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date: 15 October 2019

(p. 741) Index

(p. 741) Index

Note: page numbers in italics refer to figures.

AAC (Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry Regarding the Problems of European Jewry and Palestine)517
Abe (survivor)419
abortion208
Abusch, Alexander644–5
Activist Front, Lithuania318
Adam, Uwe Dietrich129
Adam Resurrected (Kaniuk)439
Adenauer, Konrad534, 549, 577, 637, 638, 654
and policy towards Nazi past639, 641
Adler, Hans386
Adon Olam Ad Matai? (Subliminal)488–9
Adorno, Theodor408, 461, 640
on Holocaust literature430, 437
postwar rejection of aesthetics14, 462
adversus Judaeos tradition623, 628
AEG compensation payments551
AELKZ (Allgemeine Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirchenzeitung)254
Africans56, 61, 62–3
in French army, murder of101, 142 see also Herero people; Nama people
After Auschwitz: Responses to the Holocaust in Contemporary Art (exhibition) 464
Age of Wonders, The (Appelfeld)436
Agrarian League, Germany34, 61–2
Agudath Israel192
Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud571
Ahnenerbe (Ancestral Heritage)42
Ahnenpässe (racial passports)383, 384
Ai bambini di Terezin (Brizio)485–6
Aimée and Jaguar (film)456
Akayesu, Jean-Paul716
Akiva, Daniel486
Alexander, Edward602
All But My Life (G. Klein)418
Alleanza Nazionale, Italy659
Allen, Michael Thad139
Allgemeine Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirchenzeitung (AELKZ)254
Alliance against the Arrogance of Jewry, Germany34
Allied bombing raids391, 568, 640
Pforzheim death toll563
possible Allied bombing of Auschwitz160, 192, 272
Allied Control Council Laws526, 533–4
Allies9, 265–72
assessment of Holocaust108
bombing raids391, 563, 568, 640
knowledge of mass murder in Soviet Union104
military planning104
occupation635–6
responses to forced emigration policy266–7
and world Jewry, Nazi propaganda and265–6 see also United Kingdom; United States; USSR
Althaus, Paul253
Aly, Götz138–9
Amarcord (film)454
American Anthropological Association674
American Congregationalists180
American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC)512–13, 518
American Relief Organization178
“America's Concentration Camps” (exhibition)602
Améry, Jean415, 417, 433–4, 724–5, 731
Amichai, Yehuda439
Amishai-Maisels, Ziva461–2
Anatolia62
Ancestral Heritage (Ahnenerbe)42
Anger, Per163
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry Regarding the Problems of European Jewry and Palestine (AAC)517
Ani Maamin: A Song Lost and Found Again (Milhaud and Wiesel)486
Anna Frank, un símbol (Cervelló)485
Anne Frank Cantata: A Child of Light (Kox)485
(p. 742) Anne Frank, Symphony in One Movement for String Orchestra (Biriotti)485
Anne Frank-Fonds, Basel597
Annelies: The Anne Frank Oratorio (Whitbourne)485
Antelme, Robert417
anthropology56, 674
anti-bourgeois campaign, Italy89
Anti-Comintern Pact285
Anti-Defamation League488–9, 597
anti-Jewish policies
evolution of187–8
stages of189–90
anti-Judaism622–3, 628
Antisemites' League24
antisemitism11, 23–37
antisemitic political parties, electoral history of31–3
Catholic Church and9, 233–4
characteristics of antisemites28–30
Christianity and30, 621–4
colonialism and71–3
communism and643–4
as cultural code28
definitions of23–4, 622
and fascism5, 82–4
growth of24
Imperial Germany and63
introduction of word58
as necessary enabling condition for Holocaust4, 5
origins of25–8
redemptive116
revolutionary33–7
situational29
strategies of30–3
university students and29–30, 34–5
Antonescu, Ion88, 327–8
Antonescu, Mihai329
apartheid62
Apel, Dora14, 461–75
Appelfeld, Aharon422, 436, 689
Apt Pupil (film)456
Arab–Israeli conflict630
Holocaust denial and571
Arad, Boaz464, 470, 471–2, 474
Arad, Yitzhak423
Arbeitskommandos356: see also concentration camps: forced labor in
archives196, 197, 401
Arendt, Hannah54, 63, 446, 594, 670, 681
and Eichmann trial531–2
on Jewish leadership193
armaments industry358, 369
Armenian genocide96, 601, 659
Aronson, Shlomo9, 265–72
Arrow Cross Party, Hungary83, 179, 279, 330, 331
art14, 196–7, 461–75
children's pictures222–3
contemporary exhibitions463–4
and Jewish identity463–4
looted artworks547, 554
universalization of horror461–2, 463
“Aryan physics”42–3
“Aryanization” 117–18, 129–30, 297, 298–9
of businesses542–3, 546
confiscation of Jewish property98, 544
in Italy91, 92
in Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia300
Asche von Birkenau, Die (Kochan)484
Aschrott-Brunnen, Kassel494
asocials48, 279, 280
Assault, The (Mulisch)437
assimilation61, 91, 256, 286
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal161
atrocity propaganda6
Attie, Shimon463, 494–5
attritionism133–4, 343
Auerbach, Rachel430–1
Auerswald, Heinz134
Augustine of Hippo, St.623–4
Aumeier, Hans530
“Auschwitz Album”382, 388
Auschwitz and After (Delbo)418
Auschwitz concentration and death camp40, 105, 138, 218, 366
Central Construction Office568
crematoria as gas chambers566–7
Death Books563
death toll564
deportation of Jews to, from France334
deportation of Jews to, from Hungary331
deportation of Jews to, from Italy337–8
deportation of Jews to, from Netherlands335–6
evacuation of374
experimental gas killings123, 136
gas chambers106
Gypsies in106, 280, 373
human experimentation at40, 51–2
medical professionals and genocide50
murder of Gypsies106, 278
possible Allied bombing of160, 192, 272
Sonnderkommando units398, 423, 567
Sonnderkommando uprising503
(p. 743)
theft of “Arbeit Macht Frei” sign739
transfer of Slav prisoners to work camps106
transports to315–16
Zyklon B as killing agent370–1 see also Auschwitz-Birkenau
Auschwitz trial524, 536
Auschwitz-Birkenau50, 160
Birkenau Family Camp221, 222
children's games221
genocide in373
Gypsy Camp106, 280, 373
as holding camp for Soviet prisoners367
memorial485, 498, 499–500, 500
mothers with small children, treatment of207
murder of European Jews371
Sonderkommando uprising373
transports to105–6
Aussenlager (satellite camps)356
Austerlitz (Sebald)440
Australia192, 521
Austria132, 194
antisemitic political parties in33
antisemitism in24
Christian Socialists33
industrial capitalism in25
legislation against genocide and Holocaust denial570
Pan-German Party33
and restitution/compensation552–3, 554
sanctions against651, 658, 659
segregation of Jews in education297–8
trial of Irving570
university students and antisemitism29–30
Austro-Hungarian Empire, see Habsburg Empire
auxiliary police units (Schutzmannschaften)135, 150, 152
Avisar, Ilan448–9
Avnery, Uri578
Avni, Tzvi486
Axis powers105, 152: see also Germany; Italy
“Babi Yar” (Boyarska)487
Babi Yar massacre102, 317
Bacon, Francis462
Badenheim (Appelfeld)436
Badoglio, Pietro84
Baeck, Leo295
Bak, Samuel463
Baker, Philip172
Balfour Declaration575
Balkans
brutality in101
Ballad of Mauthausen (Theodorakis)486
Baltic states317
concentration camps, evacuation of374
ethnic Germans in100
ghettos in345–6
invasion of102
mass murder in102
reparations551 see also Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania
Banat, Serbia333
bank accounts, Jewish
blocked543–4, 545
in Switzerland554–5, 556
Bankier, David165
Bar-On, Daniel673
Baranowicze ghetto346, 347
Barash, Ephraim350–1
Barbie, Klaus531
Barmen Declaration252–3, 625–6
Baron, Lawrence13–14, 444–57
Barth, Karl252, 253, 626
Bartov, Omer150, 453
“Bashert” (Klepfisz)439
al-Bashir, Omar716
Baskin, Leonard461–2
Bašs, Mendelis483
Battle of Warsaw, The (Waxman)480
Bauer, Fritz536, 642
Bauer, Yehuda159–60, 423, 584, 616
Bauman, Janina228
Bauman, Zygmunt674
Bazan, Heinrich Banniza von73
Becker, Jurek435
Becker, Paul and Edmund318, 323
Beggar in Jerusalem, A (Wiesel)438
Begin, Menachem578, 586–7
Begley, Louis437
Beitz, Berthold361
Bekennende Kirche, see Confessing Church
Belarus71, 302
Einsatzgruppen in318
Germanization of317, 318, 321
ghettos in321, 346–7
Holocaust education in700
mass murders in102, 135, 317
reparations551
and starvation policy147
Belev, Alexander331
Belgium133
Gypsies in280
(p. 744)
legislation against genocide and Holocaust denial570
under occupation335
and restitution/compensation552–3
Belorussia, see Belarus
Belzec death camp50, 345, 370
gassing of Jews122
murder of Gypsies in280
prototype death camp with stationary gas chambers136
Ben-Gurion, David500, 576, 578
and Israel's nuclear capability586
Bendin ghetto: women in212–13
Benedict XVI, Pope626, 738, 739
and Holocaust denial571–2
Beneš decrees656
Benigni, Roberto451–2, 453–4, 596
Benjamin, Walter440
Bensoussan, Georges700
Bent (film)456
Berenbaum, Michael17, 593, 607–18, 726
Berg, Mary206
Bergen, Doris L.6, 95–108
Bergen-Belsen camp374, 375
memorial ceremonies at638–9
music in196
post-liberation511–14
Bergier, Jean-Francois554
Bergier Commission554–5
Bergman, Carla675
Berk, Leon346
Berland, Sigmunt487
Berlin Court of Appeal536–7
Berlusconi government, Italy659
Berman, Karel479
Bermuda Conference160, 177–8, 269
Bernadotte, Folke163, 374–5
Bernard of Clairvaux623
Bernburg euthanasia institution367
Bernheim petition191
Bertram, Adolf237, 238, 239, 240
Bessarabia138, 327
Best, Werner174, 530
Bettelheim, Bruno408, 594, 672
Beyerchen, Alan42–3
Białystok ghetto96, 350–1
“Bibliotek” (Whiteread)494
Biebow, Hans133, 343
Bielefeld Archive259
Biermann, Wolf487
Biltmore Conference617
Binding, Karl48–9
biographical films (biopics)455
Biriotti, León485
Birkenau concentration and death camp, see Auschwitz-Birkenau
Birtwistle, Harrison486
Bischof, Max134
Bismarck, Otto von60, 70, 234, 283
Bitburg controversy642
Bitburg military cemetery, West Germany601
Blacher, Boris482–3
Black Thursday206
Blake, Ran488
Blanchot, Maurice430, 730
Blue Division, Spain164
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich von56
Blumenthal, David611
Boder, David415, 669
Bolchover, Richard161
Bolshevism74, 652
Bolshevik revolution, Jews as scapegoats for82–3
Judeo-Bolshevism76, 121, 125, 148–9
Boltanski, Christian462–3, 464
Bolzano92
Bonaparte, Napoleon59
Bondy, Ruth204
Bonhoeffer, Dietrich250, 253, 257, 626
Boogaard, Hannis175
Boogaard family175
“Book of Yolek, The” (Hecht)439
Boris III, King of Bulgaria332
Borland, Christine464, 465
Bormann, Martin528, 624, 711
Borowski, Tadeusz435
Bosnia-Herzegovina101, 284, 676
Boss, Arthur318, 323
Bouhler, Philipp49
Boyarska, Rivke487
Boys from Brazil, The (film)448
Bracher, Karl642
Brack, Viktor49
Brackmann, Albert285–6
Brandt, Karl49, 50
Brandt, Willy642
