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date: 21 August 2019

(p. 649) Index

(p. 649) Index

Abraham, Cresques 23, 26
Académie des Sciences 464
acculturation
in Africa 49–51, 53, 488
in Americas 33, 483, 484, 486
Acosta, José de 32, 35, 134, 435–6, 437, 438, 444, 459
on peopling of Americas 456–7
Adam (biblical figure) 456, 457–8
Adams, John 530, 543
Adelman, Jeremy 523
Aemilianus, Gen. Scipio 451
Afonso I, King 42, 46, 52
Africa
Akan 27, 36, 40, 44
exports/imports 44–6, 48
mapping of 105–6
northern Europeans in 166–7
Partition of 600
revolution in West 564
slaves from south-east 280–1
see also West Central Africa; and individual entries
Africa in the Atlantic world (1760–1840) 585
Atlantic slave trade and 586–8
European domination and 599–600
‘legitimate’ trade and 597–9, 600
Muslim interior and 593–4
revolutionary transformations and 595–7
African Atlantic, the
commercial exchanges in 43–9
cultural interactions in 49–54
diplomatic relations in 39–43
Afro-Brazilians 202, 205, 206, 212, 214, 437–8
Afro-Europeans 589–90
see also Eurafricans
age of exploitation/exploration 71–2
Age of Revolutions
antislavery in 611–16
expansion of slavery in 603–6
war and slavery in 606–11
Aggrey, Joe 592
Aguiar, Jorge de 93
Aguirre, Lope de 118
Alba, duke of 127
Albanese, Catherine 439
Albuquerque, Afonso de 315
Aldama, Juan 576
aldeias 349
Alexander the Great 145
Alfraganus (Arab astronomer) 29 n. 13
Algonquian, the 438–9
Allada 275
Allah 564
Allaire, B. 236, 237 n. 3
Allende, Ignacio 576
altepetl 253, 255, 258, 259
Al-‘Umarī (Arab historian) 21
Alvares, Francisco 465
Amaru II, Túpac 263, 512–13
Amazon, Orinoco and Atlantic Guayana encounters in 61–4
America
British 227–8, 230, 233
discovery of 452–5, 459–61
see also North America
American indigenous peoples in the Atlantic world 499
Catholic Church and 503, 511
disempowering 507–8, 509, 511–12, 513–14
land and 506–8, 509, 513–14
nativism and 505, 508–9, 512
politics and trade of 500–2, 503–4, 510–11
Seven Years War, conflict and 504–6, 512–13
(p. 650) American Revolution/War of Independence 14–15, 268, 330, 506, 557, 595, 607, 639
antislavery and 612–13
as crisis of disintegration/integration 517–18
from British civil war to 523–9
Haitian Revolution and 536, 538, 545
imperial reform before 519–23
in Atlantic perspective 516, 528, 529, 531
lessons/impact of 529–32
Loyalists and 526–7
Native Americans and 519, 526
perspectives on 516–17, 528–9
population, migration and 519
taxation and 521–2, 523
trade and 628
Americas, the
African communities in 489–90
cultural/political change in 67–8
identity in 392
impopulation of 305
mapping of 104–5
migration to 174, 177–8, 220
native economies in 56, 67
northern Europeans in 167, 173–5
peopling 456–7
population movements/migrations in 56, 57 n., 62, 69
racial classification of populations in 363–4
religious freedom of 177
slave population of 604
see also North America; settlement in the Americas; and individual entries
Amerindians
see individual entries
Amherst, Sir Jeffrey 505, 506
Amrith, Sunil 643
Andean Insurrections 512–13
Andrews, Kenneth R. 165
Anglo-Dutch war (1652–4) 223
Ango, Jean 236
Angola 161, 204, 206, 210
as source of slaves 272
