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date: 26 June 2019

(p. 921) Subject Index

(p. 921) Subject Index

Illustrations are indicated by bold entries.

Abbasid Caliphate 556
abbreviations, and inscriptions 107–9
Actium, battle of (31 BCE) 568, 729
Adrianople, battle of (378) 553
adultery:
and law 273, 643, 802–3
as moral weakness 808
and punishment for 805, 807, 821
and women 803, 810, 821
see also sexuality
Advanced Papyrological Information System (APIS) 132
age, and Roman iconography 59–60
agency theory 510
agriculture 41, 864, 868, 872, 873
agronomy 864
air pollution 598
alchemy 860
Aletrium 584, 585
Alexander Mosaic 335
Alexandria 678
and Jewish community 776–7
alphabet 349
Altertumswissenschaft 359
American Council of Learned Societies 26
American Declaration of Independence 627
American Founding Fathers 519, 528
Amheida 131
Anavysos Kouros 311
ancestor cult 612–13, 861
and commemoration of family names 613, 620
annalistic history 891
anniversary cult 889
anthropology, and Roman Studies:
and Classical scholarship 251
and comparative approach 251–2, 258
and conception of culture 236–8
and culture as text 254, 259–61
and customs 253
oddities 257
and differences/similarities 250–1, 256, 257–8
and etic/emic 255–6
and Humanities 250–1
and Latin language 254
and Latin language/lexicon 253, 260–1
and Marett's approach to 250–1
and methodology 257–8
and ‘otherness’ 256
and tradition 252, 253
Antioch 555
antiquarianism, and Roman scholarship 494
Antonine plague 549
Aphrodisias 57, 834
and marble reliefs at 50–1, 52
apophony, and Latin 205–6
Ara Pacis 50, 57, 58, 59, 323, 328, 329, 341–2
Arab conquests 555–6
Arausio 828
Arch of Constantine 55, 57, 333
archaeology:
and architecture 845–6
and change 98
and contrasted with history 93
and contribution to Roman Studies 98, 102–3
and definition of 93
and demography 94–6
and dynamic nature of enquiry 94
and early Rome 508–9
and economic history 99–100
and epigraphy 117
as independent field of enquiry 93–4
and prehistoric archaeology 101–2
and regional focus 103
and Romanization 96–8
and synthesis with historical data, problems with 94
and teaching of 101–2
and urbanism 98–9
archaism, and Roman scholarship 500, 501
(p. 922) arches, in Roman iconography 66–8
architecture:
and artistic representation of urban landscapes 324–5
and chronological approaches to 841
and commemoration of family names 613
and conceptual oppositions:
archaeology or architectural history 845–6
centre and periphery 848–9
column and the arch 850
conservatism and innovation 850
form and function 846
Greek and Roman 848
interior and exterior 850–1
public architecture and private buildings 847–8
Republic and Empire 849–50
utility and ornament 847
West and East 848
and gender 228
and Greek influences 732
and growth in study of 843
and modern approaches to 839
criticisms 839–40
developments in 843–4
focus on pragmatic issues 840, 841
formalistic 842
marginalization of symbolic interpretations 840–1
new questions 844–5
renegotiating discipline boundaries 842
search for meaning 842–3
and new polarities for thinking about:
architecture or building 851
building and audience 853
built and the written 853
designer and patron 851–3
monumental and ephemeral 853–4
and regional approaches to 841
and Roman conception of 838–9
and similarity of Roman cities 588
and typological approaches to 841
and Vitruvius 838–9, 847, 851
changes in approach to 844
Arian Christianity 783, 791
Arion (journal) 196–7
aristocracy:
and aristocratic cosmopolitanism 678
and conversion to Christianity 553
and early Roman Empire 535
integration of local aristocracies 535–6
and elite families:
cult of commemoration 612–13
dynastic considerations 614
genealogies 613
public art and architecture 613
role of 612
and elite recruitment 574
and Hellenization 569–70
and membership of 543
and political power 570–2
and scholars 497–8
and scholarship:
elite identity 500–1
social exchange and interaction 498–9
and spectacles:
as participants 662
as sponsors 658
arithmetic 867, 876, 877
army, Roman:
and calendars 892
and early Roman Empire:
cost of 535
distribution within 534
maintenance of order 534–5
size of 534
and ethnic diversity 673
and gladiatorial games 664–5
and regional recruitment 156–7, 587
as universal institution 674
arrivals (adventus) 539
art:
and contemporary art 313
and cultural diversity 345
and dedications attached to 312
and definition of 309–10
and expropriation from Greek states 736–7
and form/content relationship 313–14
and gender 227–8
and Greek canon 327–31
and habitus 316
as language of signs 315
and ‘Lebenswelt’ 316–27
as means of communication 313, 314, 315
and mimetic theory of 310
as mirror of world-view 316
and nature 326
and nature of Roman 344–5
and portraiture 316–17
emperors 319–24
features of 316–17
Greek influences 732
iconography 59–62, 64–5, 69
magistrates 316–19
self-presentation 317–18
and representation of events, symbolic nature of 331–5
(p. 923) as representation of the real 310–12
and schools and traditions 310
and semiotic study of 315
as social phenomenon 315
and spatial perception 326–7
and style 335–43
changes in 336–9
factors determining 340–1
formal sequences 341–2
problematic nature of ‘style of an age’ 339–40, 341
problem-technique dynamics 341
and symbolic language 331–5
contrasted with Greek art 334–5
and temporality 207–8
and urban landscapes 324–5
art history:
and epigraphy 118
and numismatics 139
ARTStor 25
ascetics 557
assimilation 862
astrology 860, 865, 867, 871, 875
astronomy 860, 865, 867, 871, 877
Athens 581
auctoritas, and science 860, 862, 863
augury 525
Augustodunum 589
Ausculum, battle of (279 BCE) 728
Autun 589
Azov, Sea of 832, 833
Babatha archive 125
Baetia, and Flavian municipal law for 645
Baghdad 556
barbarians:
and Arian Christianity 783
and Christianity 791–3
and fall of Rome 685–6
and study of 696
Barletta Colossus 320
Beneventum, and triumphal arch at 57
Bibliotheca Augustana 16, 24
biology 866, 877
birthdays 889
Bishapur (Iran), and rock-cut relief 55, 56
blogging 17
Bohn's Classical Library 193
book ownership, and papyrology 129–30
booksellers 281
Britain:
and abandonment of 691
and assertion of autonomy 549
and population estimates 95–6
and Romanization 96–8
Britannia, and marble relief of 52
Bronze Age 86
Bryn Mawr Classical Review 25
Bu Njem 125, 127
bubonic plague 555
Budé collection (Les Belles Lettres) 194–5
Burdigala 590
Byzantine studies 695
cadastre 828
Caesaraugusta 586
calendars:
and anniversary cult 889
and birthdays 889
and continuation of local calendars 892
and fasti 423, 612, 884
consular 886, 890
Imperial 890–1
Republican 889–90
and function of 883–4
and history-writing 891
Julian 882, 889, 890
and Kalends 883
lunar 883
and parapegmata 891
pre-Julian 882–3
Republican 883, 884
and Roman culture 882, 892
and Roman identity 892
solar 883
Camulodunum 589
Caracalla, Edict of (212) 574
Carmen Arvale 78
Carmen Saliare 78
Carthage 98–9
and assimilation of science from 866
and destruction of 585
and population estimates 95
and Roman colonia 585–6
and wars with 527, 567, 568
Caserma dei Gladiatori (Pompeii) 655
Caspian Sea 833
catalogues, and Roman scholarship 494
cemetery archaeology, and population estimates 96
censors 571
censuses 676
centuriation, and urban development 583
ceremonies, and Rome 539
see also spectacles
CETEDOC Library of Christian Latin Texts 16
(p. 924) Chadwyck-Healey Patrologia Latina Database 16
Chalcedon, Council of (451) 554, 555, 793
chariot-racing 655, 666
see also spectacles
Chautauqua movement (USA) 193
children:
and adoption 616–17
and education 618–19
and foster-children 617
and illegitimates (spurii) 617
and role of carers 617–18
and shared parenting 617
and slave children 617
and support of 614
Christianity:
and Arian Christianity 783, 791
and barbarians 791–3
and becomes religion of the empire 552
and the Bible 786
and Christian identity 276
and Christian martyrs 657
and Christianization 557, 558
and the Church 787
and citizenship 794
and codex books 12
and Constantine 551–2, 682, 689
development under 788–90
and controversies within 787
and development of 782–3
early Christianity 786–8
and fall of Rome 685, 688–90
and the family 611, 620–1
and iconography of 790
and Jesus 782, 783–5, 787
appeal of 784–5
and Judaism 778–9
in late antiquity 783
and linearity of time 210
and Marian cult 790–1
and Monophysite Christians 555, 783, 794
and origins of 782
and orthodoxy 794
and paganism 794
and Paul 786, 787
and Pentecost 671–2
and persecution of 551
and Rome 1–2
and science 875
