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date: 11 July 2020

(p. 577) Index

(p. 577) Index

Abrams, Frank 227, 235
accountability 335, 397
accreditation 504, 514–16
accumulation regimes 160–6
Ackerman, R. W. 50, 229
Adams, C. A. 399, 404
agency costs 138–9, 142–7, 150
motivation and 147
Agency for Personal Service Overseas (APSO) 397
agency theory 56–7, 59, 138–42, 329–32, 570
compensation question 138–9, 151–3
aggregate measures 207–9
Aguilera, R. V. 348, 458–9
Alien Tort Claim Act 423
Allen, D. B. 140, 467
allocation problem 352–5
market‐based solutions 358–60
stakeholder theory application 355–8
Alsop, R. 514
altruistic motivation 138–9, 142–9
compensated altruism 534–7 see also philanthropy
Amaeshi, K. M. 482
American Express 290
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants 389
Amgen 268
Amos Tuck Business School 511, 516
analytic hierarchy process (AHP) 355
Andrée, P. 442
Angel, James 267
Annan, Kofi 315
anti‐globalism 416
anti‐positivist approach 99
Apparel Industry Partnership 315
Araya, M. 480, 485
Aristotle 70
Arla 285
Armandi, Barry 35
Armour, J. 458
Arrow, Kenneth 61, 139
Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA), UK 390, 401
Association pour le Développement de l'Enseignement et de la Recherche sur la Responsabilité Sociale de l'Entreprise (ADERSE) 9–10
Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation 504, 515
assurance statements 401–4
Atkinson, L. 141, 333
Australian Minerals Industry Code for Environmental Management 398
automotive industry 374
available funds hypothesis 87
Ayres, I. 305
Backhaus, Kristin B. 40
Ball, A. 402
Bansal, P. 463–4
Bansal, T. 574
Barber, Brad 260, 261, 271
Barge, J. K. 189
Barnard, Chester 24
Baron, D. P. 347, 348, 349, 359
Bartkus, B. R. 333
Baskin, J. 477, 485, 486
Bassi, Laurie 272
Bauer, R. A. 229, 270
Bebbington, J. 398
Becker, Brian 272
Bell, D. 162–3
Ben & Jerry's 142, 288
Bendell, J. 440, 487
Benjamin, J. D. 123
Bennett, M. 398
Berle, A. 161
Berman, Shawn 39
best corporate citizen 182
best practices 40–1
Beyond Grey Pinstripes reports 10, 515
(p. 578) Bhattacharya, C. B. 286, 292, 293, 294
Birch, D. 69, 478, 481–2
Blair, Margaret 550
Blair, Tony 454–5
Blood, M. 515
Bloomquist, C. 398
Blowfield, M. 483, 484
board composition and structure 330–4, 339–40
classified boards 335
diversity 333–4, 336
participative boards 340
Boatright, J. R. 178
Body Shop 142, 288, 293, 393
Bollen, Nicolas 270
Bowen, Howard R. 25–6, 50, 200, 304
Bowie, N. E. 86, 179
Bowman, Edward H. 32
box‐score method 114
boycotts see consumer boycotts
BP 394, 455
Brabeck, Peter 273–5
Braithwaite, J. 305
Branzei, O. 460
Brenner, S. N. 355
British American Tobacco 282, 398
Brorson, T. 404
Brown, Gordon 400
Brown, L. D. 439
Brown, Lawrence 271
Brown, M. E. 513
Brown, Tom 292
Brundtland Report 393
Bruyn, S. T. 440
BSO Origin 390
BT 394
Buchholtz, A. K. 333
Burke, James 241
Burke, L. 57
Burkholder, J. R. 253–4
Burrell, G. 98
business case for CSR 84–106, 138, 158–60, 281–2, 426, 570
assumed nature of system interactions 95
central actor role for business 94–5
competitive advantage 88–9, 93–6, 101
contradictions between social and business concerns 184–6
cost and risk reduction 87–8, 93–6, 101
critiques 97–100
developing countries 486–7
dominant logic frame 96
legitimacy 90–1, 93–6, 101
level of theorizing 95
ontological and epistemological stance 96–7
recommendations 103–5
reputation 90–1, 93–6, 101, 118–19
synergistic value creation 91–2, 93–7, 101 see also compensation; corporate financial performance (CFP)
business ethics 36, 158, 507, 526–7
adoption of formal ethics programs 214–15
developing countries 491–2
education 510–14
Business for Social Responsibility (BSR) 38, 85, 282
Business in the Community (BITC) 314
Business Leaders' Initiative on Human Rights 425
Business Leaders' Roundtable, Australia 313
business risk
corporate citizenship and 117
global risks 418–19
risk reduction 87–8, 93–6, 101, 121–2
business‐government‐society (BSG) relations 306–7 see also government responsibilities
Cadbury Committee standards 338
CalPERS (California Public Employees' Retirement System) 260
Calvert Social Index 261
Camejo, Peter 267
capital 161–2, 163, 165
capitalism 161–2, 164, 168–9
managerial capitalism 175
Carroll, Archie B. 33–4, 35, 40, 51, 54, 68–9, 87, 94, 201–2, 230, 232, 488–9
Carson, T. L. 65
Casciaro, T. 373
category lumping 207–9
cause‐related marketing 90, 290
Caylor, Marcus 271
CEO duality 332
Chandler, A. D. 175
Chapple, W. 456, 478, 481, 485, 486