Bratianu, Constantin I. C.329
Breitman, Richard159–60
Brindley-Barnett, Jeanie485–6
Britain, see United Kingdom
British Empire73–4
British Union of Fascists86
Brizio, Edoardo485–6
Bromberg (Bydgoszcz)218
(p. 745) Broniewski, Władysław479, 484
brothels in concentration camps106
Brown, George487
Brown-Fleming, Suzanne242
Browning, Christopher R.7, 128–40, 144, 423, 672
on Order Police145
on origins of “Final Solution”121
Brückner, Helmuth282
Bryce, James660
Buchenwald concentration camp365, 375
deportation of Gypsies to276, 279
memorial and museum492–3
Bukovina138, 327
Bulgaria11, 138, 284
antisemitic policies331–2
and deportation of Jews104, 327, 331–2
and Gypsies278, 279
and restitution/compensation552
Bullock, Alan114
Bülow, Bernhard von130
Bülow-Schwante, Vicco von130
Bund (Polish Jewish Socialist Party)190
Bunzl, Matti603
Bürckel, Joseph298
Burckhardt, Carl J.374
bureaucracy: paper trails383–6
“Burnt Pearls” (Sutzkever)431–2
Burnt Whole: Contemporary Artists Reflect on the Holocaust (exhibition)464
Burzio, Giuseppe332–3
Business Administration Main Office (WVHA)11, 144–5, 369
Butterfly Songs (Brindley-Barnett)485–6
Butz, Arthur560, 567–8
bystanders, see on-lookers
Cabaret (film)448
Cadogan, Alexander266
Caisse des Depots et Consignations547
Cambodian genocide713, 725
Cameroon62
camp sisters (Lager-Schwestern)215
camp system364–76
14 f.13:367
in 1945:372–4
death rates: and nationality367
and forced labor356, 369–70, 371
and genocide369, 370–2
mass killings in367–8, 373
subterranean factory camps373
survival: factors affecting370
T4:367
treatment in: and nationality366–7 see also concentration camps; death camps; forced labor camps; transit camps
Campbell, Ronald I.268
Canada521
Canaris, Wilhelm250
Canaris Conspiracy258
Canto Sospeso, Il (Nono)484
Captain Beefheart (Don Van Vliet)488
Carpatho-Ruthenia, see Felvidek
Carter, Jimmy447, 504
Carto, Willis563
Catholic Church233–45
and antisemitism9, 26, 233–4
and Auschwitz600
and denunciation of euthanasia240
hiding children228
and Nazi Party234–6
and Nazism626
and Nuremberg Laws237–8
as on-looker9
and persecution of German Jews237–41
and rescue of Jews178, 180
scandals involving clergy238
CCDP (Citizens Committee on Displaced Persons)521
CDCC (Council for Cultural Cooperation)700
Celan, Paul437, 486, 689
CENTOS (Federation of Associations for the Care of Orphans in Poland)176
Central Committee of Jews in Germany550–1
Central Committee of Liberated Jews for the U.S. Zone of Occupation516
Central Immigration Office314
Central Jewish Committee, Bergen-Belsen512–14
Central Office for Jewish Emigration298
Central Office for Jewish Emigration, Prague300
Central Office of the State Judicial Authorities for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes (Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltung zur Aufklärung nationalsozialistischer Verbrechen, ZdL)535, 641
Central Resettlement Office for ethnic Germans, Łódź314
Central Trading Society East321
Cervelló, Jordi485
Chagall, Marc462
Chalk, Frank673
Chaplin, Charlie444
Charny, Israel676
(p. 746) Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg527, 709, 711
Chelmno death camp370–1
carbon monoxide as killing agent370
gas vans122–3, 136
Gypsies at277
Cheyette, Bryan452
child beggars224
Child of Our Time, A (Tippett)480
child rescue176
children8–9, 218–30
adaptability of224–5
attraction of Catholicism228
cult of the child229–30
disabled49
euthanasia programs49, 218
games220–1, 225
Germanization of226–7
hiding of176–7, 228
medical experiments on219
responsibilities of224–5
sense of identity226–8
Children's Aid Organization (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants, OSE)176–7, 228
Children's Bureau, Poland176
China62, 715
Chirac, Jacques658, 659
Chocolate Deal, The (Gouri)439
Christianity620–31
and antisemitism30, 621–4
and “Aryan Jesus”9, 257, 261–2, 626, 628
and democracy30
impact of Holocaust on17–18
and Jewish people628–31
and Nazism624–8
Positive Christianity234, 254 see also Catholic Church; Protestant Church
Christian–Jewish relations620–1, 629–30
Christian Socialists, Austria33
Christology630–1
“Chronicle of a Single Day” (Goldin)431
Chronicle of the Lodz Ghetto,The401, 402, 433
Church Struggle (Kirchenkampf)9
Churchill, Winston267, 269, 525
Cinema Paradiso (film)454
Citizens Committee on Displaced Persons (CCDP)521
civil rights movement446
Civil Service Law (7 April 1933): “Aryan paragraph”251–2, 295
Class, Heinrich35, 71
Clauberg, Karl52
Clay, Lucius D.518
Clendinnen, Inga673
CODOH (Committee on Open Debate on the Holocaust)565
Cohen, Boaz17, 576–87
Cohen, Jeremy623
Cold War510, 601
collaboration11, 93, 445, 446
Christians and625
and culpability40
in mass murders102, 103–4, 149
motivation for323, 652
Norway and336–7
Poland and285
Switzerland and162
trials of530, 577, 578–9 see also Arrow Cross Party
collections of Jewish items595
Collishaw, Mat464
colonial culture63
colonialism11, 57, 68–77
and antisemitism71–3
as necessary enabling condition for Holocaust5
reverse colonization73 see also living space
coming to terms with the past (Vergangenheitsbewältigung)635, 659–60
Commander of the Exodus (Kaniuk)439–40
Commission for the Indemnification of Victims of Spoliation553
Committee for Jewish Refugees, Holland171
Committee on Open Debate on the Holocaust (CODOH)565
common design charge, US Army trials526
communism243
and antisemitism643–4
mass murder of communists, in Latvia149
support for Palestine Liberation Organization645
comparative genocide studies2, 676
compensation548–55
Germany549–51
other nations552–5
compulsory sterilization40, 47–8
Comte, Auguste667
concentration camps11–12, 136
Africans in62
brothels in106
(p. 747)
children's games221
coping strategies in211–15
evacuation of374–5
forced labor in356, 358, 369–70, 371
homosexuals in282
inmate labor139
liberation footage13, 446
mass shootings368
mothers with small children, treatment of207
selection processes207, 208, 215 see also individual camps
Concerto for Violin and Orchestra (Frankel)482
Conference on Jewish Material Claims against Germany (Claims Conference)549, 550–1, 552, 555, 577–8, 583
Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche, BK)251, 252–3, 258, 259, 625–6
and antisemitism256
as on-looker9
Provisional Church Administration (Dahlemites, Niemöller wing)255
Connelly, John10, 274–88
constitutional courts653
constructivism686
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women718
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, United Nations20, 524, 690, 712–13, 724
Convery, Robert485–6
Coppa, Frank J.241
Cornwell, John242
Council for Aid to Jews (Rada Pomocy Żydom, RPZ)166, 175–6
Council for British Jewry172
Council for Cultural Cooperation (CDCC)700
Council of Europe659, 663, 700
Council of German Municipalities130
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights712
Crime Watch Advisory Board717–18
Crimea317
crimes against humanity526, 527, 711
crimes against peace711
Criminal Police (Kripo)365
Croatia11, 284, 286
antisemitic policies333
and Gypsies278
mass murder of Croats101
Ustasha fascist movement83, 284
Crowell, Samuel (pseudonym of Holocaust denier)568
culture war (Kulturkampf)234
Czech Republic
legislation against genocide and Holocaust denial570
reparations551
and restitution/compensation552
Czechoslovakia286
and refugees171
and restitution/compensation552
Sudetenland crisis98
Czerniakow, Adam205, 225, 397
DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service)284–5
“Dachau Blues” (Captain Beefheart)488
Dachau concentration camp119–20, 364, 365, 375
deportation of Gypsies to276
memorials and museum492
“Daddy” (Plath)601
Dadrian, Vahakn674
Dahlemites255
Daimler-Benz compensation payments551
Dallin, Alexander147
Danielsson, Carl Ivan163
Danish Jews163
Danish Red Cross337
Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Arbejderparti (DNSAP, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark)83
Dannecker, Theo137
Darfur genocide602, 725
Darquier de Pellepoix, Louis334
Darré, Richard Walther42
Darwin, Charles58
Davenport, Charles45
Davidson, Charles485–6
DAW (German Armaments Works)371–2
Dawidowicz, Lucy696, 697
Day of Remembrance of the Holocaust and for the prevention of crimes against humanity659
Days and Memory (Delbo)434
de Jong, Lies175
de Swaan-Willems, Truus175
Dean, Martin C.11, 340–51
“Death Fugue” (“Todesfugue”, Celan)437
death marches107, 374
(p. 748) death squads, see Einsatzgruppen
Death's Head formations142
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)56
“Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions,” Vatican II621
“Deep Pits, Crimson Clay” (Halkin)483–4
Degrelle, Léon652
Degussa compensation payments551
Delbo, Charlotte414, 417, 418, 422, 434
Demjanjuk, John737–8
demographic engineering54, 132–4, 138–9
Demorazza (Italian race agency)91
denazification measures635–6, 639–40
denazification process260
Denby, David454
Denmark133, 174, 337, 530
“Denmark 1943” (Small)488
dental gold546
department stores25, 62
Derr, Elwood485
Desbuquois, Gustave241
Descartes, René685
Descent of Man, The (Darwin)58
Dessau, Paul482–3
Deutsche Bank544
Deutsche Christen (DC, German Christians)9, 251–2, 257, 261–2, 625
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG)40
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rassenhygiene (German Society for Racial Hygiene)46
Deutscher Gemeindetag (German Council of Municipalities)295, 296
Deutschtum65
Diamond, David486
diaries6, 196–7, 204, 206, 209, 397–410
Berg206
documentary diaries12, 400–3
documenting “Final Solution”388–9, 390, 392
Frank229, 446, 569–70
interpretive approaches407–8
Kaplan189, 401, 409
Klemperer401–3, 408–9
reception of408–9
reflective diaries13, 406–7
status as historical source397
synecdochical diaries12, 403–6
Diary of a Young Girl (Nero)485
Diary of Anne Frank, The (film)446, 448, 449
Diary of Anne Frank, The (Frank)229, 446, 569–70, 702
Diary of Anne Frank, The (Frid)483
Diary of Anne Frank, The (Kesselman)599
Diary of Love (Weinberg)484
diaspora185–7
Dibelius, Otto256
Dies Irae (Penderecki)484–5
Different Trains (S. Reich)487
Diner, Dan655
Dinur, Ben-Zion583–4
disabled children49
disabled people45–6, 47
displaced persons (DPs)15–16, 509–10
and campaign for Jewish state576–7
Jewish
in American occupation zones514–18
in British occupation zone510–14
Polish510, 512, 519
Displaced Persons Act, USA521