and slavery 630
and social ideologies 790
as urban ideology 787
see also religion
Cimbri 527
circus:
and imperial associations 652
and literary snobbery 651
see also spectacles
Circus Maximus 581, 652
cities:
and early Roman Empire:
cultural change 541
imperial government 538
and resemblance of Roman and Greek
cities 579–80
citizenship:
and assimilation 862
and auxiliary troop units 156–7
and Christianity 794
and cultural tests for 275
and Edict of Caracalla 574
and manumitted slaves 632
and Roman identity 268
and Roman political theory 722–3
class:
and power 564, 574–5, 720
see also aristocracy
Classics, and Roman Studies 3
climate-change, and economic development 599
clothing, and women 821
codex book 12–13
and corpora formation 35
cognates 79
coloniae 98–9
and establishment outside Italy 585–6
and founding of 582, 583–4
and imperial sponsorship of 586
and monuments of 588–9
and status of 588–9
see also imperialism
comedy, and theatre 452, 457–61
actors' roles 459–60
play with code of characters 460–1
prologue 457–8
ritual procedure 458–9
Comitium 885
communications 542
competitive emulation 679
computers, and impact of 16–17
confidence, cultural 497
Conflict of the Orders 523
connoisseurship, and Roman scholarship 498
Constantinople 554
consulships, as reward for supporters 153
copper, and Roman coinage 135, 136
Corinth 581, 585, 586, 728, 736–7
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) 148–9
Cosa 98, 99
cosmological constants, and power 675
cosmology 868, 869–70, 876
Crisis of the Third Century 549–50
crucifixion 657
cults 525, 751, 753–4, 757
and foreign cults 758–60
and Greek influences 732
and imperial cult 540, 675
and imperial perspective 760–3
and Marian cult 790–1
and slave participation in 629–30
cultura laziale 86
cultural diversity 345
cultural exclusivity 681–2
cultural integration 681
cultural materialism 371
Cultural Virtual Reality Lab 26
culture:
and aesthetic conception of 235–6
as amalgam of text and context 239–42
as analytical category 234
and anthropological conception of 236–8
and diachronic cultural analysis 244–6
as discursive formation 238, 241, 242
and etic/emic 255–6
and interdisciplinary approach to 239–40, 246
graduate training 246–7
and linguistic turn 239
and new historicism 239
and post-structuralism 240–1
and semiotic conception of 238–40
as symbolic system 238–9
and synchronic cultural analysis 242–4
and textuality of Roman 259–61
Cybele, Sanctuary of 49
Cynoscephalae, battle of (197 BCE) 568
Dakhleh Oasis 130–1
Dead Sea 125
death masks 59
declamation, and rhetoric 399–400
decline:
and Christianity 688–90
and fall of Rome 686
and Hellenization 736–8
and methodological problems 686–8
choice of end points 687, 690–1
Eurocentrism 688
exclusions 687–8
nature of change 687
as process or event 690–1
choice of end points 690–1
contested nature of histories 691
reign of Diocletian 690
and religion 688–90
and rise and function of late antiquity 691–5
as anglophone concern 691–2, 694
chronological ambiguity 692
cultural history 695–6
definition of 692
division of field 693
politics of disciplinarity 693
study of classicism 693–4
and study of later Roman Empire 556–7, 576–7
decorum, and rhetoric 394–5
gender 397–9
genre 395–7
nature of language 399–400
decuriones 99
democracy:
and Greece 714
and Republican Rome 524–5
demography:
and archaeology 94–6
and economic development 601–2
fertility 602
life expectancy 601–2
mortality 602
population size 602
and Republican Rome 521–2
denarius 135
departures (profectiones) 539
diatribe, and satire 439
didactic poetry, and epic poetry 430–1
diet, and economic development 598–9
digital divide 18–19
dining, and women 241–2
Diotima (website) 26, 230
disciplina 755–6
discourse analysis 78
Domitius Ahenobarbus, Altar of 60, 62
Duke Data Bank of Documentary Papyri 132
Dura Europus 787–8
early Roman Empire:
and aristocracy 535
integration of local aristocracies 535–6
and army:
cost of 535
distribution of 534
maintenance of order 534–5
size of 534
and centre-periphery relationships 539–40
and cultural change 540–1
cities 541
and ecological environment 542
and the emperor 536–7
arbiter between senators 537
central role of 539–40
constraints on 537
dynastic features 537
imperial cult 540
legal authority of 536
relationship with key groups 536–7
role of 536
visual and symbolic representations 540
and extent of 534
and fluidity of 542–3
and imperial government 537–8, 569
administrative structure 538
cities 538
impact of Roman rule 569
and indirect rule 538
and integration of central and local
power 535–6, 538
and law, development during 643–6
and political and territorial stability 533–4
and Rome, role of 539
and social mobility 543
and taxation 535
and urbanization 541–2
early Rome:
and archaeological approaches:
contribution of 513–14
new approaches 508–9
and expansion of:
control over defeated peoples 567, 569
co-option of local elites 567
historiography of 511–15
military ethos 568
reasons for aggressive behaviour 568
reasons for success 566–7
sea power 567
and historical anthropology 509–10
and historiography of:
alternative levels of discourse 508
expansion period 511–15
imperialism 511–15
new approaches to 512–13
role of non-Romans 512–13
scepticism 507
search for new syntheses 507–8
shortcomings of 512
and individual agency 511
and law 640
and role of social groups 510–11, 515
and significance of 515
and trends in scholarship on 509
E-brary 25
Ecnomus, battle of (256 BCE) 567
economic development:
and demographic factors 601–2
fertility 602
life expectancy 601–2
mortality 602
population size 602
and economic growth:
extensive growth 596
intensive growth 596
and evidence for:
archaeological 598
diet 598–9
food consumption 598
gross domestic product 596–7
inadequacy of data 596
monetization 598
physiological 599
ratio of agricultural to non-agricultural workers 597
real incomes 597
urbanization 597
and health 603
and human development 604
demographic factors 601–2
quality of life 603
and literacy 603
and qualitative approach to 595
and quality of life 603
and quantitative approaches to 595–6
and structural determinants 599
climate-change 599
institutions 600
technology 600
and variations in 600–1
economic history:
and archaeological contribution to study of 99–100
and comparative approach to 594–5, 603
and debates over 593–4
and definition of 594
and purpose of 594–5
ecumene, Roman 678–82
education:
and epic poetry 422
and papyrology 129
and rhetoric 618–19
and Roman political theory 722–3
and social mobility 619
and socialization of children 618–19
(p. 927) Egypt:
and Islamic rule 556
and Jews in 776–7
and papyrology 123–4
elegy:
and context of utterance 441–2
and first-person poetry 440–2, 445–6
and gender 226
and love poetry 440
and persona 437, 442
and quasi-narrative quality 442
and relationship with Greek poetry 444
and setting 440
and themes treated by 440–1
see also poetry
e-mail 17
Emerita Augusta 589
emotions 243–4
emperors:
in early Roman Empire 536–7
arbiter between senators 537
central role of 539–40
constraints on 537
dynastic features 537
imperial cult 540, 675
imperial government 537–8
legal authority of 536
relationship with key groups 536–7
role of 536
as measure of time 675
and spectacles 658–9, 661–2, 662–3, 666
and travels of 539–40
and visual and symbolic representations 540
encyclopedias 166, 431, 496, 680, 867, 872, 873
English language 79, 85
Ephesus 586
Ephesus, Council of (431) 790
epic poetry:
and claims to Homeric succession 428–9
and collusion with power structures of state 420
and contrasted with novel 478
and didactic poetry 430–1
and exemplarity 424
and gender 226
and historiography 423
and history of 421
Ennius 421
Livius Andronicus 421
Naevius 421
Virgil 421
and literary rivalry 428
and metre 160, 161, 182–3
Saturnian 421
and nature and goals of heroic behaviour 424–5
and poet's relationship with patron 423
and post-Virgilian epics 425–6
Flaccus' Argonautica 427
Lucan's Civil War 427
response to the Aeneid 426
Silius Italicus' Punica 428
Statius' Thebaid 426
as praise poetry 423–4
and role in education 422
and social and institutional contexts 422–3
and status of genre 429–30
and theme of Roman history 421
see also poetry
epigraphy:
and abbreviations 107–9
and common epigraphic culture 116
and contemporary perception of inscribed writing 115–16
and context of writing 117
and contribution to Roman Studies 117–18
and cultural centrality of 118
and definition of 110–11
and desire for public expression 116
and epigraphic bias 117
and genres 112
and graffiti 113–15