Brazil and 213–14, 285, 590
Portuguese 211, 278–9, 386, 388
Anne, queen of England 267
anthropology 390
Antilles
Greater 57–8, 149
Lesser 57–8, 175
Antonil, Andre João 299 n. 20
Antwerp 117, 126
Apasa, Julián
Aquinas, Thomas 457
Arawak, the 61, 63
Archestratus of Gela 145
Aristotle 457, 459–60
Armazém de Guiné e Índia 94
armies 420, 427–8
Aro, the 277, 279
Arriaga, Julián de 193
art,
depicting natives in 142–3
Asante 274, 385, 387
Asarti, Antonio 103
asientos 162, 191, 249, 326
Association for the Discovery of the Interior Parts of Africa 599
astrolabes 25, 76
Atahuallpa, Juan Santos 512
Atlantic community
local dimensions of the African 592–3
Western Africa as participant in 588–92
Atlantic environmental history 292–4
Atlantic history
limits 637–8
perspectives 634–7, 640
scholarship 1–2, 5–7, 9, 71, 634–5, 636, 641–7
see also Atlantic, the
Atlantic law 400, 416
coerced labour, legal authority and 410–13
history and development of 401–4
imperial constitutions and 413–15
jurisdictions and ‘jurispractice’ in 404–10
Atlantic, the
European exploration of 22–31
geographical creation of 98–101, 111
Western Ocean and 222, 231
worlds/routes 73, 451, 452, 638–42
see also individual entries
(p. 651) Atlantic world, the (1760–1820) 633
Britain in 619–20, 627–31
Dutch in 625–6
France in 626–7
political change in 382, 385
Portugal in 624–5
slavery, antislavery and 632
Spain in 620–4
trading patterns of 618–19
warfare and trade in 620, 623, 626–7, 628
Atlantics ‘near' and ‘far’ 160, 188–92
see also Atlantic, the
audiencias 160, 161, 191, 199, 253, 406, 408, 569, 572
nature of 150, 155
Australia 531
Avicenna (Islamic scientist/philosopher) 131
Ávila, Father Rodrigo de 441
Awoku, Latévi 591
Ayala, Don Felipe Guaman Poma de
ayuntamientos 572–3, 581
Azores, the 24, 29, 75–6, 148, 325
importance of 208
migration to/from 314
overcrowding of 204
Bacon, Francis 308, 465
Bacon, Nathaniel 402
Bacon's Rebellion 226, 264, 408
Bahia 284–5, 347
unrest in 559–60, 563–5
Bailyn, Bernard 636, 646 n. 59
Bajamar, Marques de 193
bandeirantes 342, 347, 503
Barbacena, Viscount 558
Barbados 173, 175, 317, 358–9, 521, 627
Barré, Isaac 521
Basalla, George 463, 468
Basque country/Basques 189, 190, 191–2, 197
Bastide, Roger 437
Battle of Fallen Timbers 506
Behrendt, Stephen 6
Belém 61, 63, 64
Bellarmino, Card. Roberto 455
Bellin, Jacques Nicolas 106
‘Bemoim’, Jolof king 28
see also Jeleen, Bumi
Benezet, Anthony 612
Benin 27, 45, 46
Atlantic trade of 41–2
Bight of 273, 275–6, 284, 564
Christianity in 51, 52
Bennett, Ralph 341
Bentham, Jeremy 643
Benzoni, Girolamo 126
Bering Strait theory 457
Berkeley, Gov. 402
Berrio, Antonio de 58 n., 61
Bertelli, Ferrando 99
Best, George 474, 476
Béthencourt, Jean de 24
Beverley, Robert 225, 359
Biassou (Haitian insurgency leader) 539–40
Bible, the 456–8
Bight of Biafra 273, 275, 276–8, 283, 284
Birmingham, David 32 n. 17
Black Auxiliaries of Charles IV 610
Blackburn, Robin 607
Blaeu, William Jansz. 95
Bleichmar, Daniela 471
Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich 476
Board of Trade (England) 268
Boazio, Baptista 99
Boccaccio, Giovanni 23
Bodin, Jean 401
Body to Conserve the Rights of D. Fernando VII in the Provinces of Venezuela 578