DNSAP (Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Arbejderparti, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark)83
Dobiáš, Daniel485–6
doctrine of humanitarian intervention710
docudramas447, 455
documentaries14, 446, 448, 451, 455, 596
Dolchstoß (stab-in-the-back) myth6, 46, 65, 97
Doneson, Judith449–50, 453
Dönitz, Karl527
Dora-Mittelbau107
Drägerwerke, Lübeck360
dragnet operations (razzias)175, 177
Drancy transit camp, France334
Dreifuss, Havi (née Ben-Sasson)404
Dresdner Bank544
Dreyfus Affair32
Driz, Shike487
Drowned and the Saved, The (Levi)424
DuBois, Josiah, Jr.271
Duckwitz, Georg174
Dwinger, Edwin Erich387
Dwork, Debórah8, 170–81
East Africa62
East Germany492–3
and anti-cosmopolitan purge644
and Jewish question643–5
trials532–3
Eastern Galicia284, 320
ghettos345
economic crash (Krach) of 187325–6
economics675
Edel, Yitzhak481
Edelman, Marek738
(p. 749) Eden, Anthony268
education
Jews banned from public schools299
segregation of Jews, in Austria297–8 see also Holocaust education
Education Ministry, Italy91
Efer ve'Avak (Poliker and Gilad)488
Eichmann, Adolf98, 131, 243
and Central Office for Jewish Emigration298
and deportation of Jews/Poles314
and “Final Solution”136–7
and Jewish desk of Gestapo119
and mass deportations136, 303–4
ordinariness of670
and resettlement of Jews in Poland300
and transports of Jews105–6, 132
trial of446, 524, 531–2, 564, 579, 642
Eicke, Theodor364, 365
Eingabenpolitik (policy of suggestion)238
Einsatzgruppen102, 134–5, 142, 149, 317
in Belarus318
and “Final Solution”121, 386–7
murder of Soviet Jews76
and pogroms148
reports on killings565
targets146
Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR)547
Einstein, Albert42
Eisenhower, Dwight D.515
Eisenman, Peter496–7, 497
Eisner, Kurt115
electrotechnical industry: forced labor in356
Elegy for Anne Frank (Foss)485
Elena, Queen Mother, Romania329
Eleventh Decree to the Reich Citizenship Law544
Eliaš, Alois300
emancipation: and antisemitism26–7
Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC), USA178
emigration131, 194
forced emigration policy266–7, 298, 300
Endlösung, see “Final Solution”
Enfants Gâtés (Séchas )472
England, see United Kingdom
Engzel, Gösta163
Enlightenment56
Epp, Franz Ritter von68
Erbgesundheitsgerichte (hereditary health courts)48, 276
ERC (Emergency Rescue Committee), USA178
Eretz-Israel, see Israel
Ericksen, Robert P.9, 250–62
Erlebnis140
Ermittlung, Die (Weiss)484
Erntefest (Operation Harvest Festival)138, 358, 371
ERO (Eugenics Record Office), New York46
ERR (Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg)547
Estate of Memory, An (Karmel)435
Estonia102, 317
Eternal Jew,The (film)444
ethics20, 722–33
duty to speak729
failure of728
Holocaust as ethical absolute726–8
meaning of722–4
Ethiopia87, 88, 90
Ethnic German Liaison Office (Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle)313
ethnic Germans (Volksdeutsche)142, 149
in Baltic states100
Hitler–Stalin Pact and100
in Poland100, 132, 149, 313, 315
resettlement of100, 313–16, 321, 322–3, 545
in Waffen-SS149
eugenics39, 45–6, 58
Eugenics Record Office (ERO), New York46
Europa, Europa (film)453
European Council: “Framework Decision on Combating Racism and Xenophobia”659
European Union (EU)650–64
German presidency659
Holocaust
Europeanization of655–7, 660–3
as founding myth for658
impact on18
integration as response to653–4
as negative “European identity”657–60
legislation against genocide and Holocaust denial570
meaning of650–1
politics of regret655–7
euthanasia programs48–51, 99–100, 219, 382
adults49–50
Catholic Church's denunciation of240
children49, 218
handicapped people99–100
mentally ill people100, 120
T4 program49–50, 120, 165, 367
West German trials536
Evangelical Church of the Rhineland Synod621
Evangelische Sonntagsblatt, Berlin256
Evans, Richard571
Evian Conference160, 177, 269
evolution, theory of58
(p. 750) exhibitions
After Auschwitz464
“America's Concentration Camps”602
Burnt Whole464
Wehrmacht photographic exhibition150
Witness and Legacy464
existentialism685–6
Exit-Dachau project (Gerz)494
“Exodus 47” (Berland)487
experimentation, human40, 51–2
on children219
on homosexuals282
Expert Advisory Council on Questions of Population and Racial Policy47
Ezrahi, Sidra DeKoven464–5
Facing History and Ourselves (FHAO), USA703
Fackenheim, Emil609, 610, 612, 725
Fantasie in Gelb (Haid)478–9
Fasching, Darrell628
fascism81–93
and antisemitism5, 82–4
demographic policy84–5
racism and82
fascist racism86–9
Fascist Social Republic, Italy92
Fatelessness (Kertész)436
Fatherland Party32, 64
Faulhaber, Michael von237
Faurisson, Robert560, 562, 566–7, 569–70
Federal Bureau of Investigation178
Federal Compensation Law549
Federal Republic of Germany, see West Germany
Federal Restitution Law549
Federation of Associations for the Care of Orphans in Poland (CENTOS)176
Fein, Helen672, 676
Feingold, Henry159–60
Feldgendarmerie (military police)152
Feldman, Ludovic485
Feldmühle Nobel compensation payments551
Felman, Shoshana698
Felvidek (Carpatho-Ruthenia)327, 329–30, 331
Ferencz, Benjamin362
Ferramonti di Tarsia, Italy92
FHAO (Facing History and Ourselves), USA703
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb55
Fiehler, Karl294
Fighter Staff Program (Jägerstab-Programm)358, 373
films13–14, 444–57, 473
American448–50
documentaries14, 446, 448, 451, 455, 596
documenting “Final Solution”387
European13
French451
Golden Globe awards445
Gypsies in456
Hollywood and13–14
homosexuals in456
Italian451
liberation footage13, 446
Oscars445, 451
propaganda films13
scholarship
first wave of448–51
second wave of451–4
latest wave of454–6
and stereotypes of Jews449, 453
trauma theory and454–5
West German450–1
“Final Solution”
commemoration of386–9
demographic reconfiguration and138–9
development of134–7
Gestapo and119
justification for392
moves towards119–24
“part-timers” and384, 385
SD and119
Wehrmacht and150–2
Fink, Ida435–6
Finkelstein, Norman G.596
Finko, David483
Finland317, 321
First Congress of Holocaust survivors, Bergen-Belsen514
Fischer, Eugen39, 68–9
Fleischmann, Gisi207
Flossenbürg concentration camp365, 375
Fogelman, Eva673
For a Look or a Touch (Heggie)486
For Every Sin (Appelfeld)436
forced emigration policy266–7, 298
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia300
forced labor11, 107, 354–62, 544
civilian workers356–7
compensation payments551–2
concentration camps and356, 358, 369–70, 371
conditions at sites of361
destruction through work359
economic motives for360–1
in ghettos349–50, 356
(p. 751)
Hungarian Jews' survival rates358
profits from546
survival, influences on358–9
forced labor camps (Zwangsarbeitlager)356, 372
forced labor policy301–2, 303
forced labor sites11, 361
Ford, Henry29
Foreign Office, Germany130
documents384
Jewish desk137
and resettlement of Jews133
Fortunoff Archive, Yale419, 598
Forty Days of Musa Dagh (Werfel)96
Foss, Lukas485
Fossoli di Carpi transit camp337–8
Foucault, Michel686
Foundation for the Memory of the Shoah553
Foundation Initiative of German Business (Stiftungsinitiative der deutschen Wirtschaft)552
4+2 Agreements551
Fourth Hague Convention (1907)525
FPÖ (Freedom Party), Austria658, 659
“Framework Decision on Combating Racism and Xenophobia”659
France11
antisemitic political parties in32
antisemitism in24, 27
deportation of Jews334
emancipation of Jews in27
execution of black French colonial troops101, 142
Gypsies in280–1
Holocaust education in700
Jews in27
legislation against genocide and Holocaust denial570
under occupation334–5
plundering of Jews547
and refugees171
reprisal policies142
and rescue of Jews180
and restitution/compensation552–3
trials530 see also Vichy France
Francisme, France83
Franco, Francisco163–4
Frank, Anne227, 408, 485
diary229, 446, 569–70, 702
Frank, Hans75, 122, 132–3, 277, 382, 527
Frank, Karl530
Frank, Otto569, 597
Frank, Shlomo400
Frankel, Benjamin482
Frankfurt Trials484
Frankl, Viktor417, 418
Freed, James Ingo504
Freedom Party (FPÖ), Austria658, 659
Freigabe der Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens (The Authorization of the Destruction of Life Unworthy of Life, Binding and Hoche)48–9
French Revolution56
Freud, Sigmund42
Frick, Wilhelm295
Fricke, Otto260
Frid, Grigori483
Friedländer, Saul95, 129, 228, 405–6, 423, 424
Friedman, Richard S. “Kinky”488
Fritsch, Theodor35
Fritzsche, Peter12, 381–94
From the Diary of Anne Frank (Morawetz)485
Front for Reborn Poland175
Front National, France659
Fry, Varian178
functionalism129, 143, 275
Galich, Alexandr487
Galton, Francis45, 58
Garbarini, Alexandra404–5
Garda, Bahr Idriss Abu716
Garden of the Finzi Continis, The (film)446, 451
Garel, Georges177
gas chambers566–9
claimed to be air raid shelters567–9
Gasperi, Alcide de654
Gates of the Forest, The (Wiesel)438
Gebhardt, Karl51
Geehr, Richard33
Gelbrun, Artur480
Gellately, Robert165
gender differences: and roles of Jews8
General Commissariat White Russia321
General Government (Generalgouvernement)
ghettos in11, 341, 342
Jewish reservation313
Ukraine and284–5
General-Siedlungsplan75
Generalplan Ost (General Plan East, GPO)44, 75, 286, 287–8, 314, 320–1
Geneva Conventions525
genocide
anthropology of674
camp system and369, 370–2
definition of524
(p. 752)
legislation against570
non-cooperation of German allies137–8
genocide prevention676
genocide studies2, 19
Genocide Watch676
Genschel, Helmut129–30
Gerlach, Jens482
German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)284–5
German Armaments Works (DAW)371–2
German Christians, see Deutsche Christen
German Communist Party (KPD)644
German Confederation59
German Council of Municipalities (Deutscher Gemeindetag)295, 296
German Democratic Republic (GDR), see East Germany
German Empire60–1
German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG)40
German Society for Racial Hygiene (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Rassenhygiene)46
German Union34
German–Finnish treaty on population exchange321
Germanization policy44
Poland315–16
USSR101, 316–21
German–Soviet Nonaggression Pact, see Hitler–Stalin Pact
Germany194, 635–46
1848 revolution59–60
1871 constitution61
antisemitic organizations in25–6
antisemitic political parties in32
democracy in64
Holocaust education695, 697, 699, 702
industrial capitalism in25
and Israel577–8
legislation against genocide and Holocaust denial570
memorials and museums492–7