and Latin epigraphic culture 111–13, 116–17
and letter forms 110–11
and literacy 110–11
and media 110
and prosopography 146–7
and regional variations 116
and text and context 115–16
epitaphs, and exemplarity 410–12
equestrian order:
and imperial government 537
and membership of 543
eternity, and iconography of 57
ethnicity, and identity 267
Etruscans 80, 82, 87, 728
etymology 77, 78
euergetism 541, 597, 614, 658, 778
Euphrates valley 125
Everyman's Library 193–4
executions, and spectacles 657
exemplarity 244
and audience 411, 412, 413, 416
and biography 409, 412–13, 414
and community evaluation 411–12
and comparison and competition 412
and epic poetry 424
(p. 928) and epitaphs 410–12
internal and external qualities 411
and generalizability 414–15
and historiography 413, 414
and use of familiar models 414
factionalism 510, 513
families in Roman society:
and ancestor cult 612–13
and Augustus' policy 613–14
as central institution 610, 611
and child support 614
and children:
adoption 616–17
education 618–19
foster-children 617
illegitimates (spurii) 617
role of carers 617–18
shared parenting 617
slave children 617
socialization of 618
and Christianity 611, 620–1
and composition of 616
and demographic factors 616
and elite families:
cult of commemoration 612–13
dynastic considerations 614
genealogies 613
public art and architecture 613
role of 612
and extent of Roman world 610–11
and legal framework 615
and moralistic perspective on 611
and multi-disciplinary approach to 611
and parent-child relationships 615, 616
and pietas 615
and prosopographical approach 612
and public rituals 620
and regional variation 611
and religion 620
and state's interest in 615
and treatment of families of enemies 621
and women 619
fasti 423, 612, 884
consular 886, 890
Imperial 890
Republican 889–90
see also calendars; time
feminism, and Roman Studies 221–2
Fidenae, and wooden amphitheatre at 659
first-person poetry:
and context of utterance 436, 438
and dramatic monologue 435
and elegy 440–2, 445–6
context of utterance 441–2
love poetry 440
persona 442
quasi-narrative quality 442
relationship with Greek poetry 444
setting 440
themes treated by 440–1
and lyric poetry 443–5
definition 443
independence of poems 443
performance 444–5
persona 444
relationship with Greek lyric 443–4
variety 443
and meditative lyric 436
and persona 437, 438, 445–6
and problematic nature of term 435
and relation of historical poet and poetic speaker 437
and representational aspect 435
and satire 438–40, 445–6
relationship with other genres 439
transgressive power 438–9
as self-contained utterance 436
and speech-act theory 436–7
and style, engagement with addressee 439–40
see also poetry
Floralia 461
forma, and representation of space 828
formalism 283
and historicism 370–2
and intertextuality 379–83
and Propertius' Perusine elegies 375–6
Forum Inscription 81
framing, and rhetoric 400
freedom:
as privilege 627
and slavery 625
coexistence of 627, 634
and Tacitus on decline of 624–5
friendship, in poetry 226
Frigidus, battle of (394) 553
games:
and Circus Maximus 652
and scenic games (ludi scenici) 451
and the theatre 451
subordination of 452
and urban life 581
see also spectacles
Gaul:
and assertion of autonomy 549
(p. 929) and Caesar's conquest of 527
and ceding of 691
Gaza 794–5
gender:
and archaeological remains 228
and architecture 228
and art 227–8
and future research on 230
and gender studies 221–2, 230
and grammatical gender 220–1
and hermaphrodites 229
and law 228–9
and magic 229
and male/female differentiation 222–3
words for 223
and medicine 229
and neutrum 222
and oratory 224–5
and poetry 225–6
and rhetoric 224–5, 397–9
and rituals 229
and sexuality 223–4
penetration model of 224
and violence 226–7
see also sexuality; women
General from Tivoli (sculpture) 60, 61
gentes 510
geography:
and description of the world 830–3
and Dionysius of Alexandria 834
and maps 835
and Pliny the Elder 834
and Pomponius Mela:
periplus of coastline 833–4, 835–6
view of the world 830–3
and space 829, 830
and Strabo 834
and surviving works on 829–30
and T-O schema of the earth 832–3
geometry 867, 876
gladiatorial games 571, 653, 655
and the army 664–5
and functions of 666
and ‘gladiatorial salute’ 657
and re-enactments 656
and rules of combat 656
and survival rates 655–6
and women 656
see also spectacles
globalization, and Roman rule 601
gods, and Roman iconography 60–2
gold, and Roman coinage 135, 136
Google Books 20
Goths 553, 791–3
government:
and early Roman Empire 537–8
administrative structure 538
role of cities 538
and early Rome, control over defeated peoples 569
and imperial government:
aristocratic cosmopolitanism 678
centrality of imperial court 677
early Roman Empire 537–8, 569
rudimentary bureaucracy 677
governmentality 718
graduate training, and semiotic approach to culture 246–7
Graeco ritu 270
graffiti, and epigraphy 113–15
grammar, and literary criticism 177–8
Greece:
and development of Rome's dominance over 728–9
and Roman reception of Greek culture 360
see also Hellenism
Greek language:
and contrasted with Latin 205–6
literary language 215–16
temporality 207–10
verbs 206–7, 211
and Greek poetry 131
as lingua franca of empire 731
and management of empire 730–1
and recovery of 13
and Roman philosophy 702
Greek Studies, and Roman Studies 10
Grimm's Law 79
gromatici 827–8
Gubbio 81
habitus, and art 316
hairesis (sect) 755
Hasmonean kingdom 769–70
health, and economic development 603
hegemony, and imperial power 674
Heidelberg Corpus of Latin Inscriptions 24
Heidelberger Gesamtverzeichnis der griechischen Papyrusurkunden aus Ägypten 132
Hellenism 558, 569–70
and aestheticization of 744
and aesthetics of empire 742–4
and ambiguities of 736–9
and Attic/Asian distinction 741
and conservative reaction to 738
and contradictions within 741–2
(p. 930) and decline 736–8
corrupting effects 740–1
and division of cultural labour 743–4
and fears of loss of self-control 740–1
and imperialism 739–42
imperial values 744–5
inversion of hierarchy of 740
and leisure 744
and love poetry 738
and luxury 736–7, 738, 739
and morality of contemporary Greeks 741
and paradoxical nature of 728
and Roman elitism 742
competitive desire for status 742–3, 745
and Roman Empire 729–31
creation of 729–30
importance of knowledge of Greek language 730–1
incorporation of Hellenistic practices 730
and Roman responses to 739, 742
and status 743
and ‘the civilizing narrative’ 731–6
‘first introducers’ 735–6
as ideological construction 735
literature 732–5
philosophy 733–4
hermaphrodites 229
heterosexuality 798–9
hippiatrics 876
Historia Augusta 549
historical anthropology, and early Rome 509–10
historicism:
and formalism 370–2
and intertextuality 379–83
and Propertius' Perusine elegies 372–5
non-literary and material contexts 377–8
historiography and biography 404–5
and annalistic history 891
and content of:
differences between 407–9
Plutarch on differences 407–8
and epic poetry 423
and exemplarity:
biography 409, 412–13, 414
community evaluation 411–12
comparison and competition 412
epitaphs 410–12
generalizability 414–15
history 413, 414
internal and external qualities 411
use of familiar models 414
and organization of material:
differences between 405–7
species 405, 407
and time 891
and topoi 414, 416
and truth 415
role of narrative 415–16
history:
and definition of 93
and linearity of Roman time 209–10
History E-Book Project 25
hoarding, and survival of coin collections 139–40
hoi polloi 678
Holy Roman Empire 350
homogeneity, cultural 501
homosexuality 798–9, 802
human development, and economic development 604
demographic factors 601–2
quality of life 603
Humanism, and Latin language 217–18
humanitas, and civilizing mission 576
humour, and graffiti 114
Huns 553, 791
iconography:
and ambiguity of 50, 62, 69
and arches 66–8
and celebration of empire's scope 50–3
Aphrodisias 50–1, 52
Rome 51–3
and Christianity 790
and damnationes 69
and distinction between men and gods 60–2
in domestic decoration 62–4
imperial women 64–5
and domestic decoration 62–4
and emperors:
corona civica 69
creation of new portrait types 64
in domestic decoration 62–4
identifying imperial statues 69
imperial women 64–5
and impact on viewer 70
and interweaving of political and religious 65–6
arches 66–8
and looted statues 58–9
and material culture 49
and materials used 69–70
and monumental inscriptions 70
(p. 931) and multiple interpretations 49–50, 71
and need to examine entire assemblage 49
and portraiture 59–60
body types 60
creation of new types 64
distinctions between men and gods 60–2