Bolívar, Simón 545, 547, 578, 580, 581–3, 609
Bolivia 583
Bombast, Theophrastus
Bonaparte, Joseph 568
Bonaparte, Napoleon 15, 239, 513, 544, 548, 560, 568, 579, 615
Bonny 276–7
Boston
Massacre 522
Tea Party 13, 522
botanical gardens 464, 466
Bourbon Reforms 13, 14, 186, 190, 198, 569
nature of 192–7, 199, 376, 509–11
(p. 652) Bradford, William 439
Braganza, duke of
Brainerd, David 443–7
branding 123
Braudel, Fernand 5, 298
Brazil 153, 157, 160, 213, 437, 481, 550, 592
black rebellion in 559, 561–3
colonial insurrection in 555–60
Company 203
Dutch 168, 171, 173, 174–5, 177, 179, 201, 355, 552
emerges as force 211–12
emigration to 208, 215, 349
encounters in 59–61
exports 331, 625
Haitian Revolution and 560–3
Indians, colonists and conflict in 551–3
populations of 315, 625
Portuguese 204, 205–6, 346–7, 349, 376, 503
shipyards 202
slave resistance/revolts in 553–5, 563–5
slavery/slaves in 212, 551–2, 560–3, 604–5
sugar industry/production in 161, 326–7, 347, 559, 606, 624–5
brazilwood 59, 60, 62, 67, 326, 327
Breen, T. H. 11, 632
Brew, Richard 590
brideprices/dowries 366–7, 370, 373, 380
Brillat-Savarin, Jean Anthelme 130, 134, 145
Bristol 29
merchants/ships 78, 79, 335
pilots 91
Society of Merchants Adventurers 220
British Atlantic, the 219, 484
attitudes/identity in 223, 224–5, 229, 230, 231–3
‘Britain’ and ‘England’ in 226–7
companies and 220–1
conflict with Native Americans in 223–4, 232
governance/trade in 221–2, 225–6, 227–30
growth in 227–9
law in 406, 413–14
populations 228
war in 230–1
see also tobacco
British Post Office 230
British South Sea Company 191
British West India regiments 608
Brown, Christopher 634
Bruno, Giordano 457
Brutus (Trojan War veteran) 226
Bry, Theodore de 126, 127–8, 142–3, 439, 466
Buenos Aires 152, 579–80, 581, 608, 622
Buffon, Count
Burgkmair, Hans 142
Burke, Edmund 341, 527–8, 637, 645
Burnard, Trevor 373
bush-loping/lopers 350–1, 360
Byron, Lord 640
Cabinda 278, 279
Cabot, John 6, 30, 79, 220
Cabot, Sebastian 94, 96
Cabral, Pedro Álvares 78, 139, 326
cacao 190–2
Cadamosto, Alvise de 22, 23, 26, 138
Cadillac, Antoine Laumet de La Mothe 376
Cádiz 188, 189, 191, 248–9, 620–1, 623
Constitution/Charter of 491, 572, 573, 574, 577, 578, 579, 581–2
Cortes of 571–4, 578, 580
Caillas, López 140
Calvin's Case (1608) 401
Camões, Luis de 638
Camper, Petrus 476
Canada 233, 430–1
French 240–1, 499
Upper 506–7
see also New France; Quebec
Canary Islands 23–4, 25, 29, 34–5, 75, 76, 172
control of 148
emigration from 191, 197
Guanche of 119
Inquisition 177
see also disease
cannibalism 115, 120–1
Canny, Nicholas 634, 636
canoes 34, 35, 593
Cantino, Alberto 88
(p. 653) Cão, Diogo 28, 76
Cape Bojador 24, 25–6
Cape Verde Islands 24, 26–7, 28–9, 34, 43, 44, 45–6, 76
nature and importance of 208–10
captaincies/captains 59–60, 61, 67, 153, 154, 155, 346, 396
Caramansa, African chief 27, 40
caravan routes/trade 23, 27, 31–2, 34, 36
caravel 25, 77
Cardano, Girolamo 457
Caribs/Carib, the 63, 68, 119, 150–1, 504
Caribbean, the
encounters in 57–9
English/British 221–2, 519, 524–5
food in 137–8
migration to 317, 320, 321
navigating 81–2
violence/exploitation in 119–20
Carletti, Antonio 135
Carlos III, king of Spain 568
carrack 25 n.