Chikudate, N. 237
Chiquita 566
Christian investors 253–4
Christmann, P. 466
circulation of power theory 331
citizenship 70–1 see also corporate citizenship
civil regulation 440
civil society 166, 439–40
creation of 166–8
Clark, J. M. 24
(p. 579) Clark, R. C. 337
classified boards 335
Clean Clothes Campaign 368
Clemens, E. S. 438
climate change 318–19, 435
Clinton Forest Plan 186
Co‐op Food 289
Co‐operative Bank 287, 288–9, 393
Coalition for Environmentally Responsive Economies (CERES) 394
Cochran, Philip 35, 51, 230
codes of conduct 441, 486
in supply chain management 376
international 314–15, 365
coercion 138–9, 142–9, 212
Coff, R. 210
Coffee, John 545
Coffey, B. S. 333
Cogman, D. 160, 166
Cohen, Mark 270
Commission on International Investment and Transnational Corporations 311
Committee for Economic Development (CED) 29, 50, 94, 227
commodity fetishism 159
communication, stakeholders 187–90
Community Chest movement 22–3, 26
community investment 250
community lending 250
comparative studies 453–4
cross‐national comparisons 459–67
consumer attitudes 464–5
top management team attitudes 460–4
transatlantic comparisons 543–50
implications of 457–9
institutional analysis 456–7
legal analysis 454–6
compensation 138–9, 151–3
compensated altruism 534–7 see also business case for CSR
competitive advantage 88–9, 93–6, 101
complexity 103–4
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) 388
compromise 166–7
compulsory CSR 349
concept
definition 198
evaluation 198–9
Conference Board 215
Conley, J. 458–9
Connelly, J. T. 486
consent 178–9
construct validity 116
consumer boycotts 283–5, 295–7, 368 see also ethical consumerism
contested governance 442–5
contradictions between social and business concerns 184–6
Cook, J. M. 438
Corbett, Jack 254
Cording, M. 465
core competencies 354–5
corporate attunement 238–40
corporate citizenship (CC) 37, 48, 68–75, 115–16, 507, 527–8, 570
attractiveness as employer and 120–1
business risk reduction 121–2
conceptual bases 70–3
corporate financial performance relationship 115–26
causal mechanisms 117–23
confounding variables 124–6
historical background 69–70
internal skills and resources and 119–20
reputation enhancement 118–19
rival's costs and 120
sales revenues and 121
strengths and weaknesses 73–5 see also corporate social performance (CSP)
corporate contributions 23–4 see also philanthropy
corporate democracy 334–6
corporate financial performance (CFP) 116, 203, 435
board composition and 331
corporate social performance relationships 84, 98, 113–29
causal mechanisms 117–23
confounding variables 124–6 see also business case for CSR; compensation
corporate governance 327–41
board composition and structure 330–4, 339–40
comparative studies 457–9
transatlantic comparisons 543–50
corporate democracy 334–6
future directions 339–41
global governance 437–9
international governance 337–9
journals 8
legislation 337–9
underlying assumptions about managers 329–30 see also governance
(p. 580) Corporate Governance Forum of Japan 339
Corporate Leaders on Climate Change 318–19
corporate neglect 236–8, 239–40
corporate philanthropy see philanthropy
corporate responsiveness 50 see also corporate social responsiveness
corporate social performance (CSP) 49–55, 204–5, 570
conceptual bases 52–4
contingency theory of 39
corporate financial performance (CFP) relationships 84, 98, 113–29
causal mechanisms 117–23
confounding variables 124–6
definition 115
extension of concept 205–10
history 31, 35, 39–40, 50–1
screens 205–6
strengths and weaknesses 54–5
under‐inclusiveness 206–7 see also corporate citizenship (CC)
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 3–5, 201–3, 533–4
allocation problem 352–5
market‐based solutions 358–60
stakeholder theory application 355–8
as field of scholarship 6, 7–10
awards 182–3
best practices 40–1
business case for 84–106, 138, 158–60, 281–2, 426, 570
comparative studies 453–67
conceptual analysis 200–1
conceptual annexes 216
conceptually epiphenomenal nature 210–15
CSR‐corporate ability beliefs 293
eras of 100–3
ethico‐political case for 158
expenditures 142–50
explicit versus implicit 458
extension of concept 203–10
global CSR 41, 314–17
prospects 528–9
history 19–42, 524–8
ideology critique and 177–84
institutionalization of 7–10
intension of concept 201–3
journals 7–9
justification for 350–2
managerial approach 34
meaning of 522–4
motivations 142–50, 347–8, 569–70, 571
operationalization of 35
quantification 261–7
theories 47–9
value holarchy 102
