and emotion regulation 331, 335
and well‐being 344–5
survivor syndrome 400
sustainability:
and business 544–8
benefits of sustainability policies 549
climate change 546, 547
corporate reputation 546
embedding sustainability policies 559–61
environmental legislation 545
pressure on 544–5
small and medium‐sized companies (SMEs) 547
Stern Report 547
sustainability management 546
sustainable development 546
and Co‐operative Bank 550–3
absence through sickness 551–2
accountability 551
Ecological Mission Statement 551
employee well‐being 552
Ethical Policy 550–1
Partnership Report 551
staff awareness 553
Sustainability Report 551, 552
and employers' role 543
and FRC Group 553–8
absence through sickness 556–7
interaction with staff 555
objectives of 554–5
recycling 554
Sustainability Report 555
values of 555–6
and healthy work environment 544
absence through sickness 551–2, 556–7
healthy work environment 549–50, 553, 557
links between 558–9, 561–2
and increasing awareness of 543
consumers 544
and influence on employer choice 543–4
and meaning of 542–3
and public attitudes 548–9
and sustainable development 545–6
teamwork:
and absenteeism 17
and presenteeism 17
and safety climate 47–8 see also computer‐mediated collaboration
technological change:
and changing nature of workplace 357
and impact of 356–7
and pace of 356
and productivity paradox 361
and stress 242
and working hours 269
technology, and health:
computer‐mediated collaboration 369–70
interpersonal stressors 371–2
satisfaction 372–3
technology‐induced stressors 369–70
future research 380–1
guidelines for practitioners 378–80
implementation planning 378–9
interpersonal relations 379–80
management practices 379–80
virtual work arrangements 379
implementation problems 360–1, 362–3
new technologies 374
smart buildings 375
smart rooms 374–5
(p. 599)
ubiquitous computing 374
wearable computers 375–7
physical strains 358–9
back pain 359
carpel tunnel syndrome (CTS) 358–9
keyboard design 360
mitigation of 359
muscoskeletal disorders (MSDs) 358
psychological strain 360–1
demands‐control‐support model 361–2
ICST model 362–3
mitigation of 361
teleworking:
physical health 365–6
stress 366–7
work‐family conflict 367–9
technology, and work arrangements, see computer‐mediated collaboration; teleworking
teleworking 312–14
and advantages of 313
and attractions of 365
and definition of 311, 363–4
and disadvantages of 365
and health:
future research 380–1
physical health 365–6
stress 366–7
and increase in 312–13
and issues concerning 313–14
and prevalence of 364
and technological aids 364
and work‐family conflict 367–9
temporal trends, and happiness 70–1
temporary work, and happiness 78
theory:
and definition of 111
and development of 111
and middle‐range theories 111
and need for theoretical models 111–12
thinking 217
360‐degree feedback 176
and coaching 505–6
time:
and attitudes towards 305
cross‐cultural differences 306–7
and monochronic time 305, 323
and moral dimension of 307
and optimal time 325
and orientation to 305
and polychronic time 305, 323
and profane time 305
and sacred time 305
and time‐blind cultures 305
and time‐bound cultures 305 see also alternative work arrangements; working hours
time pressures, and stress 240
town planning 321
training and development:
and coaching 499, 506
and improving organizational outcomes 166 see also coaching; mentoring
trait‐based coping 252–3
transactional contracts 196
transformational leadership 175–6
and engagement 418, 421
and nature of 418, 420–1
and personal development 421
and shared leadership 421
and supervisors 419–22
future research 429–31
promoting positive affect 427–8
promoting psychological availability 424–7
promoting psychological meaningfulness 422
promoting psychological safety 422–4
role of 419–20
skills required by 420
support provided by 425–6
travel time 320–1
treadmills 359
trust, and safety climate 39, 40
turnover:
and engagement 416
and psychological strain 249–50
Type A behavior:
and health 324
and stress 324
and workaholism 285–6
and working hours 309
and working speed 323