Greek influences 732
imagines (wax masks) 59
imperial portraits 319–24
imperial women 64–5
mutilation of 69
veristic style 59, 60
and public spaces 68–9
and renewal of society 57
and spectacles and ceremonies 68
and torques 56–7
and triumphal imagery 53–7
portrayal of the East 55–6, 70
temporal frame 57
and urban landscapes 324–5
and verbal and visual context 49
and viewing of 70–1
and warfare 53–5
ideas, and power 575–6
identity, Roman 266–7
and calendars 892
and changing and multiple identities 273–6
and Christians 276
and citizenship 268
and ethnicity 267
and Greek-barbarian antithesis 269–70
and Jews 276
and legal status 272
and literature 680
and material culture 269
and modern terminology 267–8
and perceptions of Greek culture 270
and race 270–3
blood 272–3
descent 271–2
skin colour 273
and scholarly approaches to 268–9
and spread of 574
and texts 269
and Trojan identity 272
Ides 883
Iguvine Tables 81
imagined community 682
imagines (wax masks) 59
immortality, and poetry 291
imperialism:
and attitudes towards conquered 573
and civilizing mission 735–6
and decline of Rome 736–7
and early Rome, historiography of 511–15
and Hellenization 569–70, 739–42
imperial values 744–5
inversion of hierarchy 740
and impact of Roman rule 569
and impact on Romans 569–70
and political effects of 570
and Republican Rome 526–8
and Roman Empire as model 350
and Romanization 97–8
and Rome's expansion:
control over defeated peoples 567, 569
co-option of local elites 567
historiography of 511–15
military ethos 568
reasons for aggressive behaviour 568
reasons for success 566–7
sea power 567
and slowing of expansion 573
indirect rule, and early Roman Empire 538
Indo-European languages 78, 79
and simplification 205
inequality 601
information and communication technology (ICT):
and availability of textual and visual materials 21–2
and challenges for Roman Studies 23–4
and computers, impact of 16–17
and digital divide 18–19
and impact of 7
and location and use of information 19–21
and media of communication 17–18
and media of creation, storage and dissemination 15–17
and media of representation 18–19
and media of transportation 15
and new media:
challenges for Roman Studies 23–4
location and use of information 19–21
and preservation of digital information 22
and technological stagnation 19
infrastructure, as power 675
inscriptions, see epigraphy
institutions, and economic development 600
Internet browsers 18, 19
Internet discussion lists 18
intertextuality 379–83
and historiography 414
Iran 550
and Islamic rule 556
Iraq, and Islamic rule 556
Irni 588, 676
(p. 932) Iron Age 86
Islam 555–6, 685, 688
itinerarium, and representation of space 828, 829
Jerusalem, Temple of 276, 770
and economy of 772
and Herod's rebuilding of 770–1
and Jesus at 785
Jewish revolts 533, 772–3
Jews, see Judaism
Journal of Roman Archaeology 102
journals 14
JSTOR 25
Judaea:
and onset of Roman rule
Hasmonean kingdom 769–70
Herod 770–2
and religious experimentation 784
Judaism:
and characteristics of 767–8
and Christianization 778–9
and the Diaspora 775–8
acculturation to Roman environment 778
characteristics of 777
diverse experiences in 776
Egypt 776–7
limited historical evidence 777
survival of Jewish communities 777–8
urban communities 777–8
winning pagan friends 778
and egalitarianism 767
and exclusivism 768
and ideological demands of 767–8
tensions with practical life 768–9
and integration into Roman state
under Herod's rule 770–2
patriarchs 774
post-revolt Palestine 775
rabbis 773–4
and Jewish identity 276
and obstacles to integration 768
and patriarchs 774
and rabbis 773–4
and relationships 768
and suppression of Jewish revolt 772–3
and the Torah 767, 768
Juno Ludovisi (Rome) 64, 66
justice, and Roman political theory 723–4
Justinian Code 555, 647
see also law, Roman
Kalends 883
Kathisma Church 790–1
Kellis, and excavations at 130–1
kissing 258–9
knowledge, and influence of Roman 350
Lacimurga 828
landscape archaeology, and population estimates 95
language:
and papyrology 128–9
and relationship with reality 204
and Sapir-Whorf theory 204
late antiquity 548
and Christianity 783
and law 646–7
and rise and function of 691–5
as anglophone concern 691–2, 694
chronological ambiguity 692
cultural history 695–6
definition of 692
division of field 693
politics of disciplinarity 693
study of classicism 693–4
later Roman Empire 547–8
and 3rd century:
Crisis of the Third Century 549–50
soldier emperors 550
weakening of central power 549
and 4th century 550–3
Christianity 551–3
Constantine's reforms 551
Diocletian's reforms 551
formative period 550–1
pagan-Christian conflict 552–3
religious persecution 551
Tetrarchy 551
and 5th century 553–4
Christianity 554
Council of Chalcedon 554
Eastern empire 554
fall of empire 553–4
Roman-Germanic interactions 554
Theodosian Code 554, 646
and 6th century 554–6
Arab conquests 555–6
bubonic plague 555
enforcement of religious conformity 555
Justinian 554–5
Persian wars 555
and changes in 547
and disagreements over end date of 547–8
and extent of 548
and historiography of, approaches to 548
and key themes for study of:
(p. 933) Christianization 557, 558
civilizational decline 556–7, 576–7
‘Iranicization’ 557–8
religious transformation 557–8
and law, development during 646–7
and sources for study of 558–60
archaeological 559
Christian 559–60
documentary 559
elite self-representations 559
literary 558–9
regional languages 560
Latin America 84
Latin language:
and abstraction 213
and anthropological approach 253, 260–1
and apophony 205–6
and contrasted with Greek 205–6
literary language 215–16
temporality 207–10
verbs 206–7, 211
and grammatical gender 220–1
and hierarchic organization 213
and Humanism 217–18
and importance of 349–50
and indicative/subjunctive polarity 212
and infectum/perfectum 211
as intermediate stage 204
as language of science 218
and lexicon 213–14
and literary language 214–16
prose 216–17
and masculinity 225
and master structures of 204
and Middle Ages 217
and modes 212
and morphology 206–7
and phonetics 205
and resistance to nominal composition 214
and simplicity 205, 209–10
and syntax 206–7, 212–13
and temporality 207–10
and tradition of studying 254
and verbs 206–7, 211
verbal aspect 210–12
and vocalism 205
see also translation
Latin Library 16, 24
Latin Studies 4–6
Latino-Faliscan 86
law, Roman:
and approaches to 637–8
and definition of 638–40
civil law 639
public law 639–40
in early Roman Empire:
development during 643–6
expanded jurisdiction 645
imperial edicts 643
imperial rulings 643
jurists 644–5
provinces 645
role of the Senate 644
Romanization 645–6
in early Rome 640
and epigraphy 108, 109, 118
and the family 615
and freedom and slavery 627
and future research on 647–8
and gender 228–9
and influence of Roman 350
and Justinian Code 555, 647
in late antiquity 646–7
codification 646–7
and power 565–6
and reordering of social relations 676
in Republican Rome:
component parts 641
creation of standing criminal courts 642–3
development during 640–3
edictal process 641–2
emergence of jurists 642
oral exchanges 640–1
praetors 641–2
Twelve Tables 640
and temporality 209
and Theodosian Code 554, 646, 659
and Twelve Tables 637, 639, 640
leisure, and Hellenization 744
Lepontic 87
lesbianism 804
letters:
and categories of 464
and characteristics of 465
and Christian theory of 468–9
and collections of:
characteristics of 470
establishment as literary genre 467–8
origins of 467
as commentary 466–7
and conventions of 466
and delivery of 470, 471
as distinct genre 465–6
and earliest examples 466
and exchanges of 470
conventions of 470–1
hostile intent 471–2
(p. 934) obligation to reply 471
timely responses 471
and late antique golden age 468
and military reports 466–7
and scholarly approaches to 470
as self-conscious textual constructions 465
and style 469
as substitute for face-to-face conversation 468
and topics 469
and typologies of 469–70
Leuven Database of Ancient Books (LDAB) 132
Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Archives and Collections 132
libraries 499
and nature of 19
life expectancy 601–2
linguistic turn 239
linguistics:
and archaeology 83
and cognates 79, 85
and cultural study 83
and diachronic linguistics 78, 79
and dialects 85
and discourse analysis 78
and Etruscan 80, 82, 87
and Grimm's Law 79
and Hesiod's Theogeny 81–2
and Iguvine Tables 81
and Italia 80
and Latin America 84
and Latin els 78–80, 83
and Latina 78–9, 80–1, 83
and Latino-Faliscan 86
and Latin's connection with modern languages 84–5
and Latinus 81–2, 84