voluntary versus compulsory CSR 349 see also drivers of CSR
corporate social responsiveness 31, 35–6, 229, 525–6
CorporateRegister.com 401
corporations 543–4
Correa, M. E. 479–80
costs
agency costs 138–9, 142–7, 150
increasing rivals' costs 120
reduction of 87–8, 93–6, 101
Council on Economic Priorities 243
country of origin effect 466
Crane, A. 70, 72–5, 159, 201, 484, 488, 490, 491
crisis response 484–5
critical communication theory 184
critical theory 173–91
communication theories 188–90
how values enter decisions 175–7
ideology critique and CSR 177–84
process‐oriented critical perspective 184–7
Cuesta González, M. 456–7
cultural tradition, developing countries 480–2
Cutler, C. A. 441
Dacin, Peter 292
Dauvergne, P. 437
D'Aveni, R. A. 332
Davies, Graeme 259
Davis, I. 160, 169
Davis, K. 6, 27, 30, 52, 55, 69, 90, 228, 235
de Bakker, F. G. A. 6, 204
De Beers 424
de Jong, G. 187
De Oliveira, J. A. P. 479, 482
decision making, role of values 175–7
Deegan, C. 398
Deleuze, G. 167
democracy 420–1, 422
corporate 334–6
democratic governance 439–40
deregulation 434
Derwall, Jeroen 270, 272
Deutsches Netzwerk Wirtschaftsethik (DNWE) 9
developing countries 473–92
crisis response 484–5
CSR literature classification 475–6
CSR pyramid 488–92 (p. 581)
economic responsibilities 489–90
ethical responsibilities 491–2
legal responsibilities 491
philanthropic responsibilities 490
definition 473–4
drivers of CSR 480–8
global CSR analysis 476–7
governance gaps 483–4
international standardization 485–6
investment incentives 486–7
market access 485
political reform 482
regional CSR analysis 477–80
socio‐economic priorities 482–3
stakeholder activism 487
supply chain 488
Devinney, Timothy 294
dialogue 166–7
DiBartolomeo, Dan 271
direction of fit 199
disclosure see reporting
discourse of suspicion 174
discretionary CSR 349
allocation problem 352–5
market‐based solutions 358–60
stakeholder theory application 355–8
distributive justice 64–5
Dixon, Frank 275–6
Doh, J. P. 438, 456, 459
Domini 400 Social Index (DSI) 205–6, 258, 263, 271
Donaldson, T. 63, 64–5, 352, 353, 354, 461, 467, 527
Dow Chemicals 284
drivers of CSR 572–3
consumers 283–99 see also ethical consumerism
developing countries 480–8
government 312–14, 573
managers 227–45, 572–3
Drucker, Peter 57
Dunfee, T. W. 86, 352, 354, 461, 467, 527
Eberstadt, Nicholas 23, 24
Eco‐Management and Audit Scheme (EMAC) 365
ecological responsiveness 464
ecological sustainability 180–1 see also sustainability
economic developments 417–18
economic responsibilities, developing countries 489–90
economic responsibility theory 48
economics 509–10
economizing conceptual framework 211
ecosystem management 186
Edmans, Alex 272
education 510–14 see also management education
Eels, Richard 30–1, 54–5
Egan, D. 441
Egri, C. P. 463
Eilbirt, Henry 32–3, 69
Elkington, J. 394
emerging markets 427 see also developing countries
empathy 556
empirical inquiry 99
employees
concern for 20–2
corporate citizenship influence on 120–1
socially responsible investment performance and 272
enlightened stakeholder theory 350
enlightened value maximization 57, 88
Enron 183, 340
environmental issues 180, 366, 434–5
journals 8
regulation 367
supply chain management 367, 375–6 see also sustainability
environmental reporting 392–3
Epstein, Edwin M. 36, 228
Ernst & Ernst 387
Erusalimsky, A. 395, 396
essentially contested concepts 202
ethical branding 288–9
ethical consumerism 283, 285–7, 297–9, 368–9, 572
consumer boycotts 283–5, 295–7
cross‐national comparisons 464–5
marketer responses 288–90
negative ethical consumerism 291, 294–7
positive ethical consumerism 291–4
ethical responsibility theory 48
ethical supply chain management (ESCM) 365, 377–9, 572
determinants of successful implementation 371–2
environmental and social performance and 375–6
(p. 582)
managerial constraints 377
power‐dependency theory and 372–7
stakeholder preferences and 366–71
consumer stakeholders 368–9
financial stakeholders 369–70
implications 370–1
legislative/regulatory stakeholders 366–7
Ethical Trading Initiative 181, 315
ethico‐political case for CSR 158
ethics see business ethics
Ethics Officer Association 38
ethics programs 214–15
Etzioni, A. 68
European Academy of Business in Society (EABiS) 9
European Alliance for Corporate Social Responsibility 317, 508
European Business Ethics Network (EBEN) 9, 10
European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC), Responsible Care Programme 390
European Commission 316–17, 507–8
Eurosif 252
Evan, W. M. 63
Evans, R. 404