nationalism in59–61
post-reunification645–6
and restitution/compensation556
university students and antisemitism29–30 see also East Germany; West Germany
Gerz, Jochen463, 494, 495
Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses (Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases, 1933)47–8, 276
Gestapa (Prussian Secret State Police Office)364
Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei, Secret State Police)119, 384
Ghetto Fighters' House582, 585, 597
ghettoization
attritionist policy133, 134
patterns of340–2
productionist policy133
ghettos11, 133–4, 340–51
in Baltic States345–6, 349
bartering342, 349
in Belarus346–7
black market in343
children's games220–1
conditions in349
coping strategies in211–13
economic restrictions343
forced labor349–50, 356
ghettoization, patterns of340–2
mortality rates in342
music in14, 196
open ghettos343–4, 344–5, 348
in Poland11, 96–7, 119, 123, 137, 194, 341, 343–5
resistance in346–7, 350–1
in Ukraine347–9 see also individual ghettos; Jewish councils
Giftgas Giftset (Sachs)467, 468
Gilad, Yaacov488
Gilbert, Gustave669
Gilbert, Martin159–60
Glatstein, Jacob432, 609
Gleichschaltung (synchronization)42
Glick, Srul Irving485
Gliniany, Eastern Galicia345
Global Treaty550
Globke, Hans276
Globocnik, Odilo122, 315–16, 322
Glowno ghetto343
Godesberg Declaration257
Goebbels, Joseph284, 286
diaries114, 122, 123, 392
on Hitler's prophecies122, 123
and Kristallnacht pogrom118
propaganda97, 103
scandals involving Catholic clergy238
gold545–6, 547, 554, 555, 556
Goldberg, Amos12–13, 397–410
Goldfein, Olia (Olga)207
Goldhagen, Daniel J.143–4, 408–9
“Goldhagen controversy”143–4
Goldin, Leyb431
Goldmann, Nahum577–8, 638–9
Goldsworthy, Andy505
“Good Night, World” (Glatstein)432
(p. 753) Göring, Heinrich68
Göring, Hermann132–3, 527–8
centralization of anti-Jewish policy298
decree on Catholic Church238
demand for Jew-free Vienna297
expropriation of Jewish property129
and “Final Solution”136
Four Year Plan for USSR317
and ghettos340
and Poland285
Gottberg, Curt von76
Gouri, Haim439
Grabner, Alexander530
Grandmaison, Olivier LeCour675
Grass, Günter451
Gray, Charles571
Graziani, Rodolfo84
Great Britain, see United Kingdom
Great Depression
Jews as scapegoats for82–3
and refugees170–1
Great Dictator, The (film)444
Great War, see World War I
Greater Germany10, 293–306
coordination of anti-Jewish policy298–300
creation of297–304
Greece: Sephardic Jews in105
Greenberg, Irving612–13
Greenberg, Reesa464–5
Greenspan, Henry13, 414–24, 673
Grey Zone, The (film)455
Grimm, Hans70
Grinberg, Zalman516
Gröber, Conrad239
Groß-Rosen concentration camp366, 374
Gross, Jan166, 600, 674
Gross, Walter130, 131
Grossman, David440
Grossman, Vassily689
Grotewohl, Otto637
Gruber, Ruth Ellen600
Gruenwald, Malchiel578–9
Grundmann, Walter257
Gruner, Wolf10, 293–306
Gulf War (1991)587
Gundlach, Gustav241
Günther, Hans F. K.47
Gutman, Israel165, 423, 584
Gütt, Arthur47
gymnastics associations59
Gypsies65, 274, 275–81
in concentration/death camps276
deported to Auschwitz280
deported to Buchenwald276, 279
in films456
mass murder of, in Latvia149
and partisans277
in Wehrmacht277–8 see also Roma; Sinti
H-K-T Society (Hakatisten, Society for the Support of Germandom in the Eastern Marches)70
Ha'avara (“Transfer”) agreement191
Habsburg Empire26–7, 60: see also Austria; Hungary
Hadamar psychiatric asylum226, 526
Hague Conventions525
Haid, Percy478–9
Haider, Jörg658, 659
Halachic treatises and responsa196–7
Halbstadt Colony319
Halevi, Benjamin579
Halivni, David Weiss17, 607–14
on prayer during/after Holocaust612, 613
on sin as cause of Holocaust608–10
Halkin, Shmuel483–4
handicapped people: murder of99–100
Hanf, Anna, Marie, and Vaclav226
Hannemann, Kurt276
Hansen, Miriam Bratu453
Hardship Fund550–1
Hardyk, Joel485–6
Harff, Barbara676
Harrison, Earl514–15, 521
Harrison report514–15
Hartheim euthanasia institution367
Hartmann, Karl Amadeus481, 482–3
HASAG (Hugo Schneider AG)357–8
Hasler, Alfred A.162
Haupt, Joachim282
Haupttreuhandstelle Ost (HTO, Main Trusteeship Office East)545
Hayes, Peter1–20, 540–57, 732, 737–40
Haynes, Stephen R.17–18, 620–31
Heberer, Patricia4–5, 39–52
Hebrew Lesson (Arad)471–2, 474
Hechalutz (pioneer) movement582
Hecht, Anthony439
Hecht, Ben480
Hegel, G. W. F.729
Hegewald Colony319
Heggie, Jake486
Heidegger, Martin640
Heilman, Samuel593
(p. 754) Heimat (film miniseries)450–1
Henze, Hans Werner482–3
hereditary health courts (Erbgesundheitsgerichte)48, 276
Herero people62, 69
Herf, Jeffrey18, 635–46
Hering, Ernst319, 323
Hermlin, Stephan484
Heroic Ballad (Finko)483
Herz, Rudolf464
Herzl, Theodor502
Herzogenbusch concentration camp, Netherlands372, 374
Hess, Rudolf71, 130, 527
Heuss, Theodor637
“No One Will Lift This Shame from Us” (Bergen-Belsen speech)638
Heydrich, Reinhard75, 129, 300
assassination of304
and deportation of Jews133, 301
and “Final Solution”122, 136, 137
gas vans for Chelmno122–3
and ghettos340
and Gypsies in Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia280
Jewish desk in SD131
and resettlement of ethnic Germans314
and RSHA119
and Wannsee Conference303
Hikind, Dov467
Hilberg, Raul140, 157, 159, 188, 326, 670, 683
and ethics726–7, 728
on France334
on Romania328
Hilfswerk beim bischöflichen Ordinariat Berlin (Relief Agency of the Berlin Chancery)239
Hilgenfeldt, Erich219
Hillesum, Etty400
Hillgrüber, Andreas642
Himmler, Heinrich6–7, 75, 114, 116, 129, 276
as architect of genocide113
brothels in concentration camps106
demographic engineering132–3
and Eichmann's Nisko experiment132
and ethics of killing727
euphemistic genocidal terminology381–2
and “Final Solution”121–2, 124, 125, 566
and Gypsies277, 278
military experience115
move from selective to mass murder135
and murder of women and children388
and Operation Harvest Festival358
and persecution of homosexuals282
personality/background114–15
Posen speech justifying destruction of Jews97
and problem solvers128
as Reich Commissar for the Strengthening of Germandom313, 317
and resettlement of ethnic Germans313
and RSHA119
on Slav work force287
and SS116–17
suspension of transports to Poland301
unification of Reich political police forces364–5
and völkisch movement116
and Welteislehre (World Ice Theory)41–2
Hindenburg, Paul von65, 252
Hinton, Alexander674
Hinzert concentration camp366
hip-hop music488–9
Hirsch, Joshua455
historians dispute (Historikerstreit)642
historical discourse683
historiography
and diaries404–6
survivor testimonies and422–4
Hitler, Adolf6, 33, 34
assessment of143
and Austrian Catholicism627
and British Empire, admiration for73–4
and camp system365
and Catholic Church234
and colonialism68
and euthanasia programs50, 382
and “Final Solution”116, 118–19, 121–2, 123
and German “Garden of Eden”135, 317
and humanity730–1
imperialism of73–6
and Jews as hostages in peace negotiations374
living space theory311, 312–13, 314
and mass murder as military necessity100–1
military experience115
and new European order651
and Nuremberg Laws117
and persecution policies305
personality/background114–15
on Polish intelligentsia287
Political Testament124, 272
and problem solvers128
prophecies and visions122, 139
annihilation of Jewish race in Europe99, 118–19, 123, 131
and Protestant Church252
(p. 755)
and racial hygiene47
and racism86
redemptive antisemitism of116
responsibility for Jewish policy113–14
view of Jews115–16, 124, 187
and war of world views (Weltanschauungskrieg)652
and World War I, lessons of96 see also Mein Kampf
Hitler Youth252
Hitler–Stalin Pact100, 102, 132
Hitt, Jack469
Hoare, Samuel172
Hoche, Alfred48–9
Hocke, Gustav René388
Hodonin, Moravia280
Hoheisel, Horst494, 495–6
Hohenlychen51
Holland, see Netherlands
Holocaust
analogies660–1
antisemitism as necessary enabling condition for4, 5
awareness, diminution of445
and Christianity, impact on17–18
commemoration of580–2
consequences of197–8
as ethical absolute726–8
European integration as response to653–4
Europeanization of655–7
debate about660–3
as filtered through media469–70
as founding myth for a united Europe658
German documentation381–94
destruction of393
God and607–9, 614
in Israeli art473–4
in Israeli education584–5, 595
and Israeli security585–7
and Judaism, impact on17, 611–14
and Nazi Party's New European Order651–3
as negative “European identity”657–60
number of victims, estimated197–8, 375–6
ownership of memory of468
postwar Germany, impact on18
sin and608–11
and State of Israel, establishment of198, 561–2, 575–6
and truth issues681–91
uniqueness of696–7
universality of696
and Zionism198, 616–17
Holocaust: An Uprising in the Ghetto (Finko)483
Holocaust and Ghetto Revolt Memorial Day (Yom Hazicaron la-Shoah Ve-Mered Hagetaot)580
Holocaust and Heroism Memorial Day (Yom Hazicaron la-Shoah Ve-Hagvurah)580
Holocaust commemoration490–1: see also memorials and museums
Holocaust denial16, 452, 454, 468, 560–72, 682, 687–8
and Arab–Israeli conflict571
arguments for560–1
legislation against570, 658
soft denial571–2
tactics of562–6
immoral equivalencies562–3
trials570–2
Holocaust education19, 695–704
approaches to696–8
information sources702–4
schooling level698–701
venue type701–2
Holocaust Forum, Stockholm658
Holocaust Memorial Days658, 701
Knesset and577, 580
Holocaust Museum Houston703
Holocaust remembrance: new cultural practices of17
Holocaust representation475
constructionist model447
exceptionalist model447–8 see also art; films; literature
Holocaust studies1–20, 684–5, 737–40
Holocaust survivors598–9
and Israeli army576–7 see also survivor testimonies
Holocaust: The Story of the Family Weiss (television miniseries)14, 418, 446–7, 448, 449–50, 596
Homme Double, L' (Borland)465
homosexuals98, 106, 274, 275, 281–3
castration of283
in films456
in music486
Höne camp (Bergen-Belsen)512–14
Honigman, Ana Finel473
Hörbiger, Hanns41
Horochów ghetto349
Horowitz, Irving Louis668
Horowitz, Sara R.13, 422, 428–41, 452, 453
horror movies456
Horthy, Miklos329, 330, 331
Höss, Rudolf119–20, 529–30, 564, 566
(p. 756) House of Terror, Budapest656
HTO (Haupttreuhandstelle Ost, Main Trusteeship Office East)545
Hudal, Alois243
Hugo Schneider AG (HASAG)357–8
Hull, Isabel69
human rights law709–20
implementation of713–14
International Criminal Court690, 714–15
poverty and718–19
Humani Generis Unitas (The Unity of the Human Race, encyclical)241
humanities680–92
effect of Holocaust on19
Hume, David681
Hungarism83