ubiquitous computing 374
and smart buildings 375
and smart rooms 374–5
UK Resource Recovery Forum 548
UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio, 1992) 545
uncertainty, and reduction of:
communication 400
participative decision‐making 400–1
realistic downsizing preview 399–400
realistic merger preview 399
(p. 600) unemployment 388
and absenteeism 11
and causes of 388
and health 390, 391
and organizational consequences of 392–3
creativity 393–4
health and safety 393
innovation 393
and organizational well‐being 388, 390
and physical and psychological consequences of 391
and prevalence of 388–90 see also job insecurity
urban planning 321
Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) 103–4
vacations 19
validity, and ASSET 142
values:
and employer choice 543–4
and happiness 78–9
and transformational leadership 420
violence, and job insecurity 393
Virgin Atlantic 550
vocational support, and supervisors 426
voluntary workers, and climato‐economic factors 537–8
Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ) 255–6
wealth, and happiness 160
wearable computers 375–6
and advantages and disadvantages 376–7
well‐being:
and absenteeism:
beneficial effects of 20
damaging effects of 16–17
and ASSET questionnaire 140
and attendance dynamics 8, 16–20
management of 20–3
and autonomy 168
and change 168–9
and climato‐economic factors 530–1
cold‐temperate‐hot study 531–2
estimates of global variations in happiness 531
practical implications 538
theoretical implications 537–8
winter and summer temperatures 532–6
and competitive advantage 171
and control 168
and coping 257–8
and cross‐national differences 525–6
economic roots of 526–7
and economic development 526–7
and emotional labor 332
contextual factors 347, 348
deep acting 345
display rules 346
effort 342
emotion regulation 344–5
emotional displays 343–4
impact of 342–3, 346–7
individual factors 347–8
relationship with 340–2
self‐authenticity 342
self‐efficacy 341–2
social relationships 341–2
surface acting 344–5
and financial performance 170–2
and goal attainment 167–8
and individual baselines of 524–5
and job insecurity 388, 390
and job satisfaction 8
and measurement of 60–1
self‐report questionnaires 163–4
and national baselines of 525–6, 536
economic roots of 526–7
practical implications 538
theoretical implications 537–8
and negative emotions 343, 344
and organizational outcomes 169–70
and performance 169, 170, 171
and personality dispositions 165
and pleasure 162–3
and positive emotions 162, 343, 344
and presenteeism:
beneficial effects of 20
damaging effects of 17–18
and productivity 169
and purpose 162–3
and safety climate 43–5
and work 1–2
and work motives 525
and workaholism 287–8
and working hours 277, 278
women:
and absenteeism 13
and labor market participation 180–1
negative effects 182
positive effects 181–2
(p. 601) work:
and attitudes towards:
changes in 182–3
cultural differences 306–7
and changing nature of 124–5, 183, 356–7, 413
and competitors 525
and contingent employment 311, 413
and demands 325
and discretion 325
and emotionally healthy workplace 219–20
and functions of 112
and health and well‐being 1–2
and improvers 525
and male model of 182
and positive self‐experience 112–13
and purpose of 229–30
and work ethic 269
and work motives 525 see also alternative work arrangements
work adjustment:
and absenteeism 8–9
and safety climate 43
work attitudes:
and absenteeism 8–9
and safety climate 42–3
work demands, and safety climate 41
work effort 280
work engagement, see engagement
work intensity 280–1
and characteristics of 281
and emotional labor 280–1
and measurement of 280 see also working hours
work relationships:
and ASSET questionnaire 137–8
as stressor 239
work role, and safety climate 42
work values, and happiness 78–9
Workaholics Anonymous 289–90
workaholism 281–2
and antecedents of 285
family of origins 285
organizational values 286
personal beliefs and fears 285
Type A behavior 285–6
and conflicting perspectives on 281
and definitions of 282
and extra‐work satisfactions 288
and health 287–8