excellence, focus on 265–7
exchange value 159
exit 257–8
explanandum 199
explanans 199
explicit CSR 458
extensional definition 198–9
external control 242–4
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITE) 314, 455, 492
Exxon Mobil 285, 424, 485, 566
failed states 319
Fair Labor Association 243, 314, 435
Fairtrade 287, 289, 290, 315, 368
Falk, R. A. 440
Fama, Eugene 269
Fedderson, T. 574
Federation des Experts Comptables Européens (FEE) 390, 402
Ferris, S. P. 141
fiduciary agency 512
fiduciary capitalism see shareholder value theory (SVT)
fiduciary responsibility 509
file drawer analysis 116
Financial Accounting Standards Board 389
financial bubbles 564–5
Finkelstein, S. 332
fiscal crisis 163
Florini, A. M. 440
Fombrun, C. 73–4
Fong, C. T. 505–6
fordism 160–3, 169
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 423
Forest Stewardship Council 427, 488
Forester, J. 189
forums 187–8
Fouts, P. A. 124
Frederick, William C. 26, 27, 54, 104, 229, 232, 239
free‐range egg sales 287, 288
free‐rider theorem 565
Freeman, R. Edward 36, 54, 62–5, 67
French, Ken 269
Frenkel, S. J. 365, 372
Friedman, Milton 6, 30, 55–60, 87, 137–42, 157, 159, 202, 284, 295, 304–5
agency theory and 140–2
Friends of the Earth 310
Frynas, J. G. 481, 483, 484
Fukukawa, K. 461
Galaskiewicz, J. 141, 333
Gao, J. 574
Gardberg, N. A. 73–4
Garrett, Dennis 295
Garriga, E. 48, 94
Geczy, Christopher 270
General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 416–17
Gentile, M. C. 513
gentrification 164
Ghoshal, S. 505–6
Gibb, Blair 286
Gill, S. 439
Gilligan, T. 574
Gioia, D. A. 68, 104
Global Business Citizenship (GBC) 70, 71, 72
strengths and weaknesses 73, 74
global climate change 318–19, 435
Global Compact 51, 75, 315, 367, 438, 508
Global Corporate Governance Forum 338
global CSR 314–17
Global Environmental Organization 435
global governance 437–9
Global Initiative Report (GIR) 51
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) project 462–3
Global Reporting Initiative 181, 365, 367, 394–5, 402, 438–9
developing countries 477
(p. 583) globalism 416
globalization 164, 413–27, 527, 565
causes of 416
citizenship and 70, 72
corporate behavior and 424–5
definition 415–16
dimensions of 416–19
governance deficits and 309–11, 423–4, 434
postnational constellation 422–4
race to the bottom effect 422–3
regulatory vacuum effect 423–4 see also multinational corporations (MNCs)
Goldschmid, Harvey 258
Gompers, Paul 271
Gonella, C. 396
Goodstein, J. 213
Gordon Growth Model 277
governance 271, 433
contested governance 442–5
deficits 307–11, 573
developing countries 483–4
domestic 307–9
globalization and 309–11, 423–4, 434
democratic governance 439–40
global 437–9
privatized governance 440–2 see also corporate governance
government policy 176
for global CSR 314–17
supply chain management and 367
government responsibilities
dichotomous view of 304–5
embedded view of 305–7
government‐CSR balance 317–19 see also government policy
Goyal, A. 486–7
Gramsci, Antonio 444–5, 446
Granovetter, M. 305
Graves, S. B. 123, 267, 333
Gray, R. H. 391, 395
green certification 367
Green, K. 376
Greening, D. W. 329, 332
Greenpeace 157, 284, 368
Grey, Ed 23
Griffin, Jennifer. J 39, 203, 208
Guay, T. R. 438, 456, 459
Guenster, Nadja 272
Haas, P. M. 439
Habermas, J. 184, 188, 422
Haire, Mason 32
Hall, J. 364
Hamann, R. 484
Handelman, Jay 296
Handy, C. 61, 66
Hart, S. L. 358–9
Hawken, Paul 262
Hawley, James 259, 260, 261
Hay, Robert 23
Heald, Morrell 22–3, 26, 28
Hegel, G. W. F. 548
Hendrick, T. E. 375
Hillman, A. J. 213
Hirschman, Albert 257, 260
Holmes, Sandra 32, 33
Hong, Harrison 270
Hosseini, J. C. 355
Howard, John 313
HP 185
human rights 71–2, 75
UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights 75
Hummels, H. 68
Huselid, Mark 272
Husted, B. 39, 140, 349, 350, 359, 467
hypernorms 461
Ibrahim, N. I. A. 333
ideology 175, 178
implicit CSR 458
Individual Principle 53–4
information asymmetry 573–4
Innocent 288
innovation 125–6
institutional collectivism 462–3
institutional ownership 333
Institutional Principle 52
institutions 538
comparative studies 456–7, 546
integration dilemma 99
integrative capacity 104–5
integrative social contracts theory 71–2, 352
integrity 242, 556
intensional definition 198–9
interdependence 373, 374, 513
Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility (ICCR) 254
core values 255
internal control 244–5
International Accounting Standards 338
(p. 584) International Association for Business and Society (IABS) 9
