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date: 21 August 2019

(p. xii) List of Figures

(p. xii) List of Figures

  1. 6.1. The 1502 world map (or ‘planisphere’), almost certainly based on the Portuguese carta padrão that was smuggled out of Lisbon by Alberto Cantino, agent of the duke of Ferrara. It indicates clearly the line of demarcation established under the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). Manuscript on three vellum leaves, 22 cm × 105 cm. By permission of the Biblioteca Estense, Modena (BE.MO.C.G.A.2). 88

  2. 6.2. Multiple strategies for representing navigational knowledge: written rutter; headland views; harbour plan; and chart (portion of Henry Southwood, Coast of New Foundland). Letterpress, with woodcut insets, 46.5 cm high; (map) copper engraving, 42 cm × 102 cm, 1: c.310,000. From The English Pilot. The Fourth Book. Describing the West-India Navigation, from Hudson's-Bay to the River Amazones (London: Richard and William Mount, and Thomas Page, 1716), 16–17 (text) and between 10 and 11 (map foldout). Courtesy of the Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, University of Southern Maine (OS-1716-1). 92

  3. 6.3. Jorge de Aguiar's 1492 portolan chart of the Mediterranean and Black seas and the Atlantic coasts is the earliest surviving dated chart of Portuguese origin. A decorative work similar in style to products of the Majorcan school of chart makers, it was meant for presentation rather than use at sea; the detail placed in the middle of the Sahara, below a scale bar, is the extension of the African coast from Senegal to the Niger. Manuscript on vellum, 77 cm × 103 cm. Courtesy of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University (Art Object 30cea 1492). 93

  4. 6.4. William Jansz. Blaeu, West Indische Paskaert (Amsterdam, c.1630). The second of Blaeu's small-scale charts of the Atlantic, prepared on the Mercator projection, intended to aid the African and American trade of the WIC. The southern portion of South America is in the inset filling the continental interior. This is a late impression, made c.1710. Copper engraving on vellum, hand coloured, 77.5 cm × 95 cm. By permission of the New York Public Library (Stokes C.1621-A-3). 95

  5. 6.5. Presentation chart of the east coast of South America from an atlas compiled by Fernão Vaz Dourado in Goa, c.1570. By permission of the Huntington Library (HM 41, fo. 2). 97

  6. (p. xiii) 6.6. Ferrando Bertelli's c.1565 contribution to the genre of published maps framing the Spanish maritime circuit between Europe, Africa, and America. This map was published as a separate sheet in Venice and was included in ‘assembled-to-order’ atlases. Copper engraving, 24 cm × 36 cm. Courtesy of the Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, University of Southern Maine (SM-1565–5). 99

  7. 6.7. Antonio Asarti, ‘Nova delineatio s[t]rictissimae S. Didaci Provinciae in Nova Hispania’, in Baltasar de Medina, Chronica de la santa Provincia de San Diego de Mexico, de religiosos descalços de N.S.P.S. Francisco en la Nueva-España (Mexico City, 1682), following leaf 229. This view of the province of San Diego in New Spain combines a bird's-eye perspective with a spacing of towns and religious centres at constant intervals. Copper engraving, 16 cm × 26 cm. By permission of the John Carter Brown Library, Brown University (BA682 M491c/1-SIZE). 103

  8. 6.8. John Smith, Virginia, engr. William Hole, in Smith's A Map of Virginia: With a Description of the Countrey, the Commodities, People, Government and Religion (Oxford, 1612). Copper engraving, 32.5 cm × 41.5 cm. First state. By permission of the William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (atlas E1b). 105

  9. 6.9. Jacques Nicolas Bellin, Coste de Guinée depuis le Cap Apollonia jusqu'à la Rivière de Volta, in vol. iii of Le Petit Atlas maritime (Paris, 1764). Hand-coloured copper engraving, 22.5 cm × 43.5 cm. Courtesy of the Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, University of Southern Maine (SM-1764–4). 106

  10. 6.10. Lienzo of San Juan Tolcayuca (in the modern state of Hidalgo, Mexico), made in the seventeenth century as part of this indigenous community's assertion of its territorial rights against the encroachments of Spanish colonists, and presented in conjunction with a collection of other documents. The map is read from each side; the footprints probably represent the perambulation routinely undertaken by community members. Courtesy of the Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (Jay I. Kislak Collection). 108

  11. 6.11. George Washington, plan of a survey for William Hughes, Jr. of 460 acres in Frederick County, Virginia, on the Cacapon River, accompanied by notes dated 4 April 1750 explaining the character of points AD. Manuscript, 18 cm × 16 cm (image). A rather extreme, but not uncommon, instance of the empty character of colonial property plans. Courtesy of the Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (G3893.H2G46 1750.W3 Vault). 110

  12. 15.1. Principal scene of the Lienzo of Tlaxcala. From Josefina García Quintana and Carlos Martínez Marín (eds.), Lienzo de Tlaxcala (Mexico, 1983), 56. 254

  13. (p. xiv) 15.2. Self-portrayal of Guaman Poma, speaking with Andean lords and elders. The heading contains phrases written in three languages (Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara), which refer to a dialogue between the author and his sources. Line drawing from El primer nueva corónica y buen gobierno por Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, ed. John V. Murra and Rolena Adorno, trans. of the Quechua by Jorge L. Urioste (Mexico, 1980), 338. 261

  14. 15.3. Portrait of Pocahontas, also called Rebecca Rolfe. Engraved in London in 1616 by Compton Holland after an original by Simon Van de Passe. Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University. 265

  15. 18.1. Migrations to Americas and Caribbean 318

  16. 20.1. Starting with the foundation of Santo Domingo on the island of Hispaniola in 1501, Spain's possessions in the Americas took the form of an ‘empire’ of self-governing towns. The majority of people lived in or immediately adjacent to these communities. This map illustrates the principal town settlements in the Spanish New World. After Richard L. Kagan, Urban Images of the Atlantic World, 1942–1793 (New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1999), p. 29. 344

  17. 20.2. Until the late seventeenth-century, most Portuguese settlers in Brazil resided in a long ribbon that stretched along the colony's Atlantic coast. The late seventeenth-century discovery of gold in Minas Gerais drew them into the interior and led to the foundation of Viulka Rica and other inland towns. After Cambridge History ofLatin America, ed. Lesley Bethell, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), vol. 2 p. 422. 348

  18. 20.3. Despite efforts of the governors of New France to gather the colony's settlers in large, easily governed towns, many continued to reside in individual homesteads in a thin ribbon of ‘straggled’ villages located on either side of Saint Lawrence River. The map represents two of these villages in the mid eighteenth-century. After Richard C. Harris, The Siegneurial System in Early Canada, A Geographical Study (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961), p. 185. 352

  19. 20.4. Having moved out of their original settlements around Massachusetts Bay, the expanding settler population in colonial New England founded new townships along coastal lowlands and accessible river valleys. Subsequently, the remainder of the region was ‘filled-in’ on lands cleared of their native inhabitants. This map represents English settlement in New England c. 1675. After Stephen J. Hornsby, British Atlantic, New Frontier. Spaces of Power in Early Modern British America (Hanover and London: Univerisy Press of New England, 2005), p. 130. 357