Hungary11, 83, 327
antisemitic political parties in32
antisemitism in29–30, 32, 329–31
Arrow Cross Party83, 179, 279, 330, 331
ghettos341
and Gypsies278, 279
Holocaust education in700
industrial capitalism in25
Jews in27
deportation of104, 331
enforced emigration of88, 138
mass murder of331
rescue of178–9
survival rates358
as on-looker166–7
and restitution/compensation552
transports to Auschwitz-Birkenau105–6
university students and antisemitism29–30
Hunke, Heinrich311–12
Al-Husseini, Hajj Amin (Mufti of Jerusalem)105
Huyssen, Andreas447
“Hymn of the Ghetto, The” (Loesser)480
I Never Saw Another Butterfly (anthology of children's poetry and art from Theresienstadt)485–6
IAGS (International Association of Genocide Scholars)676
Ian, Janis488
Iasi pogrom318
identity
children and226–8
Holocaust as negative European657–60
Jewish, and art463–4
IDF (Israeli Defense Forces)585, 586
If This is a Man (Survival in Auschwitz, Levi)415, 417, 418, 433, 598
IG Farben316, 357, 361, 368, 528
compensation payments551
IHR (Institute for Historical Review)563–4
immigration, illegal518–20
Immortal Bartfuss, The (Appelfeld)436
Imperial Germany33–5
and antisemitism63
as first racial German state62
German army62
imperialism60, 62–3
of Hitler73–6
IMT (International Military Tribunal)526
In Memoriam Anne Frank (A Song of Strength) (Ridout)485
In Memoriam Annei Frank (Feldman)485
In Zikh movement432
Independent Commission of Experts Switzerland–Second World War162–3
Indigo Girls rock band488
Indonesian genocide713
informed consent51
Insdorf, Annette448, 449
Inspectorate of Concentration Camps (IKL)11, 364–5
Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial Hygiene, Frankfurt39
Institute for Historical Review (IHR)563–4
Institute for the History of the New Germany257
Institute for the Study and Eradication of Jewish Influence in German Religious Life257
Institute of Contemporary History, Munich641
insurance policies543–4, 546, 547, 550
intentionalism129, 143, 275
Interior Ministry, Germany130
Interior Ministry, Italy91–2
International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS)676
International Bill of Human Rights712
International Campaign to End Genocide676
International Commission on Holocaust Era Insurance Claims552
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)167, 329, 374
(p. 757) International Conference on the Holocaust and Martyrdom in Our Time581–2
International Council of Christians and Jews620–1
International Covenants on Human Rights712
International Criminal Court (ICC)690, 714–15
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)714, 715–16
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)713, 714, 716
International Institute for Holocaust Research584
international legal rights710
International Military Tribunal (IMT)197, 526, 527, 709, 711
International Monument to the Victims of Fascism, Birkenau485
International Refugee Organization (IRO)510, 521
International Social Science Bulletin (UNESCO)667–8
Ioanid, Radu11, 326–38
Iran601
Iraq586–7
Ireland: neutrality of161
IRO (International Refugee Organization)510, 521
Iron Guard, Romania82, 86, 88, 328, 330
Iron Tracks, The (Appelfeld)436
Irving, David16, 560, 563, 565
on Anne Frank's diary569
libel suit against Penguin UK and Lipstadt570–1
trial of, in Austria570
Islamophobia603
Israel17, 576–87
Benedict XVI's visit to572
and Germany577–8
Holocaust
education system and584–5, 595
and establishment of State of Israel561–2, 575–6
in Israeli art473–4
and Israeli security585–7
as raison d'être of state500–1
survivors of, and Israeli army576–7
Holocaust education695, 697, 699, 701
and Iraq586–7
memorials and museums500–3
nuclear capability586
post-Zionism662
punishment in531–2
State of Israel as “Survivor-land”575–7
Israeli Defense Forces (IDF)585, 586
Israeli Independence Day580
Italian Fascist regime83–4
Italian Social Republic (RSI)81
Italy11, 84, 659
African empire89–90
as ally of Germany337–8
“Aryanization” in91, 92
assimilation in91
deportation of Jews337–8
fascist antisemitism5
holding camps92
Jews
measures against90–1
native Jews138
refugees180
rescue of179
wartime internment of87–8
measures against miscegenation89–90, 91
reprisal policies142
and restitution/compensation552–3
It's the Real Thing: Self-Portrait at Buchenwald (Schechner)466, 467
Jacob, Erich282
Jacob, Lili382
Jacob the Liar (J. Becker)435
Jaeckel, Eberhard642
Jäger, August254
Jägerstab-Programm (Fighter Staff Program)358, 373
Jahn, Friedrich Ludwig59
Jakob the Liar (film)454
Jakubowska, Wanda445
James, William685
Japan: and rescue of Jews178
Jarecka, Gustawa403
Jasenovac death camp, Croatia278, 333
jazz488
JDC (American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee)190, 191, 192, 512–13, 518
Jedwabne, Poland102, 318, 656
Jehovah's Witnesses98
Jew Süss (film)444
Jewish Agency190
Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, USSR192–3
Jewish-Bolshevist system102–3
Jewish chroniclers96–7, 108
Jewish Community (Kultusgemeinde), Vienna173
Jewish Councils (Judenräte)134, 193–5, 207, 341, 346–50
(p. 758) and underground organizations346–7
Jewish Cultural Reconstruction555
Jewish culture590–603
authority figures597–9
changes in narratives592–4
changes in practices595–7
effect of demographics on591–2
Holocaust remembrance controversies601–2
narratives, controversy over594
public profile599–602
“virtually Jewish” culture600
Jewish desk(s) (Judenreferat)130–1, 384
Jewish emigration136
Eichmann and119
forced88, 103, 138, 266–7, 298, 300
Madagascar Plan133, 301
“Jewish experts” 130–1, 133
Jewish Fighting Organization501
Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw597
Jewish identity: art and463–4
Jewish Kulturbund, Germany196
Jewish leadership193–4
Jewish Museum, Berlin596–7
Jewish Museum, New York: Mirroring Evil: Nazi Imagery/Recent Art (exhibition)14, 461, 464–71
Jewish Partisan anthem (“Zog nit keynmol az du geyst dem letstn veg”)488
Jewish people185–98
1938 census of, in Italy91
assimilation of115–16
attacks on98–9
blocked bank accounts543–4, 545
and Bolshevism76, 82–3
Christianity and628–31
as colonizers of Germany72, 77
conversion of115–16
and crucifixion of Jesus562
crises of faith195
economic exclusion129–30, 296–7, 298, 299, 383, 386, 542–3
boycott of Jewish businesses237, 294–5, 541
emancipation of26–8, 61
enforced emigration of88, 103, 138, 266–7, 298, 300
flight from Germany99
history of185–7
mass deportations of303–4
measures against, in Italy90–1
obligatory middle names384
Orthodox195
persecution of187–8
central/local policies294–7
gendered German policies206–9, 215
gendered response to204–6
intervention initiatives191–3
and preparations for World War II:98–9
property, seizure of139
in Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia299–300
perseverance strategies194–5
postwar recovery615–16
racial definition296
Reform/liberal195
resettlement of300–3
rise of27–8
segregation of301
in education297–8, 299
in housing299
social exclusion129, 296, 299, 386
Star of David badge103, 302
youth movements195–6 see also Judaism
Jewish Question (Judenfrage)128
Protestant Church and256–8
Jewish Refugees Committee (JRC), Great Britain171
Jewish reservation, Lublin District132, 133
Jewish Residential District (Jüdischer Wohnbezirk), see ghettos
Jewish resistance8, 14, 213, 346–7, 350–1
Jewish Resistance Heritage Museum and Documentation Center, Western Galilee597
Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS) of America599, 608
Jodl, Alfred383, 527
John, Gospel of233
John Paul II, Pope621
Johst, Hanns387
Joint Distribution Committee, see JDC
Jonassohn, Kurt673
Jones, Adam675
Jones, David H.19–20, 709–20
Joodsche Raad (Jewish Council), Amsterdam191
Journal d'Anne Frank, Le (Lejet)485
Journal for Racial and Social Biology58
JRC (Jewish Refugees Committee), Great Britain171
JTS (Jewish Theological Seminary) of America599, 608
Judaism607–18
impact of Holocaust on17
(p. 759)
and prayer after Holocaust611–14 see also Jewish people
Judenfrage, see Jewish Question
Judenhäuser299
Judenräte, see Jewish Councils
Judenreferat (Jewish desk(s))130–1, 384
Judeo-Bolshevism76, 121, 125, 148–9
Judgment at Nuremberg (film)446, 448
Jüdische Chronik (Dessau, Wagner-Régeny, Blacher, Hartmann and Henze)482–3
Jüdischer Wohnbezirk (Jewish Residential District), see ghettos
judiska sången, Den (Pergament)480–1
Jünger, Ernst387
K cemu je slunce, kdyz není den? (Dobiáš)485–6
Kaczerginski, Shmerke487
“Kaddish” (Galich)487
Kaddish for a Child Not Born (Kertész)436
Kaddish for Terezin (Senator)485–6
Kaes, Anton450–1
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology39
Kaiser Wilhelm Society44
Kajzer, Abraham399
Kaller, Maximilian233
Kalmanovitch, Zelig400
Kaltenbrunner, Ernst527
Kambanda, Jean715–16
Kambanellis, Iakovos486
Kamianets'- Podil's'kyi massacre317
Kamiński, Aleksander229
Kammler, Hans373
Kaniuk, Yoram439–40
Kant, Immanuel56, 685, 732
Kaplan, Chaim189, 400
diary401, 409
Karay, Felicja208, 210, 215
Kardorff, Ursula von388
Karmel, Ilona435
Karsai, Laszlo279
kashariyot (couriers)213
Kasztner, Israel (Rezso)578–9
Katowice: transports of Jews to Nisko132
Katz, Esther203
Katzenelson, Yitzhak432, 480, 501, 582, 614–15
Katznelson, Ira675
Kaul, Karl Friedrich533
Kaunas (Kovno) concentration camp, Lithuania334, 372
Kaunas (Kovno) ghetto96, 349
Kaunas (Kovno) pogrom148, 318
Kelley, Douglas M.669
Keneally, Thomas452
Kennkarte (required identification)176
Kerrl, Hanns255
Kershaw, Ian288
Kertész, Imre436
Kertzer, Adrienne702
Kertzer, David I.242
Kesselman, Wendy599
kibbutzim museums501
Kiefer, Anselm462, 463, 464
Kielce pogrom519
killing centers, see death camps
Kimmelman, Michael467–8, 472
Kindertransports173, 267
Kirchenkampf (Church Struggle)9
Kitaj, R. B.463
Kittel, Gerhard256, 257–8
Klarsfeld, Serge and Beate531
Klausener, Erich236
Klebanov, Dmitri483
Klee, Ernst260
Kleeblatt, Norman464–5
Kleiberg, Ståle486
Klein, A. M.432–3
Klein, Astrid464
Klein, Cecilie209
Klein, Gerda Weissman418, 598
Klemperer, Victor384, 401–3, 408–9
Klepfisz, Irena439
Kluger, Ruth417, 418
Knesset
Holocaust memorial day committee580
Holocaust memorial day debates577
Law of Remembrance of Holocaust and Heroism, Yad Vashem582–3
Koblik, Steven162
Koch, Erich284, 347
Kochan, Günther484
Kochavi, Arieh J.15–16, 509–22
Kofman, Sarah430, 729–30
Kohl, Helmut496, 642
Kook, Hillel (alias Peter Bergson)192
Korczak, Janusz487
Korherr, Richard381