International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board 402
International Business Leaders Forum 282
International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) 435
international codes of conduct 314–15, 365
International Corporate Governance Network (ICGN) 338
international governance 337–9
International Labor Organization (ILO) 311, 316, 365
Conventions on the Fundamental Rights of Workers 423
international law 434
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 165
International Society for Business, Ethics and Economics (ISBEE) 9
international standardization 485–6
International Standards Organization (ISO) 508
International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) 310
Internet 417, 425
investment incentives, developing countries 486–7
iron law of responsibility 90
Isaacs, W. 189
issues management 50
`It Concerns Us All' campaign 313
Jensen, M. C. 57, 60, 350
Jesperson, Karen 313
Jobs, Steve 506
Johnson & Johnson 241
Johnson, Harold 28–9
Johnson, Kyle 258
Johnson, R. A. 329, 332
Johnson, R. B. 332
Jones, Ray 40
Jones, T. 34–5, 50–1, 209, 228
Joo, T. W. 333, 336
journals 7–9
just‐in‐time (JIT) supply 365, 371, 375
justification for CSR 97
grounds for 99–100
level of 98
logic of 98–9
Kacperczyk, Marcin 270
Kamp‐Roelands, N. 401–2
Kant, I. 199
Kauffman, Stuart 104
Keck, M. E. 440
Kelly, Marjorie 268
Kerr, J. 185
Kesner, I. E. 332
Keynes, J. M. 161, 509–10
Kinder, Peter 251
King Reports on Corporate Governance in South Africa 491
KLD Research & Analytics, Inc. 205–6, 207–8, 266, 271
Select Social Index 264–5
Klein, Jill 296–7
Klonoski, R. J. 47–8
Knight, Phil 293
Knill, C. 310
Koedijk, Kees 270
Kohlberg, L. 241–2
Kolk, A. 465–6
Kotler, Philip 40–1
Kozinets, Robert 296
KPMG surveys 385, 394, 395
Krep, Theodore 24
Kurtz, Lloyd 271
Kyoto Protocol 437–8
Laffer, Arthur 268
Laffont, J.‐J. 140, 147, 151
Lange, J. 189–90
Larringa‐Gonzalez, C. 395
Latin America 479–80 see also developing countries
leadership 231–42, 506
cross‐national comparisons 460
formal organizations 232–4
informal organizations 234–5
of CSR 235–42
spiritual‐based leadership 532–58 see also managers; moral leadership
Leahy, Terry 290
Lee, Nancy 40–1
legislation 337–9
comparative studies 454–6
developing countries 491
international law 434
supply chain management 367–8
legitimacy 52, 166–8, 230, 420, 438
business case for CSR 90–1, 93–6, 101
legitimation strategies 178–9
multinational corporations 436
legitimacy theory 391
legitimizing conceptual framework 211–12, 215
Lehmkuhi, D. 310
Levitt, Theodor 56
(p. 585) Levy, D. L. 436, 441
liberal communists 167–8
liberal democracy 420–1, 422
licence to operate 90
Liedtka, J. 54, 62
Limpaphayom, P. 486
Lipschutz, R. 310
literature review 114
Little, M. 189
Littlejohn, S. 189
local norms 461
Locke, John 58, 546, 547, 548
Lockett, A. 6, 475–6
Logsdon, J. M. 57, 69–72, 74, 481
loyalty 258
Lucas‐Leclin, Valery 271
Luck, Christopher 271
Lund‐Thomsen, P. 487
Luoma, P. 213
Lyndenberg, Steven D. 42, 256–7
McDonough, William 328
Macintosh, A. 481
Mackenzie, Craig 254
Mackey, A. 538, 539, 541
McWilliams, A. 120, 124, 125, 267, 268, 347, 350–1, 359, 452
Mahon, J. 203, 208
Mahoney, J. T. 351, 353
Maignan, I. 462, 464–5
management 504–6
responsible management 503
top management preferences 532–41
compensated altruism 534–7
costly philanthropy 537–9
implications 540–1 see also managers
management education 503–17
accreditation 514–16
management 504–6
responsibility 507–10
managerial capitalism 175
managerial capture 397–8
managerial hegemony 330
managers
as CSR drivers 227–45, 572–3
cross‐national comparison of attitudes 460–4
fiduciary duty of 67–8
moral leadership 231–5, 241–5
role in business and society research 228–31
underlying assumptions about 329–30 see also leadership; management
mandatory CSR 349
MaNGOs (market‐oriented non‐governmental organizations) 182, 183
Marcoux, A. M. 67
Marcuse, H. 180
Marine Stewardship Council 427, 488
market 159, 360, 421
market access 485
market liberalism 443
market‐based allocation 358–60
Marks & Spencer 289, 290, 308
Marshall, Alfred 510
Martimort, D. 140, 147, 151
Marx, K. 159, 168, 546, 548
Matten, D. 70, 72–5, 159, 201, 458, 483, 484, 488, 490, 491, 512, 545
Maunders, K. T. 391
MAW classification 356–7
Means, G. C. 161
Meek, G. 466
Melé, D. 48, 94
Merck 351
meta‐analysis 114–15
corporate social performance‐financial performance relationship 116–29
Meyers Pride fund 265–6
microfinance 250
Miliband, David 313
Mill, James 547
Minow, N. 331
Mintzberg, H. 334, 506