and Lepontic 87
and lingua 78–80, 83, 84
and lingua Latina 84
and linguistic structures 204
and Messapic 87
and morpheme 83
and morphology 78
and myth 83
and oral tradition 87
and Oscan 80, 86
and papyrology 128–9
and philology 87–8
and phonetics 78
and phonology 78
and Picius Martius 83
and pragmatics 78
and Proto-Indo-European 80, 84, 85
and reconstruction 85
and Roma 80
and Romance languages 85
and Sabellic 86
and Sabine 80, 86
and semantics 77, 78
and South Picene 80, 86
and stylistics 78
and synchronic linguistics 78, 79
and syntax 78
and Umbrian 81, 83, 85, 86
and Varro 77–8, 83
and Venetic 86
and work of 78
literacy 93, 110
and economic development 603
and papyrology 129, 130
literary criticism:
and canon formation 180, 184
and ‘classical literature’ 185
and creative writers 176–7
and criteria for judgements 182
and emergence of critical consciousness 178–9
and ethical concerns 184–5
and formalism and historicism 370–2
and genres 182–3
epic 182–3
transgressing boundaries of 183
and grammar 177–8
and Greek influences 179–80
and Horace 176–7, 183
and intertextuality 379–83
and literary evaluation 181
and literary history:
consciousness of 180–1
periodization 181–2
and literary scholarship discourse 177
and patronage of writers 185–6
and Petronius 177
and Philodemus of Gadara 177
and place in Roman world 176
and Propertius' Perusine elegies:
formalist reading of 375–6
historicist reading of 372–5
non-literary and material contexts 377–8
and rhetoric 178
and Seneca 177
and style 182
and value judgements 184–5
and writers' reputations 185
literary studies, and twentieth-century developments 14
literature:
(p. 935) and ‘classical literature’ 185
and construction of 281–2
and cosmopolitanism 680
and epigraphy 118
and Greek influences 179–80, 732–5
and literary institutions 282
and patronage of writers 185–6
and performance of 178, 281
and reception 360–1
and Republican Rome 521
and writers' reputations 185
local knowledge 674
Loeb Classical Library 194, 195
Londinium 590
Ludus Magnus (Rome) 655
Lugdunum 588–9
Lusitania 626
luxury, and Hellenization 736–7, 738, 739
Lyon 588–9
lyric poetry:
and definition of 443
and first-person poetry 443–5
and independence of poems 443
and performance 444–5
and persona 437, 444
and relationship with Greek lyric 443–4
and variety 443
see also poetry
magic, and gender 229
Magnesia, battle of (190 BCE) 568
Manichaeans 551
manifest destiny 527
manumission 618, 632–3
and integration of ex-slaves 632–3
see also slavery
maps 835
marble, and Roman iconography 69–70
Marian cult, and Christianity 790–1
Marino, and Mithraeum at 67
marriage 228, 258, 613–14, 615, 617, 620
and sexuality 802
Masada 125
masculinity:
and poetry 225–6
and rhetoric 224–5
and sexuality 799
material culture:
and commemoration of family names 613
and iconography 49
and marginalization of 14
and Republican Rome 521
mathematics 860, 876, 877
medicine 862–3, 864, 866, 867–8, 872, 875, 876
and gender 229
Mediterranean Sea 832, 833
memory, cultural:
and preservation of 405, 492
and Roman scholarship 502
Mérida 589
Messapic 87
metre, and Roman poetry:
and accentual stress 160
and anceps 161
and biceps 160
and caesuras 161, 167
and Catullus 165–6, 171–2
and dactylic hexameter 160–1, 166–7
epic poetry 160, 161, 182–3
verse satire 161–2
Virgil's Aeneid 161
as defining characteristic of 168
and elision 161
and Greek metrics 160
limits to reconciling with Latin 162–3
satire 162
and hendecasyllable 165–7
caesuras 167
and Horace 162, 163–4, 168–70, 183
and interplay of structure and poetic text 161
and literary public's grasp of 164
and meaning of 160
and metrical character 171
and priapean 171
and rules of 165, 166
and sapphic stanzas 168–70
and Saturnian 421
and self-consciousness of 163
and simplicity of Latin 163
and Statius 164–5, 166–8
and syllable counting 160
and verse satire 162
see also poetry
milestones 828
Miletus 580, 581, 850
military diplomas 156–7
military science 866, 872, 875
mime, and theatre 452, 461–2
Mithridatic War (88–86 BCE) 702
mobile telephones 17
monetization, and economic development 598
money, and Roman coinage 135–7
monks 557
Monophysite Christians 555, 783, 794
(p. 936) Monumenta Germaniae Historica 16, 24
Morgantina 140
morphemes 83
morphology 78, 206–7
mos maiorum 395, 424, 520, 551, 713, 861
see also tradition
Mosaic browser 18
municipium 587, 588
Muse (e-publishing) 25
music 867, 869, 874, 876, 877
Myonnesus, battle of (190 BCE) 568
myths:
and power 566
and socialization of children 618
Nachleben, theory of 356
Narbonne 586
Neoplatonism 875, 876, 877
neoterics 734, 738
Netscape browser 18
new criticism 283, 370, 376
new historicism 239, 371
and Propertius' Perusine elegies 377–8
and Terentia's inscription 382–3
New Institutional Economics 600
Nicaean Council 552
Nicopolis 586
Nika riot (532) 665
Nile, River 832, 834
Nones 883
North Africa, and Islamic rule 556
novels:
and Alexander Romance 477
as contested term 477
and contrasted with epic 478
and definition of 477–8
and examples of 477
and the History of Apollonius King of Tyre 477, 478, 487–8
and Menippean satire 481–2
and Metamorphoses of Apuleius 477, 478
Cupid and Psyche 486–7
fragmented structure 479–81
Menippean satire 481–2
narrators 482–3
social context 483–6
and novel-like narratives 488–9
and orality 481
and Roman form of 478–9
and Satyricon of Petronius 477, 478
fragmented structure 479–81
Menippean satire 481–2
narrators 482–3
social context 483–6
and thematic readings 480
numismatics:
and chronological range of material 135
and coin images 403–4
ancestor commemoration 612
and definition of 135
and imperial images 540, 675
and modern methods 141–2
die studies 141–2
interpretation of objects 142
and propaganda images 141
and responsibility for coinage 140–1
and Roman coinage 135–7
and scholarship on 137–9
and survival of coins:
hoards 139–40
losses 140
oikoumene 827, 831, 832
Olympiads 888
online games 26
online resources 24–6, 132
and translations 193
oral tradition 87
oratory:
and contrasted with rhetoric 389
and contrasted with theatre 454
and gender 224–5
and Greek influences 328
and orator's education 225, 391
and poetry 395–6
see also rhetoric
Oscan 80, 86
Osteria dellʼOsa (Gabii) 82
Ostia 582
Ostrogoths 553
Oxford World's Classics 195
Oxyrhynchus Papyri, The 132
Packard Humanities Institute 16, 24
paganism, and Christianity 794
paideia 576, 680, 681
palace economy 861
Palmyra 549, 550
pandemics 549, 555
pantomime, and theatre 453, 457
Papiro di Artemidoro 835
papyrology:
and book ownership 129–30
and definition of 123
and document survivals:
Egypt 123–4
outside Egypt 124–5
and education 129
(p. 937) and focus on everyday writing 123
and Greek poetry 131
and language 128–9
and literacy 129, 130
and online resources 132
and prosopography 126, 147
and Roman history 125–7
and ubiquity of writing 130–1
papyrus:
and cultural necessity of 11
and decline in trade in 11
as luxury commodity 12
parapegmata 891
Parthian arch of Augustus (Roman Forum) 49
Parthians, and Roman triumphal imagery 55–6
Patara 829
patria potestas 571, 616, 802
Patrologia Latina Database 16, 25
patronage:
and assimilation 862
and epic poetry 423
and literature 185–6
and science 867, 870
Paulys Realenzyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft (RE) 150, 151
Penguin Classics 195–6
performance 292
and art/society link 283
and competing for power 290–1
and growth of interest in 282–3
and immortality 291
and lyric poetry 444–5
and modern meanings of 281
and poetic speech act:
generic orientation 285
reality 286–7
song 284
speech situation 286–7
vocabulary 284–5
writing 284–5
and reception media 287–8
and recitatio (public reading) 423
and Roman literature 281–2
and self-fashioning 289–90
and social performance 289–90
Pergamon Altar 332
periodization 685
and methodological problems 686–8
choice of end points 687, 690–1
Eurocentrism 688
exclusions 687–8
nature of change 687
and rise and function of late antiquity 691–5
as anglophone concern 691–2, 694
chronological ambiguity 692
cultural history 695–6
definition of 692
division of field 693
politics of disciplinarity 693
study of classicism 693–4
periplus 835–6
and representation of space 828, 829, 833–4
Perseus (on-line resource) 24, 193
Perusia, siege of, and Propertius' elegies
formalist reading of 375–6
historicist reading of 372–5
non-literary and material contexts 377–8
sling-bullets 377
Peutinger Table 828
Pharisees 755, 784
pharmacy 872
philhellenism 680–1
philology:
and epigraphy 117
and linguistics 87–8
philosophy, Roman 701
and Cicero 703–5
ambition of 704