Kosinski, Jerszy689
Kosmala, Beate166
Kosovo War661
Kossak-Szczucka, Zofia175
Köster, Adolf72
Kovner, Abba190–1, 197
Kovno, see Kaunas
(p. 760) Kox, Hans485
Koylnbrener (Jewish Council chairman)348
KPD (German Communist Party)644
Krahelska-Filipowiczowa, Wanda175
Krause, Reinhold252
Kraut, Alan159–60
Kreisau Circle258
Kren, George H.672–3
Kripo (Criminal Police)365
Kristallnacht (Zorn)488
Kristallnacht pogrom98, 118, 129, 172, 206, 298, 365, 480
Křivinka, Gustav485
Krstic, Radislav716
Krüger, Wilhelm345
Kruk, Herman95–6, 401
Krupp compensation payments551
Krystufek, Elke464
Kuball, Mischa464
Kuchenbuch letter390–1
Kuitca, Guillermo464
Kulturkampf (culture war)234
Kultusgemeinde (Jewish Community), Vienna173
Kuper, Leo676
Kushner, Tony160, 424
Kuspit, Donald464, 468
Kvaternik, Slavko122
Kwiek, Rudolf280
KZ der Verlagerungsprojekte (subterranean factory camps)373
La Guardia, Fiorello490–1
labor camps106, 138, 276, 279
LaFarge, John241
Lager-Schwestern (camp sisters)215
Laitman, Lori485–6
Lambert, Raymond400
Lament for the Victims of the Warsaw Ghetto (Gelbrun)480
Lampe, Friedo283
Landesarchiv Berlin384
Landsberg, Alison455
Landser (infantrymen)150–1
Lang, Berel19, 680–92
Langer, Lawrence421, 450
Langlet, Valdemar163
Langmuir, Gavin622, 623
language: as marker of nationalism57
Lantos, Tom598
Lanzmann, Claude14, 448, 452, 596
Laqueur, Walter159–60
Last Chance, The (film)445
Last Jew, The (Kaniuk)439–40
Last of the Just, The (Schwarz-Bart)438
Last Stop, The (film)445
Latvia
Germanization of317, 320
invasion of102
mass murders in149, 317
Law for Combating Gypsies, Vagabonds and Work-shy (1926)275
Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses, 1933)47–8, 276
Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor383
Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (1933)43–4, 295, 383
Law of Remembrance of Holocaust and Heroism, Yad Vashem582–3
Law of the Jews (Statut des Juifs), Vichy France530
Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (Huguenot village)180–1
“Lead Plates at the Rom Press, The” (Sutzkever)431
League of Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees Coming from Germany (Jewish and Other)191
and Israel575
Lebensborn scheme226–7
Lebensraum, see living space
Legion of the Archangel Michael (Iron Guard), Romania82, 86, 88, 328, 330
LEGO Concentration Camp Set (Libera)465, 467
Lejet, Edith485
“Lekh Lekho” (Shayevitch)432
Lemkin, Raphael690
Lenard, Philipp42
Lengyel, Olga214
Leociak, Jacek405
Leon (survivor)421, 422
letters12, 196–7, 400
documenting “Final Solution”388, 389, 390–1
Lety, Bohemia280
Levi, Primo92, 156, 203, 414, 416, 422, 434
The Drowned and the Saved424
“News from the Sky”732
on unspeakable memories421 see also If This is a Man (Survival in Auschwitz)
Levinas, Emmanuel726
Levine, Paul A.7, 156–68
Levinthal, David463
Levy, Richard S.4, 23–37
Lévy-Hass, Hanna407
(p. 761) Lewin, Abraham406
Lewis, Bernard623
Lewy, Guenter278
Libera, Zbigniew464, 465, 467
liberation and dispersal509–22
Libeskind, Daniel596–7
Libya84, 87
Lichtenberg, Bernhard165, 239
Lidice massacre227
Liebehenschel, Arthur530
Lieberman, Saul608
Life Is Beautiful (La Vita é Bella, film)14, 451–2, 453–4, 596
limpiezza de sangra laws623
Lind, Jakov428, 689
Lindberg, Hans162
Lindemann, Albert27
Linnaeus, Carolus56
Lippert, Julius294
Lipstadt, Deborah E.16, 159, 560–72
Irving's libel suit against570–1
Liquidation (Kertész)436
literary theory683
literature13, 196–7, 428–41
critical approaches to429–30
language, limitations of433–4
lifewriting433–4
novellas439
novels435, 436–8, 440
poetry431–3, 437, 439
postwar433–4
second generation literature440
short stories435–6
survivors, fiction by434–40
wartime430–3
Lithuania317, 318
ghettos in208, 345–6, 349
invasion of102
legislation against genocide and Holocaust denial570
mass murders in317
pogroms148–9
Littell, Franklin621–2
Live and Die as Eva Braun (Rosen)472
living space (Lebensraum)70–1, 310–23
in eastern Europe116
expansion of10–11
Germanization of Poland315–16
Germanization of USSR316–21
Ratzel's concept of310–11
Ljubljana87
Łódź (Litzmannstadt) ghetto133, 138, 342, 343
children's games221
deportation of Jews to302
diaries398–9, 400, 401, 402, 406
Gypsies in277
women in labor force212 see also Chelmno
Loesser, Frank480
Lohamei Hageta'ot501–2, 582
Lohse, Heinrich277
Łokacze ghetto348
London, Louise160
London Agreements549
Long Journey, The (Semprun)436
Longerich, Peter129
Lösener, Bernhard130–1
Loshitzky, Yosefa452, 453
Lower, Wendy10–11, 310–23
Lublin ghettos343–4
Luckner, Gertrud239
Ludendorff, Erich65, 70, 72
Ludin, Hanns530
Lueger, Karl33
Lumet, Sidney446
Lupu, Nicolae329
Lustig, Arnost430
Luther, Martin623, 626–7
Lutheran church234
Lutz, Karl163
Luxembourg570
Luxembourg Agreements549, 641
Lwów, Eastern Galicia102, 318
Lydia (survivor)421
Lysenkoism41
Macedonia138, 327, 331
McWilliams, Martha464
Madagascar Plan133, 301
Maglione, Luigi244
Magnis, Gabriele Gräfin239
Mährisch Ostrau132
Main Trusteeship Office East (Haupttreuhandstelle Ost, HTO)545
Majdanek concentration camp218, 358, 366
deportation of Jews to, from France334
evacuation of374
as holding camp for Soviet prisoners367
as killing center371
as memorial498–9
murder of Gypsies in280
Zyklon B as killing agent370–1
Majdanek monument (Tolkin)499
Majdanek trial, Düsseldorf537
Malines transit camp, Belgium335
Maltz, Moshe403–4
(p. 762) Maly Trostinets321
Man Who Cried, The (film)456
Maniu, Iuliu329
Mann, Michael674
Man's Search for Meaning (Frankl)418
Marahrens, August252, 255
March of the Living595
Marr, Wilhelm58
Marrus, Michael242, 245
Marx, Karl643
mass mortality camps373–4
Matteoli Commission553
Matthäus, Jürgen145
Maus (Spiegelman)440, 463, 596
Mauthausen (Zawinul)488
Mauthausen concentration camp365
Measure of Our Days, The (Delbo)434
media237
19th-century57
newspapers25, 32, 513, 514
medicine
as necessary enabling condition for Holocaust4–5 see also eugenics; experimentation, human; racial hygiene
Meierhofer, Marie227
Mein Kampf (Hitler)33, 143, 540–1
land policy311
murder of Jews116
occupation of Germany by Jews72–3
racial policy651
Meiser, Hans252, 254, 255
Meisinger, Josef282
Melchior, Marcus174
Melson, Robert673, 676
memoirs12, 203, 204
camp sisters215
coping strategies214
hiding228
humiliation of Jewish women209
Memorial Garden of Stones, Museum of Jewish Heritage, New York505
“Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe” (Eisenman), Berlin496–7, 497
Memorial to the Victims of Fascism (Bašs)483
memorials and museums14–15, 490–505
Germany492–7
counter-monuments494–6
Israel500–3
Poland497–500
USA503–5
Memory, Responsibility, and the Future Foundation551–2
Mengele, Josef40, 51–2, 243, 465
mentally ill people45–6, 47, 48, 102
mercy killing48
Merkel, Angela660
Merker, Paul637, 644
Metz, Johann Baptist628
Meyer, Konrad314
Michael, Robert627
Michman, Dan8, 185–202
Middle East62, 585–7
Milgram, Stanley670–1
Milhaud, Darius486
Military History Research Office, Freiburg and Potsdam642
military police (Feldgendarmerie)152
Miller, Arthur601–2
Milosevic, Slobodan716
Ministry of Church Affairs255
Ministry of Eastern Territories278
Ministry of Finance, Germany384
Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Germany384
Ministry of Popular Culture, Italy91
Ministry of the Interior, Germany384
Ministry of the Interior, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia300
Minkovski, Eugène177
Minnesota Museum of American Art: Witness and Legacy: Contemporary Art about the Holocaust (exhibition)464
Minsk ghetto321
Mintz, Alan450
Mir ghetto347
Mirroring Evil: Nazi Imagery/Recent Art (exhibition)14, 461, 464–71, 596
artists464
as critique of Israeli policy against Palestinians470
new strategies of representation471–3
and political hostility470–1
postmodern interpretation471
reaction of art critics467–9
reaction of survivors465–7
and war on terror470–1, 475
miscegenation85
Italian measures against89–90, 91
Mischlinge226, 274, 275–6, 383
Mit brennender Sorge (With Burning Concern, encyclical)238
Mittelbau-Dora camp373, 375
Mizrahi Jews603
Mogilev, Belarus136
Molotov, Vyacheslav190
Moltke, Helmuth James Count von258
(p. 763) Monnet, Jean653
Monowitz satellite camp357
“Monument against Fascism” (Gerz and Shalev), Harburg-Hamburg494, 495
monuments479, 596–7
Moore, G. E.690
Morawetz, Oskar485
“More Light! More Light!” (Hecht)439
Morgan, Philip5, 81–93
Morgenthau, Henry, Jr.192, 271
Morley, John F.244
Morse, Arthur158
Moscow Declaration on German Atrocities525
Moses, A. Dirk5, 68–77
Moses S. (survivor)419
Mosse, George624
Motýli tady nezijí (Křivinka)485
Motýli tady nezijí (Reiner)485
Movement for the Care of Children from Germany, UK173
Mszana Dolna ghetto345
Mulisch, Harry437
Müller, Filip567
Müller, Heinrich386
Müller, Jan-Werner18, 650–64
Müller, Ludwig251, 252, 254
Münchener Post281
Munich Conference98
Munich Putsch116
munitions industry357–8
Munson, Steve470–1
Münster war chronicles387, 388
Museum of Jewish Heritage—A Living Memorial to the Holocaust, New York505
music14, 196–7, 478–89
early art music478–81
in ghettoes14, 196
Gypsies and486, 487
and Jewish resistance14
later art music482–6
popular music487–9
Musik für vier Instrumente in memoriam: Lied der Moorsoldaten (Schröder)482
Mussolini, Benito81, 84
and demographic policy85
on race laws88
and racism86
Nama people62, 69
Napoleon Bonaparte59
NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration): Jet Propulsion Laboratory567
National Bank of Switzerland556
National Cultural Chamber542
National Representation of German Jews (Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden)173, 191, 295
National Socialism/National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)4–5, 81
Catholic Church and234–6
Christianity and624–8
definitions of nation and race55
and homosexuality281
and humanity730–1
Jewish policy: phases of7
and New European Order651–3
occupation policy in eastern Europe74–5
and positive Christianity234, 254
and science41–4
National Socialist Movement (NSB), Netherlands83
National Socialist Office for Enlightenment on Population Policy and Racial Welfare130
National Socialist Union of Doctors276
National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Arbejderparti, DNSAP)83
National Zeitung, Basel237
nationalism54–66
in Germany59–61
language as marker of57
as necessary enabling condition for Holocaust5
rise of55–7
naturalistic fallacy690