Mitchell, R. K. 213, 353, 356
Moerman, L. 398–9
Monks, Robert 259, 331
Montgomery bus boycott 284
Moon, J. 41, 69, 70, 74, 456, 458, 461, 478, 481–2, 483–4, 485, 486, 512, 545
moral character education 512–14
moral hazard 144–7
moral leadership 231–5, 242
attributes 241–2
external control 242–4
internal control 244–5
Morgan, G. 98
Moskowitz, Milton 267
motivations for CSR 142–50, 347–8, 569–70, 571
Muirhead, Sophia 23, 28
Muller, Jerry. Z. 256
multinational corporations (MNCs) 418, 433–6
cross‐national behavior comparisons 466–7
impact of 433–4
international governance 337–9
governance deficit 310, 423–4, 434
(p. 586)
international supply chain management 364–5, 376, 377 see also ethical supply chain management (ESCM)
legitimacy 436
OECD guidelines 181
regulation 310–11 see also globalization
Müntefering, Franz 167
Murphy, D. F. 440
Murphy, Patrick 24–5
Murrell, Audrey J. 40
National Health Service, UK 367
National Network of Company Leaders 313
natural resource based view 8
Navarro, P. 141
negative extensionality 205–6
Nelson, J. A. 481
neoliberalism 443
Nesbitt, Stephen 260
Nestlé Corporation 240–1, 243, 442
networks
sustainable local enterprise 91
value‐based 91
Neubaum, D. O. 328–9, 333
New deal 161
New Economics Foundation (NEF) 399
New Right 165–6
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) CG Rules 337
Newell, P. 310, 311, 484, 487
Nichols, T. 160, 168
Nietzsche, F. 167
Nike 293, 364, 368, 436, 464
non‐governmental organizations (NGOs) 310, 370, 444
influence of 425, 436, 439–40
on reporting practices 398, 400
MaNGOs (market‐oriented NGOs) 182, 183
normative inquiry 99
normative myopia 235, 236–8
normative receptivity 235, 238–9
normative theory 199, 201
O'Bannon, D. P. 84
O'Brien, D. 463
O'Connor, J. 163
O'Dwyer, B. 397, 403, 404
Oppenheim, J. M. 160, 166
Organization for Economic Co‐operation and Development (OECD) 41, 311
Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises 181, 315, 338, 367
organization size 126
organizational decision making, role of values 175–7
Organizational Principle 52–3
organizational reputation see reputation
Orlitzky, M. 84, 116–17, 119, 123–4, 128, 203
Orpen, C. 461–2
Ougaard, M. 434, 441, 442
outcome fetishism 209–10
Owen, D. L. 391, 403, 404
ownership 259, 333
Oxfam 368
ozone depletion 442
Palazzo, G. 352
Paolillo, J. G. 460
Park, J. 404
Parket, Robert I. 32–3, 69
Parks, Rosa 284
participation 185
critical models of 186–7
stakeholder communication models 187–90
participative boards 340
paternalism 22
Patterson, John H. 21
Pax World 254
Pearce, J. A. 340
Pearce, W. B. 189
pension funds 315–16, 369, 455, 458
Pfau, Bruce 272
Pfeffer, J. 505–6
philanthropy 141, 332–3, 509, 524–5
developing countries 490
history 21–4, 26, 28, 37–8
senior management preferences 537–9
Phillips, R. 67, 328
philosophical skepticism 513–14
Pilling, A. 396
Piskorski, M. J. 373
pluralism 98, 166–7, 544
Polanyi, Karl 305, 443–4
polarization 164–5
political reform, developing countries 482
politization of corporations 426–7
Porter, M. 89, 359
positive screening 250
positive synergy 91
positive theory 199, 212–15
positivist approach 99
Post, James 31–2, 50, 52–3
post‐fordism 160–1, 164
(p. 587) postnational constellation 422–4
power distance 462–3
power‐dependency theory 372–7
power‐responsibility equation 52
PowerShares Wilder Hill Clean Energy Portfolio 266
Pragmatic Multiplier model 277
pragmatist approach 99–100, 105
prescription 212
Preston, L. 31–2, 50, 52–3, 63, 64–5, 84, 353
Principle of Corporate Effects 64
Principle of Corporate Rights 64
Principle of Legitimacy 52
Principle of Managerial Discretion 53–4
Principle of Public Responsibility 52–3
Principles of Stakeholder Management 64, 65–6
private regime 441
privatization 434
of governance 440–2
production 160–1
profit 159–60
crisis of profitability 163
property rights 58, 59, 61
distributive justice and 64–5
proxy voting 334
psychometric meta‐analysis 114
public policy see government policy
public responsibility 31–2, 50–1, 52–3
Pullman experiment 22
Pullman, George M. 22
pyramid of CSR 34, 35, 349–50
developing countries 488–92
Quazi, A. M. 463
R. H. Macy Company 22
Ralston, D. 462
Ray, D. M. 336
Ray, G. 209
receptivity 238
normative 235, 238–9
(RED) brand 290, 291
Reebok 364–5
Reed, D. 63
regime theory 437
regulation
civil regulation 440
deregulation 434
environmental 367
global firms 309–11
mandatory CSR 349
regulatory deficits 307–11, 573
domestic 307–9
globalization and 309–11, 423–4, 434
Reich, Robert 311
reification 178