conception of the good 709
divergence from Greek approaches 715, 741–2
Epicurus's influence 706–7, 708
Greek influences 703, 733–4
Plato's influence 703–5
Stoicism 710
use of dialogue form 705
and Epicurus's influence on 705–8
and Greek influences 701–2
and Lucretius, Epicurus's influence 705–6, 707, 708
and Plato's influence on 703–5
and Rome as centre of 702
and Seneca 708
conception of the good 709–10, 711
Latinization by 711
Stoicism 708–11
and Stoicism 708–11
and use of Greek language 702
phonetics 78
and Latin 205
phonology 78
Piazza Armerina, and mosaics of 577
pietas, and families and society 615
pilgrims 828
(p. 938) Pirousti, personification of 50, 51
plague 549, 555
Plautii 512
podcasting 17
poetry:
and elegy 226
and epic:
gender 226
metre 160, 161, 182–3
and formalism and historicism 370–2
and gender 225–6
and genres 182–3
Greek 131
and Greek influences 734–5, 738
and immortality 291
and neoterics 734, 738
and oratory 395–6
and poetic speech act:
generic orientation 285
reality 286–7
song 284
speech situation 286–7
vocabulary 284–5
writing 284–5
and rhetoric 395–6
political theory, Roman:
and changes in approaches to 715–16
shift from static to dynamic models 716
and the citizen 722–3
and civic virtue 724–5
and class 720
and contemporary political theory 715
Roman texts as transformative resource 716–17
and continuing influence of 713
and cultural studies 717
and education 722–3
and founding myth of Republic 720–1
and Greece:
contrasted with 714
distancing from 715
and ideology 720
and individual virtue 721, 722, 724–5
and just war 724
and justice 723–4
and lack of easily defined canon 714
and libertas 720
and pervasiveness of political in Roman life 714–15
and political culture 713
and preoccupations of Roman political writers 716
and senatorial ideology 716
and the state 717–22
consensus 719
Greek constitutional theory 718
mixed constitution 718–19
power 720
purpose of 721–2
res publica 719
role of the people 719–20
role of the statesman 718–19
role of violent conflict 721
sovereignty 718, 720
and violent conflict 721
politics:
and Greece, contrasted with 714
and political system 713
and Republican Rome 520, 522–5
balance of powers 523
competition 523
compromise 524
consensus 523–4
deliberative decision-making 522–3, 524
democracy 524–5
dynamic nature of 522
res publica 519–20
Pollentia, battle of (402) 792–3
polyethnicity:
and army 673
as product of conquest 673
in Roman Empire 672
polytheism 748
Pompeii:
and graffiti 113–15
and population estimates 95
and urban development 584, 585, 586
Portonaccio Sarcophagus 333, 334
Portuguese 84
post-structuralism 240–1
Potelian Law 571
pottery, and economic mechanisms 100
power:
and abstract expressions of 565
and censuses 676
and class 564, 574–5
and comparative approach 564–5
and cosmological constants 675
and decline of Roman 576–7
and diffuse nature of 565
and ideas 575–6
as infrastructure 675
and legalistic nature of 565–6
and myth-making 566
and national power 564
and Republican Rome 570–2
aristocracy 570, 571–2
and Rome's expansion:
attitudes towards conquered 573
control over defeated peoples 567, 569
co-option of local elites 567
impact of Roman rule 569
impact on Romans 569–70
military ethos 568
political effects 570
reasons for aggressive behaviour 568
reasons for success 566–7
sea power 567
slowing of 573
and slavery 575, 628–9
and sovereignty 718
and temporal discontinuities 564
and women 574
Praeneste 585, 586
Praenestine Fibula 86
Pragmatic Sanction 11–12
pragmatics 78
priests 757
and financial strain of office 659
and state cults 525
printing, and possibilities opened up by 13
propaganda, and Roman coinage 141
Proquest Patrologia Latina Database 16
Prosopographia Imperii Romani (PIR) 149
Prosopographie chrétienne du Bas-Empire 150
prosopography:
and case study, Nerva's adoption of Trajan 152–5
and definition of 146
and development of 149–52
goals of 151
growth of source material 150–1
Mommsen 148–9
in twentieth century 150
and elite families 612
and historical phenomena 151
and limitations of sources 151–2
and papyrology 126
and Propertius' Perusine elegies 375, 376
and regional provenance of military recruits 156–7
and Roman documentation of individuals
inscriptions 146–7
papyrological documents 147
status of 147–8
and Roman historiography 146
and significance of 148
and source representativeness 155–6
and source validity and meaning 157
Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire (PLRE) 150
Proto-Indo-European 80, 84, 85
psychoanalytic criticism:
and Amphitruo 300–5
and focus on text 306
and literal-mindedness of criticism 306
as mode of interpretation 305–6
and Narcissus 295–9
as protean discourse 305
and wordplay 306
public sphere 680
Puteoli 584
Pydna, battle of (168 BCE) 567
quality of life, and economic development 603
Qumran sect 784
race:
and Roman iconography:
blood 272–3
descent 271–2
skin colour 273
and Roman identity 270–3
rape 226–7
reception:
and Altertumswissenschaft 359
as approach to Roman Studies 351, 361
and bias 356–7
and changes in textual interpretation 356
and contextualization 358
and definition of 351
and exclusions 357, 359
and Greece/Rome comparisons 359–60
and importance of Rome 349–50
and influence on Roman Studies 357–8
and interpretation through later writings 351–4
and narrowing focus of 350–1
and national traditions 362
and properties of:
constitutive horizons 355–6
dynamic two-way interaction 356
infinite number of connections 355, 362
and Roman literature 360–1
and Roman reception of Greek culture 360
and selection of field of 362
and textual interpretation 351
and translations 196–7
recitatio (public reading) 423
reflexivity 680
‘Reichsreligion’ (religion of empire) 763
Reka Devnia hoard 139, 142
(p. 940) religion:
and cults 751, 753–4, 757
foreign cults 758–60
imperial perspective 760–3
and difficulty in differentiating religions 748
and disciplina 755–6
and fall of Rome 688–90
and foreign religion 751, 758–60
interpretatio Romana 762
and imperial cult 540, 675
and imperial perspective 760–3
and influence of Roman 350
and later Roman Empire 551–2, 554, 555, 557
and plurality of religions 749, 763–4
conceptualization of 754–6
control of 757
imperial perspective 760–3
proliferation of 756–7
terminology 756
and power 576
and rationality 751
and ‘Reichsreligion’ (religion of empire) 763
and religio 749, 754
Cicero's usage of 749–52
usage in 3rd and 4th century texts 752–4
and Republican Rome 525–6
and sects 755
and slavery 629–30
Christianity 630
mystery cults 629–30
public rituals 629
and superstition 750, 753, 759
and temporality 208
see also Christianity
Republican Rome:
and demography 521–2
and empire 526–8
and end of 528–9
and law, development of 640–3
and literature 521
and material culture 521
and periodization 520
and politics 520, 522–5
balance of powers 523
competition 523
compromise 524
consensus 523–4
deliberative decision-making 522–3, 524
democracy 524–5
dynamic nature of 522
res publica 519–20
and power in 570–2
aristocracy 570, 571–2
and problematic nature of term 520
and religion 525–6
and significance of 519
and warfare 527
and women 522
res publica 519–20
and political theory 719
and urbanism 587
rhetoric:
and ancient texts on:
collection of declamations 391
earliest manuals 391
instruction manuals 390–1
works of meta-rhetoric 391
and brain-storming (inventio) 390
as classificatory scheme 393
and constraints of 393–4
and contrasted with oratory 389
and declamation 399–400
and decorum (appropriateness) 394–5
gender 397–9
genre 395–7
nature of language 399–400
and definition of, difficulties with 389
and education 618–19
and elite privilege 398
and framing 400
and gender 224–5
and generative approach to 390, 393–4
and limitations of 399, 400
and literary criticism 178
and performance of literature 178
and poetry 395–6
and reasons for studying 389–90
and state regulation of teachers 398
and typology of 391–3
argument and style 392–3
parts of a speech 392
and variety 394
and weaknesses of 393
and written text 396–7
see also oratory
Rights of Man 627
rituals:
and family commemoration 620
and gender 229
and Graeco ritu 270
and Rome 539
and slaves in performance of 629
and spectacles 665
roads 542
and commemoration of family names 613
and shaping of conquered space 829
and urban development 583
Roman Empire, as imperial model 350
Roman Studies:
as Area Study 3–4
and Classics 3
and cross-disciplinary nature of 2
and definitional difficulty 1
and Greek Studies 10
and importance of Rome 349–50
and Latin Studies 4–6
and rewards of 3, 4