and implications of 288–9
and optimal experiences 287
and personal demographic characteristics 283–4
and reduction of 289
family therapy 290
individual counseling 289–90
workplace interventions 290–1
and types of workaholics 282–3
Enthusiastic Addicts (EAs) 283
Work Addicts (WAs) 283
Work Enthusiasts (WEs) 283
as value system 282
and well‐being 287–8
and work behaviors 284, 309, 310
and work outcomes 286–7
and work situation characteristics 283–4 see also working hours
work‐family conflict, see work‐family interactions
work‐family enrichment, see work‐family interactions
work‐family interactions:
and approaches to:
balance 184
enhancement theory 184
scarcity argument/role theory 183–4
and decision process theory 195–7
care provisions 200–1
creating enrichment 203–4
flexibility policies 197–9
leave arrangements 199–200
supportive arrangements 202–3
and family‐friendly policies 194
and flexibility 194
and impact of aging population 181
and importance of 207
and increasing attention to 180
and job insecurity 392
and new family forms 181
and stress 244
and unemployment 391
and women's labor market participation 180–1
negative effects 182
positive effects 181–2
and work‐family conflict 184–5
behavior‐based conflict 185, 367
definition 184
directionality 189
family‐related antecedents 190–1
gender 189–90
health outcomes 185, 368
organizational problems 185
personality 190
situational predictors 190
spillover effects 186
(p. 602)
strain‐based conflict 184–5, 367
stress 368
teleworking 367–9
time‐based conflict 184, 367
working hours 273, 315–16
work‐related antecedents 190–1
and work‐family enrichment 185–7
affective enrichment 186
directionality 189
enhancement 185
family domain characteristics 192
instrumental enrichment 186
job domain variables 192
organizational support 193–4
personality 191
self‐concepts 191–2
spillover effects 185–7
work‐family facilitation 185, 186–7
work‐life policies 203–5
workplace policies 192–3
and work‐life balance 187–9
alternative work arrangements 312
ASSET questionnaire 138
definitions 188
distinct from enrichment 187
quality of life 188
role balance 188
well‐being 188–9
and work‐life policies 194, 197
care provisions 200–1
compensation and benefits 203
creating enrichment 203–5
creating family‐friendly culture 205–7
flexibility policies 197–9
leave arrangements 199–200
positive transfer of resources 204
supportive arrangements 201–3
underlying assumptions 203
workgroups, leadership and well‐being of 172–6
working hours 267–8
and changing patterns of 270–1, 314
and decent working time 281
and differences in 307
and effects of long hours 272–6, 288–9, 304
accidents 308
death 272–3
health and safety 274
health outcomes 273–6, 278, 307–10
occupational injuries and illness 273
work spillover 277
work‐home interference 275
and Effort‐Recovery model 274, 275
and estimation difficulties 304
and extreme jobs 271–2
and flexible work arrangements 269
and health 273–6, 278, 304, 307–10
and historical development of 270
and increase in 269
and managerial role 268
and motives for long hours 268, 271, 272, 276–7, 289
negative 268, 276
positive 268, 276
and optimal time 325
and overtime 316–17
and productivity 304
and prolongation of career span 317–19
and reducing long hours 278–9
minimizing adverse effects 279–80
and research on:
importance of 269
need for further 268
and risks and rewards of long hours 292
and shift work:
psychology of 319–20
stress 241–2
and stress 241–2, 307–8
compressed shifts 242
shift work 241–2
and technological change 269
and time:
attitudes towards 305
cross‐cultural differences 306–7
and travel time 320–1
and variations in 269–70
and well‐being:
complexity of relationship 277
moderators of relationship 278
and work ethic 268, 269
working speed, and individual differences in 323–4
work‐life balance, see work‐family interactions
workload:
qualitative 240
quantitative 240
and stress 240
workplace health promotion (WHP) 468–9
workstation treadmills 359
World Health Organization (WHO) 1, 126, 390
World Values Surveys 525
worry, and working hours 309