relative weighting 263–5
reliability 207
religious investors 253–4
reporting 181, 316, 384–405, 573
academic debate 390–6
cross‐national comparisons 465–6
developing countries 477, 480
development of 386–90
Global Reporting Initiative 181, 365, 367, 394–5, 402, 438–9
international reporting practice 385 see also sustainability reporting
reputation 90–1, 93–6, 101, 397
enhancement with corporate citizenship 118–19
research and development (R&D) 125
socially responsible investment performance and 267–8
resource dependency 349, 373
responsibility 229–30, 231, 507–10, 513, 553–4
definition 554
education 507–14
of organizations 554–5
reasons for 555–7
responsible management 503
responsiveness 229–30, 231
Reynolds, S. J. 356
risk reduction 87–8, 93–6, 101, 397
corporate citizenship and 117, 121–2 see also business risk
Rivoli, Pietra 257, 267
Roberts, C. B. 388
Rockefeller, John D. 21
Rockefeller, Steven 558
Rodríguez, P. 452
Rosenau, J. N. 437
Roth, K. 463–4
Round Table on Corporate Codes of Conduct, Germany 315
Roundtable Principles 75
Rousseau, Jean‐Jacques 546, 548
Rowley, T. 39, 356
Royal NIVRA, Netherlands 404
Russo, M. V. 124
Ryan, L. V. 329
Rynes, S. L. 116, 123, 128
Salazar, J. 349, 350, 359
Samuelson, J. F. 513
(p. 588) Samuelson, Paul 30, 57
Sanborn, C. 481
Sarbanes‐Oxley (SOX) Act 2002 (US) 243, 337, 423
Saro Wiwa, Ken 419
Saturn 185
Sbn Bank, Denmark 393–4
Schein, E. H. 234
Scherer, A. 352
Schmidheiny, S. 483
Schmidt, F. L. 116, 123, 128
Schneider, M. 329
Schuler, D. A. 465
Schwartz, Mark S. 40, 51
Schwartz, Peter 286
Scott, D. 372
screening 205–6, 250
positive 250
stepwise 262–3
Scruton, Roger 529
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) 388–9
Sen, Sankar 286, 292, 293, 294, 296
Senge, P. M. 189
Sethi, S. Prakash 31, 50, 54, 230
Shamir, R. 182, 436
shareholder value theory (SVT) 55–62, 509
conceptual bases 58–60
historical background 56–7
strengths and weaknesses 60–2
shareholders 341
activism 250
primacy 101, 102, 329
Shreve, Richard S. 514
Siegel, D. 124, 125, 267, 268, 347, 350–1, 359
Sikkink, K. 440
sin stocks 250
Singhapakdi, A. 465
SIRAN 266
Skilling, Jeffrey 507
slack resources theory 87
small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) 527, 529
Smith, Adam 58, 61, 255–7, 546–7, 548
Smith, N. 71, 283–4, 295
Smith, Wanda J. 40
Sobszak, A. 370
Social Accountability 8000 standard 181
Social Audit Ltd. 387, 388, 405
social auditing 181, 573 see also reporting
social cause‐related marketing 90–1
social construction of reality 96
social contract 29, 352, 544
integrative social contracts theory 71–2, 352
social disclosure see reporting
social impact hypothesis 90
social integration 101
Social Investment Forum 252 see also socially responsible investment (SRI)
Social Issues in Management (SIM) Division, Academy of Management 9
social issues management 230
social market economy 546
social network theory 331
social reporting see reporting
social responsibility (SR) 19–20, 25, 140, 523, 533
definition 25, 27–30, 261–7
social responsiveness 50 see also corporate social responsiveness
social venture capital 250
socially responsible buying see ethical consumerism
socially responsible investment (SRI) 4, 90, 181–2, 249–76, 369–70, 570
critiques 272–6
definition 250
developing countries 486–7
performance 267–72
rationale for 253–61
significance of 251–3
types of social investors 251
societal learning 91
Society for Business Ethics (SBE) 9
socio‐cultural developments 417
socio‐economic priorities, developing countries 482–3
Solomon, C. R. 71
Southwest Airlines 185
Spence, C. 395
Spicer, A. 461
Spicer, Michael 483
spiritual‐based leadership 532–58
spirituality 557
staff see employees
stakeholder management 88, 101, 102, 425–6, 508, 570–1
stakeholder theory 36, 62–8, 353, 366
allocation strategy and 352–8
categories 356–7
(p. 589)
conceptual bases 64–6
definition 63
enlightened stakeholder theory 350
strengths and weaknesses 66–8
stakeholders 64, 179, 341, 353–5
activism, developing countries 487
appointment of stakeholder directors 213–14
communication models 187–90
definition of 353–5
ethical supply chain management and 366–71
consumer stakeholders 368–9
financial stakeholders 369–70
implications 370–1
legislative/regulatory stakeholders 366–7
inclusion in strategy‐making 89
participation 185, 186–7
Principles of Stakeholder Management 64, 65–6 see also shareholders; stakeholder management; stakeholder theory
standards 181, 441, 454
adoption of 438–9
assurance standards 402, 404, 488