and scope of 2
and Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies 2, 5
and time constraints 10
and uncertain future of 23
Romance languages 85
Romanization 558
and archaeology 96–8
and early Roman Empire 541
and law 645–6
and meaning of 97
and questioning of concept 237
Rome:
and Ara Pacis 50, 57, 58, 59, 323, 328, 329, 341–2
and Arch of Constantine 55, 57, 333
and archaeological contribution to study of 99
and centrality of 539
and Circus Maximus 581
and demarcation of time 884–6
as the eternal city 586
and Forum Romanum 581
religious and political iconography 65–6
and Forum Transitorum 51–3, 54
and foundation of 887–8
and graffiti 114
and iconography of war 53–5
and looted statues 58–9
and organization of territory (tribus) 583
and population of 585
estimates of 95
and sack of 553, 686
and Santa Maria Maggiore 68, 791
and Trajan's Column 53–4, 207, 333
and urban development 580–2
founding of coloniae 583–4
integration of settlements 584
tribus 583
and urban landscape 324–5
transformation of 585
and Via Appia 583, 613
and Via di San Gregorio, temple pediment 60, 62
and Villa Farnesina 62, 63, 64, 326
Sabellic 86
Sabine 80, 86
and South Picene 80
Sabine women, rape of the 818
Saducees 755, 784
saints, and cult of 557
Salome Komaise archive 125
Samaritans 790, 793
Santa Maria Maggiore 68, 791
Sapir-Whorf theory 204
Sardinia 527
Sassanian Empire 550, 555–6
and religion 557–8
and Roman triumphal imagery 55
satire:
and engagement with addressee 439–40
and first-person poetry 438–40, 445–6
and Menippean satire 481
and persona 437
and relationship with other genres 439
and transgressive power 438–9
Saturnalia 627
scholarly journals 14
scholarship:
and antiquarian research 494
and attachment of knowledge to words 496–7
and catalogues and lists 494
and categorization of knowledge 495–6
and ‘classical canon’ 501–2
and compilations 494
and confidence of scholars 497
and definition of 492–3
and elite identity 500–1
and elite social exchange and interaction 498–9
and lack of Roman term for 492
and linguistic inquiry 494
and ‘miniaturist’ approach to 497
and origins of 493
and paucity of surviving examples 495
and scholarly conversation 499–500
and shared culture 500–1
and social background of scholars:
elite 497–8
slavery 498
and textual interpretation 494
development of 500
and upward social mobility 500
and utility of 497
and variety of 494–5
scholia 10
(p. 942) science:
and agriculture 864, 868, 872, 873
and architecture 867, 868, 869
and arithmetic 867, 876, 877
and assimilation of Greek science 860–1, 866–7
beginnings of 863–6
Caesar 868
Cato the Elder 864–5
Celsus 872
Cicero 868
Columella 873
Frontinus 872
Lucretius 868–9
Manilius 871
Mela 871–2
Nigidius 869
Pliny the Elder 872–3
Q Sextius 871
Scribonius 872
Seneca 871
Varro 867–8
Vitruvius 869–70
and astrology 860, 865, 867, 871, 875
and astronomy 860, 865, 867, 871, 877
and auctoritas 860, 862, 863
and biology 866, 877
and collapse of Rome 877
and cosmology 868, 869–70, 876
and culture of tradition 861–2
and geography 871–2
and geometry 867, 876
and hippiatrics 876
and Latin language 218
and mathematics 860, 876, 877
and medicine 862–3, 864, 866, 867–8, 872, 875, 876
and military science 866, 872, 875
and music 867, 869, 874, 876, 877
and native wisdom 862, 863
and natural world 873
and nature of Greek science 859–60
and patronage 867, 870
and pharmacy 872
and practice of Greek science in Latin 861
and quadrivium 867, 876, 877
and scholarly traditions as obstacle to comprehension of 861
and synthesis 874, 876–7
Agnellus 877
Ampelius 874
Aurelianus 876
Avienius 875
Boethius 877
Calcidius 875
Capella 876–7
Censorinus 874
Christianity 875
Favinus 875
Gargilius 874
Gildas 877
Isidore of Seville 877
Marcellus of Bordeaux 876
Nemesianus 874
Neoplatonism 875, 876, 877
Priscianus 876
Senator 877
Solinus 874
Theodorus 876
Theodosius 876
Vegetius 876
and trivium 867, 876
sculpture:
and dedications attached to 312
as representation of the real 310–12
see also art
sea power, and Rome's expansion 567
search engines 19
Second Sophistic 680
sects 755
secularism, and Roman Studies 2
semantics 77, 78
and semantic amelioration 84
and semantic pejoration 84
semiotics, and signs 315
Senate:
and imperial government 537
and legislative role 644
and senatorial ideology 716
senatorial order:
and membership of 543
and military ethos 568
Septuagint 360
sestertius 135
sexuality:
and active/penetrating passive/penetrated dichotomy 804–5
anal sex 805
cunnilingus 806–7
fellatio 805, 807
and denigration 799, 800, 810
as field of study 797–8
and formation of the self 800
and Foucault's approach to 800–1
and gender 223–4
and gender identity 799
and gendered structure of sexual discourse 800
(p. 943) and heterosexual/homosexual dichotomy 798–9
and homophobia 800
and homosexuality 802
and informal enforcement of prohibitions 807
and marriage:
men 802
women 802
and masculinity 799
and men:
cinaedus (male gender deviant) 808–9, 810
inclusiveness of sexual objects 801, 802
legitimate relationships 803
prohibited relationships 802–3
and Musonius' teachings on 811–13
and penetration model of 224
and prohibited relationships:
adultery 802–3
stuprum (‘illicit intercourse’) 803
and sexual deviance, absence of modern concept of 799–800
and sexual double standard 801–4
and similarities and differences from modern 798–801
and social status 802, 803
and women 800, 801, 807–8
lesbianism 804
restricted to conjugal sex 801–2, 802–3
sexual purity 821
tribas (female gender deviant) 810–11
see also adultery
Sibylline Books 732
Sicily 527
silver, and Roman coinage 135, 136
slavery:
and economic production 625, 626–7
and enslavement of defeated enemies 630, 631
and family carers 617–18
and freedom 625
coexistence of 627, 634
and ideological weight of 628
and ill-treatment 575
and legal status of slaves 628
and management of slaves 631–2
and manumission 618, 632–3
integration of ex-slaves 632–3
as normal component of society 627–8
and numbers enslaved 571, 625–6
regional variations 625
and paradoxical position of slaves 630
and religion 629–30
Christianity 630
mystery cults 629–30
public rituals 629
and Rome as slave society 625, 627
definitional difficulties 625, 626
and scholars 498
and slave rebellions 572, 633
and slave resistance 633–4
and slave-owning as display of power 628–9
and subjection 630–1
as unnatural condition 631
and violent basis of 630, 631
and visibility of 628
and warfare 630, 631
Smirat, and mosaic floor at 565
social mobility:
and Diocletian's reforms 551
and early Roman Empire 543
and education 619
and scholarship 500
Social War (91–89 BCE) 274
Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies 2, 5
Soleto Map 835
solidus 136
South Picene 80, 86
space, conceptualization of 827, 835
and conquered territory 829
and Dionysius of Alexandria 834
and forma 827–8
and geography 829, 830
and itinerarium 828, 829
and maps 835
and oikoumene 827, 831, 832
and periplus 828, 829, 833–4, 835–6
and Pliny the Elder 834
and Pomponius Mela:
periplus of coastline 833–4, 835–6
view of the world 830–3
and Strabo 834
and T-O schema of the earth 832–3
and uncharted territory 828–9
see also geography
Spain:
and foundation of cities 586
and Islamic rule 556
Spanish language 84, 85
spectacles:
and beast hunts 653–4
and chariot-racing 655, 666
and Circus Maximus 652
and cultural pervasiveness of 651
and economic significance of 660
and exotic animals 654
and frequency of 652
and function of 663–6
(p. 944) connecting empire to emperor 666
display of violence 664–5
ritual 665
and funerary celebration 653
and gladiatorial games 571, 653, 655
army 664–5
functions of 666
‘gladiatorial salute’ 657
re-enactments 656
rules of combat 656
survival rates 655–6
women 656
and idolatry 651, 665
as integral part of Roman community 658
and participants 654–7
beast fighters 656–7
charioteers 655
Christian martyrs 657
criminals 657
elite class 662
emperors 662
epigraphic commemorations of 654–5
executions 657
gladiators 655–6
prisoners of war 657
solo performers 657
women 656
and regional variation 663–4
and riots at 665
and spectators 660–3
emperors 661–2, 662–3
gambling 660
numbers of 661
seating arrangements 661
uninhibited behaviour 662
and sponsors of 658–9
competition amongst 658
elite/non-elite relations 658
financial strain on 659
imperial oversight 658–9
individuals 658
and staged naval battles 657
and support staff 660
and textual neglect of 651, 654
and triumphal processions 652
state, the, and Roman political theory 717–22
consensus 719
Greek constitutional theory 718
