Abstract and Keywords
Problem solvers who were essential Holocaust protagonists included the killers, who are the focus of this article. The victims of the Holocaust died not only by the thousands in gas chambers and in mass shootings, but also daily in small groups or alone during cold-blooded reprisals or at the whim of soldiers, policemen, and Nazi administrators. The executioners included the various forces of Himmler's SS and police empire, ethnic German and indigenous auxiliaries, and units of the German armed forces. The article sets out the complex dispositional and situational factors that made these organizations so devastating to the regime's putative political, social, and racial enemies.
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