in trade agreements 311
International Accounting Standards 338
international corporate governance 338–9
international standardization 485–6
Starbucks 282, 436, 442
state‐owned organizations (SOEs), China 374
Steiner, George 29–30
Steinway 21–2
stepwise screening 262–3
Sternberg, E. 58, 67
Stevens, J. 214
stewardship theory 330, 331, 340, 524–5
stock ownership 333
Stonyfield Farm 288
Stout, Lynn 550
Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility (SCSR) 57
strategic motivation 139, 143–50
Strike, V. M. 467, 574
Superfund 388
supply and demand theory 89
supply chain management 363–79
developing countries 488
international supply chains 364–5 see also ethical supply chain management (ESCM)
sustainability 37, 86, 180–1, 393, 528
journals 8
sustainability assurance practice 401–4
sustainability reporting 393–401, 405
cross‐national comparisons 465–6
developing countries 477, 480
mandatory 400
sustainable local enterprise networks 91
Swanson, C. 98
Swanson, D. L. 51, 231, 233, 235, 236
sweatshop labor 164
Swift, T. A. 397
synergistic value creation 91–2, 93–7, 101
takeovers 336
Taylor, G. 466
technological developments 417
technological power 442
Teegen, H. 439
telecommunications 417
tenders 336
Tesco 289, 290
Thomson, I. 398
tobacco stocks 270
top management teams (TMT) see managers
Total Corporate Responsibility (TCR) 276
total quality control (TQC) 365, 371, 375
Toxic Release Inventory 389
Toyota Prius 288
trade agreements 311
trade‐off hypothesis 87
Traidcraft 393
transatlantic comparisons 543–50 see also comparative studies
transnational corporations see multinational corporations (MNCs)
transparency 351–2
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITE) 314–15 see also reporting
Transparency International 491
Treviño, L. K. 513
triple bottom line reporting 394, 466, 556
trusteeship 524–5
history 23, 26
Tuck, Edward 511 see also Amos Tuck Business School
Tuzzolino, Frank 35
Tyson, Luther 254
uncertainty 212
Unerman, J. 398
unitary view 98
United Fruits Company 566
(p. 590) United Nations (UN)
Commission on Environment and Development 311
Convention on Human Rights 423
Development Program 474
Environment Programme (UNEP) 390, 435
Global Compact 51, 75, 315, 367, 438, 508
Principles of Responsible Investment 338
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 75, 556
United States Sentencing Commission (USSC) 215
United Students against Sweatshops 368
United Way 26
universal owner 259–61
Utting, P. 436
validity 207
Valor Martinez, C. 456–7
value attunement 235, 238–40
value creation
actor roles for business 94–5
business case 93–4
CSR value holarchy 102
modes of 100, 101–5
synergistic 91–2, 93–7, 101
value neglect 235, 236–8, 239–40
value‐based investors 251
value‐based networks 91
value‐enhancing investors 251
value‐seeking investors 251
values 174, 179
cross‐national comparisons 462–3
in organizational decisions 175–7
shared 423–4
value inclusion 185, 189
Van Der Laan, S. 398–9
Van der Linde, C. 89
Van Marrewijk, M. 101
van Witteloostuijn, A. 187
Vanderbilt, Cornelius 21
Velamuri, R. 62
virtue ethics 242
virtuous circle approach 91
Visser, W. 481, 482
Vitell, S. J. 460
Vives, A. 481
Vogel, David 42, 283, 284, 286, 296
voice 188, 258
Volkswagen 561
Volta River Authority 399
voluntary nature of CSR 349
Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights 315
Votaw, Dow 31
vote counting 114
Waddock, S. 71, 123, 267, 333
Wal‐Mart 258, 289, 290, 424–5, 436
Waldman, David 280, 462
Walton, Clarence C. 27–8, 30–1
Wang, J. 333
War on Terror 565
Wartick, S. L. 230
Wartick, Steven 35, 51
Weaver, G. 214
Weber, M. 235
Weick, K. E. 237
Welch, Jack 274
Welford, R. 478
Wesley, John 253–4
West Cork Railroad Company 21
Wharton, Joseph 227
Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania 516
Wheeler, D. 62
Wilber, K. 101–2
Williams, Andrew 259, 260, 261
Williams, C. A. 458–9
Williams, R. J. 333
Williams, Simon 287, 289
win‐win‐win outcomes 91–2
Windsor, D. 48, 69, 74, 347, 350
Women's Equity Fund 265
Wood, D. 51, 52–4, 69–72, 74, 115, 230, 231
Workers Rights Consortium (WRC) 368
workforce see employees
World Bank 165, 315, 474
World Business Council for Sustainable Development 85, 282, 390, 435, 483, 561
World Trade Organization (WTO) 166, 311
World Values Survey 461, 463
WorldCom 340
Wren, Daniel A. 21
Wright, P. 141
WWWF‐Australia 398
YMCAs (Young Men's Christian Associations) 22
Zadek, S. 396
Zahra, S. A. 328–9, 333, 340
Žižek, S. 167–8
Zsidisin, G. A. 375
Zumbansen, P. 457
Zyglidopolous, Stelios C. 40