mixed constitution 718–19
power 720
purpose of 721–2
res publica 719
role of the people 719–20
role of the statesman 718–19
role of violent conflict 721
sovereignty 718, 720
Stoa 26
Stoicism 708–9, 860
stone, and Roman iconography 70
stylistics 78
sundials 885
survey archaeology, and population estimates 95–6
surveyors 827–8
Syracuse 581, 732, 736
Talas, battle of (751) 556
Tanais, River 832, 833
taxation:
and early Roman Empire 535, 569
as universal institution 674–5
and use of force by tax collectors 575
technology, and economic development, 600
temporality, see time
Terracina relief 852
Tetrarchy 551, 690
Teutoborg Forest, battle of 140
Teutones 527
textual practices:
and computers, impact of 16–17
and critical editions of texts 10–11
and electronic texts 10–11
and evolution of 9
and literary studies 14
and location and use of information 19–21
and marginalization of material culture 14
and media:
codex book 12–13
papyrus 11, 12
possibilities of print 13
stone 11
and new media:
availability of textual and visual material 21–2
media of communication 17–18
media of creation, storage and dissemination 15–17
media of representation 18–19
media of transportation 15
preservation of digital information 22
and preference for text to artefact 9–10
and recovery of Greek 13
and scholarly journals 14
and scholia 10
theatre:
and actors 453–4
(p. 945) comedy roles 459–60
contrasted with orators 454
mode of utterance 454
play with code of characters 460–1
role of 454–5
and comedy 452, 457–61
actors' roles 459–60
prologue 457–8
ritual procedure 458–9
and the games 451
subordination to 452
and ludism 453
and mime 452, 461–2
and pantomime 453, 457
and politics 454
and reception of plays 453
as ritual practice 452
and Roman bilingualism 450
and satire 439
and scenic games (ludi scenici) 450, 451
as Greek games 451
and seating at, hierarchy of 613, 619–20
and theatrical texts 452–3
and theatrical vocabulary 453
and tragedy 452, 455–7
and translations of Greek plays 451
and types of spectacle 451
as variety of game 451
Theodosian Code 554, 646, 659, 755
see also law, Roman
Theoretical Roman Archaeology conference (TRAC) 97, 102
Thesaurus Linguae Graecae 24
Third Samnite War 527
Tiberias 586, 774, 775
time:
and art 207–8
and anniversary cult 889
and birthdays 889
and calendars:
continuation of local 892
function of 883–4
Imperial 890–1
Julian 882, 889, 890
lunar 883
pre-Julian 882–3
Republican 883, 884
Roman identity 892
solar 883
and dating 887
and fasti 423, 612, 884
consular 886, 890
Republican 889–90
and foundation of Rome 887–8
and history-writing 891
and iconography of 57
and Ides 883
and imperial reigns 675
and Kalends 883
and Latin language 207–10
and law 209
and linearity of Roman time 209–10
and local time systems 886–7
continuation of local calendars 892
and Nones 883
and Olympiads 888
and parapegmata 891
and public announcement of 884–5
Comitium 885
and religion 208
and Roman civilization 207
and Roman culture 882, 892
and sundials 885
and synchronization of 887
and universal history 888–9
Tocharian 80
Tolerance Edict (311) 755
torques, in Roman iconography 56–7
Tours, battle of (732) 686
tradition:
and Roman commitment to 395
and Roman culture 861
see also mos maiorum
tragedy, and theatre 452, 455–7
Trajan's Column 53–4, 207, 333
translation:
and attitudes towards 189, 199
and authors translated:
16th-20th centuries 191–2
changes in patterns of 192
pre mid-15th century 189–90
and availability of Latin translations 193
Budé collection (Les Belles Lettres) 194–5
Loeb Classical Library 194, 195
multi-volume series 193–4
Penguin Classics 195–6
and challenges in 197
political vocabulary 198
technical and scientific language 197
vocabulary of moral quality 198
and classroom use of 196
and complexities of 188–9
and culture:
challenge in translating into Latin 198–9
relationship between 199
and democratization of knowledge 195
and dismissal as second-class activity 189
and impact on literary developments 192–3
(p. 946) from Latin 188
and reception 196–7
as reflection of contemporary cultural trends 192
and role in teaching 196
and role of 188, 199
as Roman cultural activity 188
as social, political and moral act 200
transmission of texts 31
and Caesar 37–8
and Cato the Elder 33–4
and Cicero 38, 40
and contamination 43–4
and corpora of books
ancient editorial processes 36
anthologies 39–40
codex 35
formation of 35–6
single authors 36–9
and Curtius Rufus 42
and determination of initial status 40
and direct tradition 34–5
and emendation 44–5
and excerpting 43
and fixation of textual arrangements 36
and historical reconstruction of 32
and historical specificity of 32
and history of the tradition 32
and Horace 37
and isolated examples 40
and loss of texts 33
and Lucretius 40, 42, 43
and Martial 38–9
and Plautus 33
and Pliny the Younger 35–6, 39
and preservation or loss of texts 32–3
book production context 33
genre 32–3
historical and cultural context 33
partiality of 33–4
role of chance 33
technical and material factors 33
and reconstruction 44
and recovery of texts in Middle Ages 43
and Seneca 37, 38, 42
and Seneca the Elder 40–1
and Sextus Pompeus Festus 42
and single-archetype traditions 41–2
and Tacitus 39
and Terence 33, 36
and textual criticism:
goals of 31–2
recensio 32
and Virgil 36–7
transport systems 542
tribunes, and killing of 572
triumphal processions 539, 652
see also spectacles
Twelve Tables 637, 639, 640
Umayyad dynasty 556
Umbrian 81, 83, 85, 86
universal history 888–9
universal institutions 674
and hegemonic power 674
and taxation 674–5
universalism, and Roman Empire 672–3
universities, and functions of 13–14
urbanism, Roman:
and ‘the ancient city’ 579
and archaeological contribution to study of 98–9
and centuriation 583
and citizen participation 587–8
and civitas-capitals 586–7
and coloniae 587
establishment outside Italy 585–6
founding of 582, 583–4
imperial sponsoring of 586
integration of 584
monuments of 588–9
as source of manpower 584
status of 588–9
and convergence with Rome 585
and cultural characteristics of cities 579
and development of new cities 583
and distinctiveness of Roman cities 580, 584
in early Roman Empire 541–2
and early urban development 580–2
and economic characteristics of cities 579
and economic development 597
and Greek cities:
differences from 582
influence of 590
resemblances to 579–80
and integration of settlements 584
and land-allotment 583
and Latin cities 582–3
and mixed impact of 589–90
and municipium 587, 588
and organization of territory (tribus) 583
and physical characteristics of cities 579, 580
imitation of Rome 589
similarities of 588
and provincial cities 586–7, 588
and res publica 587
and road-building 583
(p. 947) and Rome as eternal city 586
and social characteristics of cities 579
status system 579–80, 587
see also Rome
Urso 658
and control of religion 757
Valentinianus I, and portrait of 320
Valpy's Family Classical Library 193
Vandals 553, 691
Venetic 86
Vestal Virgins 818
Via Appia 583, 613
Vigintivirate 156
Villa Farnesina 326
and ceiling panel 62, 63, 64
Villanovan culture 86
Vindolanda 124–5, 127
Vindolanda Tablets, The 132
violence, and gender 226–7
virtual worlds 26
Visigoths 553, 691, 791, 792–3
Vroma 26
warfare:
and iconography of 53–5
and military ethos 568
and Republican Rome 527
and slavery 630, 631
Wikipedia 20, 24
women:
and anxiety about 816, 821, 824
and clothing 821
and dining 241–2
and division in scholarship on 816
and exemplarity 410–11
and gladiatorial games 656
and kissing 258–9
in Latin elegy 821–2
in literature 822
Virgil's Aeneid 823–4
and meaning of ‘woman’ 815–16
in law 819
myths of origin 816–18
and naming practices 818
and negative stereotypes 821
and power 574
and powerful women in public life 820–1
as property owners 818–20
and Republican Rome 522
and requirement for male guardian 818–19
and rights of 574
and roles of 619
and Roman iconography 64–5
and sexuality 800, 801, 807–8
lesbianism 804
marriage 802
prohibited relationships 802–3
restricted to conjugal sex 801–2, 803, 804
sexual purity 821
tribas (female gender deviant) 810–11
and social role 818, 820
myths of origin 817
rape of the Sabine women 818
and virtue 821
and writing 130
see also gender
Workers Education Association (WEA) 193
Works of the Greek and Roman Poets 193
World Wide Web 18–19
and sources of information 24–6
writing:
and poetic speech act 284–5
and ubiquity of 130–1 see also epigraphy; literacy; papyrology
xenophobia 862
Yarmuk, battle of (636) 555
York 99
Zama, battle of (202 BCE) 568
Zoroastrianism 557–8