Carranza, Baltazar Dorantes de 452
Cartier, Jacques 65, 236, 237, 266
Casa da India 464
Casa de la Contratación 94, 95–6, 189 n. 15, 312, 326, 464
cassava
see manioc
castas 186
Castillo, Bernal Díaz del 126, 139
Catari, Túpac 513
Catawbas, the 393
Catesby, Mark 465
Catherine of Braganza, Queen 135
Catherine the Great 298
Catholic orders
Augustinians 155
Capuchins 43, 52, 209
Carmelites 503
Dominicans 58, 155, 503
Franciscans 58, 66, 121, 155, 197, 209, 257, 503
Caulker family (Sierra Leone) 590
cavalry 419–20, 422, 428
Cazana, Luca di 29
Cesalpino, Andrea 457
Cham (son of Noah) 474
Champlain, Samuel de 237, 266, 342, 350, 351, 376, 403
Channel Islands 384
Charles II, king of Spain 185
Charles III, king of Spain 520, 621
Charles V, Emperor 115, 119, 139, 141, 155, 452
charts
plane 94
portolan 23, 25, 75, 93
Chateaubriand, François-René de 637, 639, 641
Chaunu, Pierre 167
Cherokees, the 268
Chimalpahin (Nahua historian) 257–8, 638
chocolate 135–6
Christianity
converting Africans to 40, 49, 51–2, 437
in West Africa 387, 589, 590
music and 140
variants of/fusions with 435–6, 437–8, 440–2, 446
Christophe, Henry 547
chronometer 82–3
Church Missionary Society 600
cimarrones 435–6, 437, 444
Cisneros, Card. 119
Claudian (Roman poet) 451
Clausewitz, Carl von 418
Clive, Lord 638, 641
Clusius, Carolus 465–6
Cochlaeus, Johann 455
Code Noir 244, 377, 410
(p. 654) Coercive/Intolerable Acts 523
Coke, Sir Edward 401
Colbert, Jean-Baptiste 237, 238, 240, 243, 321, 351, 376
College of New Jersey 230
College of Philadelphia 230
College of William and Mary 230
Colombia 581–3
Columbian Exchange 300
of animals 295–6
of disease 294–5
of plants/crops 296–9
Columbus, Christopher 6, 7, 22, 24, 28, 31, 118, 119, 132, 154, 312, 325, 450–2, 454, 455, 460, 638
attitudes/career 30, 148
geographical understanding of 72
in Hispaniola 149
interactions with indigenous peoples 34, 35, 91
journeys of 29, 55, 58
orders music 139
Columbus, Ferdinand 35
comercio libre (free trade) 191, 192, 196, 332, 509
Compagnie de Nouvelle France 350–1
Compagnie des Cent-Associés 176, 396
Compagnie Normande 238
Companhia Geral do Comércio do Brasil 327, 336
companies
colonial 168–9, 203, 220–1
trade and 335–6
Company of Grão Pará and Maranhão 10
Company of Merchants Trading to Africa 600
Company of Royal Adventurers to Africa 226
Comunero uprising/Comuneros revolt 14, 199
Condamine, Charles-Marie de la 467
Condorcanqui, Juan Gabriel see Amaru II, Túpac
Congress
of Angostura 581–2
of Cúcuta 582
of Vienna (1814) 615
Constitution of Apatzingán 577
consulados 331, 336
consumer revolution 11
Continental Association 524–5
Continental Congress 519, 524–6, 527
convict transportation 410–11
Cook, Capt. James 100, 531
Cordova, Salinas y 476
Corn, Charles 135
Cornwallis, Lord 530
Coronado, Francisco Vazquez de 66, 152
Cortés, Hernán 33, 107, 114, 118, 139, 142, 237, 258, 452
authority curtailed 154
conquers Aztec confederacy 152
on chocolate 135
reports human sacrifice 120
takes tobacco to Spain 133
Tlaxcalans and 253
violence of 115
Cortes, the 570–1, 575, 577, 581
see also Cádiz
Cosa, Juan de la 23 n. 6
cosmography 78, 87, 94
Costa, Cláudio Manuel da 558
cotton/cloth 299, 622, 623, 625, 629–31, 632
Council
of Regency 570, 575, 578, 579–80