Natzweiler concentration camp366, 374
Navy League, Germany61–2
Nazi Concentration Camps (documentary film)444
“Nazi Concentration Camps” (film)528
Nazi Party, see National Socialism/National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)
Nazis, The (Uklański )472–3, 472–3
Nedic, Milan333
Neighbors (J. Gross)600
Nelson, Tim Blake455
neo-Nazis: in Chicago601
Nero, Peter485
Netherlands11, 133, 194, 372
Committee for Jewish Refugees171
deportation of Jews335–6
Gypsies in280
(p. 764)
under occupation335–6
plundering of Jews546–7
and refugees171, 173, 175
and restitution/compensation552–3
transit camps335–6, 372, 546
trials530
Netherlands State Institute for War Documentation569
Neubacher, Hermann297
Neue Gesellschaft für Bildende Kunst: Wonderyears (exhibition)469–70
Neuengamme concentration camp366, 375
Neumann, Franz670, 683
Neurath, Konstantin von300
Neusner, Jacob593
“Never Again” (Remedy)488–9
New Deal270
Newmann, Barnett462
“News from the Sky” (Levi)732
newspapers25, 32, 513, 514
Niedernhagen concentration camp366
Niemöller, Martin250, 251–2, 253, 259, 626
Niemöller, Wilhelm258–9
Nietzsche, Friedrich686, 727
Night (Wiesel)417–18, 434, 611, 702
Night and Fog (documentary film)444, 455
Night of the Long Knives119
Night Porter, The (film)451
Nisko: transports of Jews to132
Niv, Kobi454
Nochlin, Linda471
Nono, Luigi484
Noontide Press563
Norden, Albert644–5
North Africa105, 603
Northern Transylvania327, 331
Norway133, 163
under occupation336–7
and restitution/compensation552–3
Not of This Time, Not of This Place (Amichai)439
November Pieces (Zeisl)481
Novick, Peter161, 596
Nowhere in Africa (film)455
NSB (National Socialist Movement), Netherlands83
Nuremberg Laws47, 98, 117, 129, 130–1, 160, 276, 296, 383
Catholic Church and237–8
Nuremberg Principles19–20, 712
Nuremberg Trials524, 527–9, 690, 711, 713–14
American successor trials528–9
“Doctors' Trial”52
Einsatzgruppen trial529
German documents382
punishment527–9
Nurok, Mordechai580
Nussbaum, Felix196
Nyman, Michael486
O, the Chimneys (Ran)486
Obsession (Toporowicz)467–8, 473
Occupations (Kiefer)462
Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants (OSE, Children's Aid Organization)176–7, 228
Ofer, Dalia161
Omaheke desert62
on-lookers7, 156–68
bystander guilt157
European neutrality161–4
Greater German Reich164–6
Nazi-occupied Europe166–7
UK as158–61
USA as158–61
On the Origin of Species (Darwin)58
One Survivor Remembers (G. Klein)598
One Survivor Remembers (documentary film)418
Oneg Shabbat archive196, 401
open ghettos343–4, 344–5, 348
Operation Barbarossa101, 134, 146–7
invasion of Poland as rehearsal for145–6
and starvation of Slavs316–17
Operation Carolt510
Operation Harvest Festival (Erntefest)138, 358, 371
Operation Reinhard218, 315, 545–6
camps370–1
carbon monoxide as killing agent370 see also Belzec; Sobibor; Treblinka
Operation T4, see T4 program
Operation Werwolf316
Ophuls, Marcel530
Oppenheim, Menachem399
Order Police102, 135, 142
and “Final Solution”121–2
and mass murder in east145
Organisation Schmelt360
Organisation Todt373
Orth, Karin11–12, 364–76
Orthodox Church178, 332
OSE (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants, Children's Aid Organization)176–7, 228
(p. 765) L' Osservatore Romano237–8
Ostara (racist publication)115
Ostheer146
Ostpolitik70
Otwock ghetto96–7
Our Hitler (film)450–1
outmarriage61
Oyneg Shabbes project431
Ozick, Cynthia439
Pacelli, Eugenio233, 237: see also Pius XII, Pope
Pagis, Dan437
Palestine105, 198
Arab opposition to Jewish immigration to575–6
and British mandate575–6
emigration of Jews to171–2, 266, 268, 514, 515
illegal emigration of Jews to519
Jewish national home in575
musical works481
Palestine Liberation Organization645
Palfinger, Alexander133–4
Pan-German League35, 71
Pan-Germany Party, Austria33
paper walls162
Papon, Maurice531
Papon trial524
Parsons, William696
partisans101
action against106–7
anti-partisan campaign in southeast Europe142
Gypsies and277
Jewish anthem488
Jews and195–6, 347
Partisans' Song14
Partos, Oedoen481
Passazhirka (Weinberg)484
Pastors' Emergency League251, 252, 257
Patriotic People's Movement (Isänmaallinen kansanliike, IKL), Finland83
Patton, George S., Jr.515
Paul, Randolph271
Paul, St.629
Paulsson, G. Steven166
Pawnbroker, The (film)446, 448, 449, 455
Pawnbroker, The (Wallant)438–9
Paxton, Tom488
Peace of Westphalia (1648)710
Pearlman, Laurie Anne676–7
pedagogy596
Pehle, John W.271
Penderecki, Krzysztof484–5
Penguin UK: Irving's libel suit against570–1
Penkower, M. N.159
Perechodnik, Calel (Calek)96–7, 108, 409
Peretz, Aharon208
Perez, Avner486
Pergament, Moses480–1
Perl, Gisella214
perpetrator motivation143–5
perseverance strategies194–5
Persilscheine260
Peshev, Dimiter332
Pétain, Henri Philippe530
Peters, Carl71
Pforzheim death toll563
Pfundtner, Hans130
Phayer, Michael242–3
phenomenology685
philanthropy595
philo-Judaism623
philosemitism603
philosophers of suspicion680, 685
philosophy683–8, 725–7
Photographic Gallery, London472–3
photographs463, 595
documenting “Final Solution”387, 389–90
physicians: and euthanasia programs49–51
Pianist, The (film)455
Picard, Jacques163
Picasso, Pablo461–2
Pilsudski, Jozef285
Pinochet, Augusto716
Pinsk ghetto349
Piotrków-Trybunalski ghetto341
Pius XI, Pope238, 241
Pius XII, Pope180, 626, 654, 738–9
and communism243
doctrine of supersession242
and European Jews241–5
Plaszow labor camp138
Plath, Sylvia601
Plato690
Playing for Time (Miller)601–2
Ploetz, Alfred45, 47, 58
“Poem about a Herring” (Sutzkever)432
“Poetry in the Future Europe” conference, Weimar652
pogroms102, 131, 138, 148–9, 160, 318, 519: see also Kristallnacht pogrom
Pohl, Oswald365, 369, 371, 372, 374, 529
Poland
antisemitism in27
Germanization of75, 315–16
ghettos in11, 96–7, 119, 123, 137, 194, 341, 343–5
(p. 766)
Gypsies in280
Holocaust education in700
invasion of98, 102, 132, 315
as rehearsal for invasion of USSR145–6
Jews
emancipation of in27
enforced emigration of88
flight of, to USSR173–4
looting of545–8
persecution of189–90
public profile of600
refugees175–6, 180
legislation against genocide and Holocaust denial570
mass murders in100, 105
memorials and museums497–500
nationalization of Polish victims229
Nazi campaign against69
occupation of100
as on-looker166
reparations551
and restitution/compensation552
university students and antisemitism29–30
Volksdeutsche in100, 132, 149, 313, 315
Volkstumskampf (ethnic battle) in146
wartime losses287 see also General Government; Warthegau
Polesje-Prypiat marshland321
police forces
anti-partisan campaign in USSR146–7
Feldgendarmerie (military police)152
Gestapo119, 384
Kripo (criminal police)365
Order Police102, 121–2, 135, 142, 145
and Poland, invasion of146
Secret Field Police152
Security Police (Sipo)142, 365
unification of364–5
Poliker, Yehuda488
Polish Committee of National Liberation498
Polish Flowers (Tuwim)484
Polish State Institute of Mental Hygiene229–30
political science675
politicide676
politics of legal disputation661
politics of regret655–7, 661
Poniatowa camp358, 371
Porajmos (the Devouring)281
Porat, Dina160
Portrait of Anne Frank (Scott)488
Portugal161, 178
Positive Christianity234, 254
Posmysz, Zofia484
Pot, Robert486
poverty: and human rights law718–19
Prada Death Camp (Sachs)465, 465
Prager, Moshe486
precious metals545–6, 549
pregnancy207–8, 219
Presidential Advisory Commission on Holocaust Era Assets, USA555
Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring law (1933)47–8, 276
preventive medicine43
Preysing, Konrad von238, 239, 240, 241, 244
Primo (Sher)418
Primus, Romana Strochlitz615–16
Prinz, Joachim295–6
prisoners of war, Soviet103, 106, 134, 147, 367–8
as forced labor368
Hilfswillige286–7
starvation policy147
problem solvers7, 128–40
motivation of139–40
productionism133–4, 343
Professional Civil Service Law (1933)43–4, 295, 383
propaganda36–7, 296
atrocity propaganda6
Goebbels and97, 103
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia173, 284
“Aryanization” in300
Gypsies in279–80
persecution of Jews299–300
Protestant Church
and “Aryan Jesus”257, 261–2
Bavarian253–4, 261
Hanoverian261
hiding children228
national251
as on-looker9
regional churches (Landeskirchen)251
Reich Bishop251
and rescue of Jews178, 180
Protestants250–62
and antisemitism26
and Jewish Question256–8
Kirchenkampf (church struggle)251–3
war-time attitudes, distortion of258–61
Prussia60
Prussian Secret State Police Office (Gestapa)364
Przekrój (Warsaw illustrated magazine)229
Psycho (film)456
psychology42, 673
(p. 767) psychotherapy42
public health measures43
punishment524–37
East German trials532–3
Israel531–2
Nuremberg527–9
other postwar trials/tribunals529–31
Soviet trials525
US Army trials525–6
West German trials533–7
Quisling, Vidkun336
race: rise of concept56, 57–8
Race Manifesto (1938)90
racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene)39–40, 45, 47
racial imperialism: as necessary enabling condition for Holocaust5
racial passports (Ahnenpässe)383, 384
racial shame (Rassenschande)209
racism61, 82, 86–9
Raczymow, Henri440
Rada Pomocy Żydom (RPZ, Council for Aid to Jews)166, 175–6
Radak (David Kimhi)610
Rademacher, Franz133
Radom District138, 344, 357–8
Ran, Shulamit486
rap music488
rape8, 209–11, 676
Rapid Response Force (RRF), EU718
Rapid Response Force (RRF), UN718
Rapoport, Nathan479, 503
Rappaport, Leon672–3
Rarkowski, Franz240
Rascher, Siegfried51
Rashi (Shlomo Yitzhaki)610
Rassenhygiene (racial hygiene)39–40, 45, 47
Rassenschande (racial shame)209
Ratzel, Friedrich70, 310–11
Rauter, Hanns530
Ravensbrück concentration camp51, 365, 375
Gypsies deported to279
human experimentation at52
Ray, Amy488
Ray, Gene462, 463, 474, 475
“rayze aheyme, Di/The Journey Home” (Klepfisz)439
razzias (dragnet operations)175, 177
Reagan, Ronald601, 642
Rechtman, Eva176
redemptive antisemitism116
Redgrave, Vanessa601
refugees174, 175
children172–3
Great Depression and170–1
USA and271
Reich, Steve487
Reich, Walter469
Reich Central Office for Combating Homosexuality and Abortion282
Reich Citizenship Law: Eleventh Decree544
Reich Flight Tax542, 550, 554
Reich Imperial League34
Reich Interior Ministry: killing of disabled children49
Reich Labor Service296
Reich legal code (1871): Paragraph175: 281, 282
Reich–Vatican Concordat234, 238
Reichenau, Walter von102
Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland299, 304
Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden (National Representation of German Jews)173, 191, 295
Reimann, Aribert486
Reimer, Robert and Carol451
Reiner, Karl485
Reinhardt, Angela226
Reitz, Edgar450
“Rekviem po neubitym” (Galich)487
Relief Agency of the Berlin Chancery (Hilfswerk beim bischöflichen Ordinariat Berlin)239
religious commentaries on scriptures196–7
Remedy (Ross Filler)488
reparations549, 550, 551
Report to the Führer on Combating Partisans (No. 51, December 1942)565
Requiem Ebraico (Zeisl)481
Requiem for the Victims of Nazi Persecution (Kleiberg)486
Requiem für Kaza Kathárinna (G. Rosenfeld)486
rescuers8, 170–81, 351, 482, 738
Beitz361
in Denmak174, 337
false papers for Jews176
at forced labor sites361
hiding Jews175–7, 195, 227–8, 336
pre-war170–3
Schindler, Oskar361, 453
Research Institute for Racial Hygiene and Population Biology276
resistance8, 14, 213, 346–7, 350–1: see also partisans
Resnais, Alain444
restitution (Wiedergutmachung)548–55, 637
other nations551, 552–5
retributive justice716–17
Reuter, Ernst637
revisionism563–4
revolutionary antisemitism33–7
Rhapsody (Spellman)478
Rheinstahl compensation payments551
Ribbentrop, Joachim von332
Ricorda cosa ti hanno fatto in Auschwitz (Nono)484
“Ride ’Em Jewboy” (Friedman)488
Ridout, Godfrey485
Riefenstahl, Leni444
Riga concentration camp372
deportation of Jews to302
and experimental gassing136
Righteous Gentiles258
Righteous Persons Foundation598
Ringelblum, Emanuel190, 196, 204, 221–2
on diaries398, 399
diary of401
on gendered response to persecution of Jews205
on Holocaust literature431
Ringelheim, Joan203
Ritter, Heinz344
Ritter, Robert275–6
road construction schemes: and destruction of Jews through work359
Röhm, Ernst274, 281–2
Röhm Purge236
Roma47, 219
in Auschwitz106, 280, 373
deportation to Transnistria278–9, 327
and human experimentation40
mass murder of101, 102
and music486, 487
and restitution555 see also Gypsies; Sinti
Romania11
deportation of Gypsies to Transnistria278–9, 327
deportation of Jews104, 327, 328–9
ethnic Germans in100
forced emigration of Jews88, 103
ghettos341
Holocaust education in700
Iron Guard82, 86, 88, 328, 330
legislation against genocide and Holocaust denial570
mass murder of Jews138, 327
and restitution/compensation552
university students and antisemitism29–30
Romberg, Hans51
Roosevelt, Eleanor229, 521
Roosevelt, Franklin D.160, 178, 269–71, 509
Rorty, Richard686–7, 689
“Rosa” (Ozick)439
Roschmann, Eduard243
Rosen, Roee464, 470, 472, 474
Rosenberg, Alfred71, 238, 255, 277, 527, 651, 652
and euphemistic genocidal terminology382
justification for “Final Solution”392
and living space policy311, 320
Rosenberg, Hans25
Rosenfeld, Alvin450
Rosenfeld, Gerhard486
Rosenfeld, Oskar406
Rosensaft, Josef (Yossel)512, 513, 517
Rosensaft, Menachem467
Ross, Henryk221
Rossino, Alexander146
Roth, John K.1–20, 722–33, 737–40
Roth, Philip689
Rothenberg, Ellen464
Rothko, Mark462
Rotta, Angelo163, 179
Royal Festival Hall, London: After Auschwitz: Responses to the Holocaust in Contemporary Art (exhibition)464
Royal Prussian Colonization Commission70
RPZ (Rada Pomocy Żydom, Council for Aid to Jews)175–6
RRF (Rapid Response Force), EU718
RRF (Rapid Response Force), UN718
RSHA (Reichssicherheitshauptamt, Reich Security Main Office)119, 144–5, 174, 299
documents384–5, 386
and “Final Solution”122
investigation into533, 536–7
and mass deportations300, 301, 303, 304
RSI (Italian Social Republic)81
Rubenstein, Richard242, 609, 610
Rubin, Agi419, 420–1
Rüdin, Ernst47
Ruether, Rosemary622, 630
Rufeisen, Oswald347
Ruff, Siegfried51
Rumkowski, Mordecai Chaim401
Rummel, R. J.675
Rürup, Reinhard26–7
Russian Empire
antisemitism in24, 27
Bolshevik revolution82–3
(p. 769)
emancipation of Jews in27
Russian Federation
and ICC715
reparations551
Ruzicka, Peter486
Rwandan genocide676–7, 713, 717, 725
SA (Sturmabteilung)118, 281–2, 294–5
Saar region296
Sachs, Nelly486
Sachs, Tom464, 465, 465, 467, 468, 469
Sachsenhausen concentration camp119–20, 276, 365, 375, 532
Saddam Hussein586
St. Francis Waldbreitbach religious community238
St. Josefspflege children's home226
Saliège, Jules-Gérard180, 228
Salomon, Andrée177
Saltz, Jerry472–3
Saltzmann, Lisa464–5
Samoa62
Sánchez, José243–4
Sandomierz ghetto344
Santi Quattro Coronati, Rome245
Santner, Eric450–1
Sanz Briz, Angel164
“sardine-packing”135
satellite camps (Aussenlager)356
satellite states
controlled332–3: see also Croatia; Serbia; Slovakia
opportunistic326–32: see also Bulgaria; Hungary; Romania
Sauckel, Fritz369
Saxton, Libby455
Scandinavian Jews163
Schacht, Hjalmar118
Schechner, Alan464, 466, 467, 470, 474
Schindler, Oskar361, 453
Schindler's List (film)14, 450, 451–3, 455, 456, 596, 702
Schjeldahl, Peter468, 471–2
“Schlaflied für Tanepen” (Biermann)487
Schleunes, Karl129
Schlink, Bernard689
Schlöndorff, Volker451
Schmitt, Carl651
Schmitz, Elisabeth258
Schnock, Frieder495
Schoenberg, Arnold479, 484
Schoenfield, Paul486
Scholars' Conference on the Holocaust and the Churches621
Schön, Waldemar134
Schönerer, Georg von33
Schönhaus, Cioma258
Schreiber, Christian236
Schröder, Hanning482
Schubert, Franz235–6
Schultz, Bruno196
Schultz, Irena176
Schulweis, Harold614
Schumacher, Kurt637–8
Schuman, Robert654
Schumann, Hirst52
Schutzmannschaften (auxiliary police units)135, 150, 152
Schutzstaffel, see SS
Schwartz, Erna226
Schwartz, Joseph J.515
Schwarz-Bart, André438
Schweber, Simone19, 695–704
science39–52
as necessary enabling condition for Holocaust4–5
Scott, Tony488
SD (Sicherheitsdienst, Security Service)119, 131, 193
documents384
Search, The (film)445
Sebald, W. G.440
Sebastian, Mihail400
Séchas, Alain464, 472
Second Vienna Award322
Second World War, see World War II
Secours Suisse aux Enfants (Swiss Relief for Children)180
Secret Field Police152
Secret State Police, see Gestapo
Security Council, United Nations713–14, 717–18
Security Police (Sipo)142, 365 See Under: Love (D. Grossman) 440
self-determination662
Semelin, Jacques675
Semprun, Jorge436
Senator, Ronald485–6
Sendlerowa, Irena176
Senesh, Hannah502
Sephardic Jews105
Serbia135, 278, 284, 333
mass murder of Serbs101
Sergi, Giuseppe86
sermons196–7
(p. 770) settler colonialism11
sexual violence209–11, 676
SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force)509
Shahn, Ben461–2
Shalav-Gerz, Esther463
Shalev, Esther494, 495
Shandler, Jeffrey17, 450, 590–603
Sharf, Andrew158
Shawl, The (Ozick)439
Shawn, Karen696
Shayevitch, Simcha Bunim432
She'erit Hapletah (Surviving Remnant) Convention, Munich516
Shenhabi, Mordechai581, 583
Sher, Anthony418
Shik, Na'ama214–15
Shiloh, Ailon674
Shoah! (Blake)488
Shoah (documentary film)14, 448, 455, 596
Shop on Main Street, The (film)446
Shostakovich, Dmitri483
Sicily105
Sidor, Charles244
Siemens compensation payments551
Sierakowiak, David400
Sieyès, Abbé57
Silence of the Lambs (film)456
Simon Wiesenthal Center, Los Angeles597
sin: and Holocaust608–11
Siniza i Fumo (Akiva)486
Sinti48
children219, 226
and music486, 487 see also Gypsies; Roma
Sipo (Security Police)142, 365
situational antisemitism29
Six Day War586, 593
Sixth Army: defeat of104
Skarzisko-Kamienna plant, Poland357–8
Skarzysko labor camp210, 215
skepticism686
slander laws381
slave labor, see forced labor
slavery56, 57
Slavs65, 274–5, 283–7
assimilation of286
in Italy84
starvation of, in order to feed Germans317
transfer of prisoners to work camps106 see also Bulgaria; Croatia; Czechoslovakia; Poland; Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; Slovakia; USSR
“Sleep My Child” (Vars)487
Slepak, Cecilia212
Slovakia244, 284
antisemitic policies332–3
collaboration446
and Gypsies278, 279
Holocaust education in700
Slovenia87
Small, Fred488
Smith, Roger676
smuggling: children and225
Sobibor death camp50, 106, 280, 334, 336, 370
Social Darwinism58, 85
Social Democratic Party (SPD), Germany61, 281
social sciences667–77
21st-century673–5
effect of Holocaust on18–19
and evil670
postwar668–73
Society for the Support of Germandom in the Eastern Marches70
Society of Friends180
Society of St. Pius X572
sociology673–4
Solkoff, Norman673
Sommer, Karl260
Sommer, Margarete239
Sonderbehandlung (special treatment)564
Sonderkommando R (Special Command Russia)318
Sonderkommandos398, 423
Song for Hope, A (Diamond)486
Song of Terezin (Waxman)485
Song of the Murdered Jewish People, The (Katzenelson)432, 480, 614–15
Songs of Children (Convery)485–6
Sonnenstein euthanasia institution367
Sophie's Choice (film)448
Sorrow and the Pity, The (documentary film)446, 451, 530
Soul of Wood (Lind)428
Sousa Mendes, Aristedes de161, 178
South Africa172, 700
South America172, 192
Southwest Africa62, 69
sovereign immunity710–11
sovereign power: definition of710
Soviet Union, see USSR
Spain163–4, 570
Sparks of Glory (Schoenfield)486
SPE (Stanford Prison Experiment)671–2
Speer, Albert369, 527, 528, 640
Spellman, Leo478
(p. 771) Spicer, Kevin P.9, 233–45
Spiegelman, Art440, 463, 464, 596, 689
Spielberg, Steven451–3, 456, 596, 597–8
Spitz, Ellen Handler464–5
Spoerer, Mark11, 354–62
Sports Palace scandal252
“Spring 5702” (Shayevitch)432
SS (Schutzstaffel)7
anti-partisan campaign in USSR146–7
“Aryan race” research, funding for42
Business Administration Main Office (WVHA)11, 144–5, 369
and Central Office for Jewish Emigration298
Himmler and116–17
and invasion of Poland146
and resettlement of Jews133 see also Einsatzgruppen
stab-in-the-back (Dolchstoß) myth6, 46, 65, 97
Stafford, William732
Stahlecker, Franz Walter148
Stalin, Josef160, 268, 269, 525
Stalingrad: defeat at104
Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE)671–2
Stangl, Franz106, 243
Stanton, Gregory676
Stara Gradiska death camp, Croatia333
Stargardt, Nicholas8–9, 218–30
Stark, Hans566–7
Stark, Johannes42
starvation policy147
Statut des Juifs (Law of the Jews), Vichy France530
Staub, Ervin676–7
Steigmann-Gall, Richard627
Steinmetz, G.70
Steinweis, Alan E.6–7, 113–25, 600
Stevens, George446, 449
Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG368
Stier, Oren Baruch454–5
Stiftungsinitiative der deutschen Wirtschaft (Foundation Initiative of German Business)552
Stih, Renata495
Stoecker, Adolf29
Stoppelenburg, Willem486
Stratton, William G.521
Strauch, Eduard321
Straus, Scott675
Streicher, Julius129, 131, 527, 528
Stroop, Jürgen388
Stroop Report382, 388
student associations59
Sturmabteilung, see SA (Sturmabteilung)
Stuttgart Declaration of Guilt260–1, 620
Stutthof labor camp368,