of the Indies 256, 464
Crafts, Nicholas 632
creole
culture 53
ecology 294
elites 215, 407, 410, 513, 514, 622
insurers 334
languages 27, 207, 209, 538
status 375, 376, 477
see also slaves
creoles 12–13, 184
Africans as 490
Atlantic 489
British 228
Cape Verde 209, 210
English perceptions of 225
European 475
Haitian 534, 541
(p. 655) in Spanish America/Spanish 160, 186, 195, 309
meaning of term in West Africa 589
Portuguese 216
Cromwell, Oliver 164, 168, 185, 223, 317, 465
Cronon, William 644–5
Crosby, Alfred 293, 294, 295
Cruz, Martín de la 133
Cuba 185, 186, 187, 195, 197, 545, 606, 622
Cuenca, Gregorio González de 434–5
Cuevas, Father Juan de 440–1
Cuffee, Paul 388
currents 81–2
Cuvier, Georges 476
d'Abbeville, Claude 61
Dahomey 203, 275–6, 385, 387, 586
Dale's Laws 414
dance 141
Davenant, Charles 307
D'avila, Pedrarias 152
Davis, Ralph 621 n. 8
Declaration of Independence (American) 414, 523, 527, 528
Declaration of the Rights of Man 536–7
Defoe, Daniel 308
Dermigny, Louis 639
derrama 558
Dessalines, Jean-Jacques 541, 544, 547
Deus, João de 560
d'Évreux, Yves 61
Dias, Bartolomeu 28, 76
disease 56, 270
Amerindians and 294–5, 301, 302
crowd 294–5
in Africa 294–5
in Americas 64, 65, 258, 371
in Canary Islands 113
in Caribbean 57, 150
on ships 84, 202, 282–3
sexually transmitted 374
slaves and 301–2
Domingos (heir to Warri kingdom) 52
Domínguez, Miguel 576
doradistas 58
Dourado, Fernão Vaz 97
Drake, Bernard 169
Drake, Sir Francis 91, 99, 120
Dudley, Robert 61
Dulcert, Angelino 23
Dürer, Albrecht 141–2
Dutch East India Company (VOC) 65, 95, 96, 319, 465, 531, 595
Dutch West India Company (WIC/GWC) 168, 171, 174, 177, 284, 320, 409, 465
collapse 96, 328, 625
establishment 61, 95, 162, 319, 424
operations/activities 319, 327
settlement and 353–5
dyewood 153, 157, 273
Eanes, Gil 26
East India Company 220, 522–3, 637, 639, 641, 645
ecological Atlantic, the
Europe and 302–3
regions 289–91
slaves and 301–2
Edward VI, king of England 226
Eiríksson, Leif 74
Elias, Norbert 113
Eliot, John 349, 356
Elizabeth I, queen of England 119, 123, 132, 220, 227
Elliott, John H. 9, 342
Elmina
see Mina
Eltis, David 330, 618, 627 n. 31, 633
Emboabas War 556–7
embodiment 474–7, 478
encomenderos 124, 154, 156, 190, 343
encomienda 150, 161, 253, 256, 342, 343, 396
disputes over/limits on 154, 156
effects on indigenous peoples of 119–20, 127
nature of 149
Engels, Friedrich 365
(p. 656) English Civil War 220, 223
English Guinea Company 168
English Merchant Adventurers 383
Equiano, Olaudah 477
Erasmus 459
Eurafricans 51, 589
European
expansion and international relations 394–8
imaginings of Amerindians 389–90
see also individual entries
evangelization 30
French 178, 238
Iberian 155–6
in Africa 28, 32–3, 589, 599–600
in Americas 33, 60–1, 69, 178, 438, 440
Eve (biblical figure) 458
factories/‘factory system’ 59, 148, 272–3, 313
see also feitorias
Faeroe Islands 73
Farmer, Eliza 531
Faust, Drew Gilpin 643
feiras 211
feitorias 346–7
Ferdinand VI, king of Spain 511
Ferme Générale 249
Fernández-Armesto, Felipe 85
Fernando, prince of Aragon 148
Ferrer, Jaume 26
fertility 371, 374, 380, 604
Figueroa, Gómez Suarez de 262–3
Findlay, Ronald 632
firearms
in Africa 48, 426, 472, 588
in Americas 56, 69, 266–7, 392, 423, 424, 426
Flamsteed, John 72
Fleury, Jean 236
Florida 64, 194, 195, 197, 499, 505, 508
Francis I, king of France 123
Franco, Hernando 140
Frangipani, Mercutio 132
Frangipania family 131, 132
Franklin, Benjamin 230, 309, 381, 468
Frederick the Great 298
French Atlantic, the 235, 250
Amerindian-French contacts/relations in 236, 239–40, 245
characteristics 239–45
economy 245–9
law in 409–10
mercantilism in 243
shaping 236–9
trade in 246–8
warfare and 248
French Revolution 245–6, 248, 529, 530
Africa and 595
antislavery and 613
Brazil and 557, 558–61
French Wars 245, 248
French West Indies 235, 238, 239, 241, 244, 250
fueros 404, 405
Gage, Thomas 136, 140
Galilei, Galileo 455
Galileo
Gálvez, Bernardo de 193 n. 23, 195
Gálvez, José de 193
Gálvez, Matías de 193 n. 23
Gama, Vasco da 31, 76, 79, 91, 148, 452, 638
Gambia River 22, 26, 32, 34, 36, 273, 589
Gandavo, Pero de Magalhaes 465
Garroway, Tom 135
Gastaldi, Giacomo 456 n. 28
Genovese, Eugene 610–11
George III, king of England 233, 520, 524, 525, 610
Gerard, John 136
Gezo, king of Dahomey 591
Ghana 274
as land/source of gold 27, 38
Gibson, Charles 184
n. 3
gift-giving 501, 505, 506, 510, 514
Gilbert, Sir Humphrey 65, 132, 403
Glorious Revolution 226
Godechot, Jacques 546
Godwyn, Morgan 128
gold 157, 167, 472–3
in Brazil 349, 555–6, 558
trade 43–4, 45, 214, 273, 325–6, 331, 622
see also doradistas; Ghana
Gold Coast 43–4, 53, 284, 591, 600
as source of slaves 274–5
Gomes, Diogo 25, 26
Gomes, Fernão 27
Gonzaga, Tomás Antonio 558
Goody, Jack 366–7
Gookin, Daniel 439
Graham, Maria 563
Grainger, James 136–8
Granada, kingdom of 119, 148
Great Migration 65–6, 221, 228, 317, 351
Great Northern War 384
Green, Roger 359
Greenland 73–4
Grenville, George 520, 521
Grotius, Hugo 389, 403, 452, 453, 456
Guadeloupe 237, 239, 241, 244, 248, 250, 353, 540, 620
Guaman Poma 102, 260–2, 263
Guaraní, the 503
rebellion/War 186, 198–9, 511, 552
Guaykuru, the 503, 511
Guerra, Cristobal 58
Guerra, François-Xavier 567
Gulf Stream 79, 81
guns/gunpowder 418–20, 422, 426, 449
see also firearms
Guyana/Guiana
French 237, 239, 240, 241, 250, 321
Guzmán, Nuño de 454
haciendas 163, 259, 396, 410, 502, 509, 511
Haiti 239, 243, 246, 248, 250, 330, 602
adoption of name 544
Britain and 541, 544
economic importance of 241, 533–4
forced labour system in 542, 543
France and 533–4, 539–40, 542–4, 608
free coloured people/anciens libres in 244, 534, 536–9, 540, 541–2, 543, 544, 547
population social structure of 244, 353, 534, 546
slaves slavery in 284–5, 534, 537–41, 543, 548, 635
Haitian Revolution 388, 411, 414, 529, 533, 595, 604, 606, 614–15
brutality of 544
compared to other revolutions 530, 545–8
complexities of 535–44
Eugene Genovese on 610–11
French Revolution and 535–8, 548, 606–7
impact of 15, 544–5
race, nationalism and 537–8, 547
rebellions uprisings pre-535–6, 537–9
see also Brazil
Hakluyt, Richard 143, 466
Halliday, ‘King’ 596
Hamilton, Alexander 461, 619
Hammond, John Henry 643
(p. 658) Hancock, David 208
Harriot, Thomas 115, 142, 143, 144, 438–9, 444, 465, 473
Harrison, John 82–3
Hartman, Mary 379
Harvard College 230
Haskell, Alec 383 n. 4
Hawkins, John 166, 224
Hawkins, William 224
He, Zheng 85
hearing 138–41
Hegel, Georg Friedrich 461
Henri IV, king of France 237
Henrique (Catholic bishop) 42, 52
Henry, Portuguese prince 22, 24, 25–6, 313
Henry the Navigator
Henry III, king of Castile 24
Henry VII, king of England 30, 220
Henry VIII, king of England 226
Herjolfsson, Bjarni 73–4
Hernandez, Francisco 465
Herodotus 451
Herschel, Sir William 528 n. 24
Hidalgo, Father Miguel 576
Hirschman, Albert 640
Hispanic Revolution, the
civil wars/revolts in Spanish America and 574–80
Constitution of 1812 and 572–3, 577, 578, 581, 582
elections and 570–1, 573–4, 577, 581
independence struggles and 580, 581–3
political revolution, autonomy and 568–70, 573, 575, 579, 581
scholarship 567
see also Cádiz
Hojeda, Alonso de 58
Holland, Compton 265
Hopi, the 384
Horace (Roman poet) 451
horses 66, 392, 501
House of Trade 154, 158, 172
household formation
Christian Church and 367–8
in Americas 362, 364–5, 378–81
in Europe 367–8
land availability and 369–72
scholarship 379–80
Hudson Bay Company 268, 518
Hudson, Pat 632
Huguenots 9, 177, 240, 320, 493
human origins 456–8
Humboldt, Alexander von 193, 450, 460–1
Hume, David 450, 459
Hunter, John 476
Huron, the 65, 68, 267, 350, 426
hybridization 124–5, 151, 224
ecological 293–4
hydrography 111
Iberian Atlantic, the
Caribbean beginnings of 149–51
from 1580–1640 159–64
governing/administering 153–5
imperial spaces and trade in 157–9
origins 147–8
pre-1570 conquest and settlement in 152–7
Iceland 73, 74
identities
African 4, 488–92, 593
classifying 485–6
Dutch 493
ethnic 481, 484–5, 487
European 480–4, 493
family 493–4
Indian 484–8
lineage and 487–8, 494
local 482, 484, 485, 494–5
religion and 487, 492–3
slavery/slaves and 491–2, 610–11
Inca, the 259–60, 262–3
see also polities
inconfidências (conspiracies) 557–60, 566
indentured labourers 221, 222
India 452, 453, 638–9
run 202, 203
Indian Company 242
(p. 659) Indian Ocean 5, 452, 643
see also wind systems
Indians/American Indians
see individual entries
indigo 299
industrial revolution 632
infantry 419–20, 422, 428
Information Revolution 334
Inikori, Joseph 632
Inquisition, the 121–2, 128, 156, 375–6, 406, 572
insurance 334
Ireland 119, 223, 226, 524–5, 530, 629
see also migration
iron 189, 472
Iroquois, the 65, 68, 104, 245, 266–9, 382, 500
League of 384, 390, 391
lineage system 365
warfare and 425, 426, 429–30
Isabela, princess of Castile 147
Islam 31, 437
Christian confrontation with 30, 32
in Africa 38, 387, 564
see also Muslims
Italian Wars 418, 420, 422
Italy 6
Iturrigaray, Viceroy José 575
Jackson, Andrew 508–9
Jacobins 607, 613, 615
Jamaica 185, 232, 317, 358, 373, 412, 521, 627
James VI/I, king of Scotland/England 119, 227, 335
Japan 78–9, 531
Jean-François (Haitian insurgency leader) 539–40
Jefferson, Thomas 468, 477, 517, 528, 543, 544
Jeleen, Bumi 40, 51
Jeronimo, Dom 591
Jesuits 209, 320, 345, 434, 510
as missionaries 140, 153, 409, 500, 503, 509
as scientists 466
expulsion of 13, 14, 186–7, 194, 199, 511, 551, 552–3, 555, 557
in Brazil 156, 160, 349, 551
in Kongo 52
in New France 350–1
in Peru 440–2
Spanish 64, 161
Jews
as migrants 319, 320
conversion of 148
expulsion of 125, 148
in Dutch colonies 355
in Haiti 534
Sephardic 395, 493
jihads 594
João (slave rebel leader) 565
John II, king of Portugal 24, 25, 27, 28, 40, 76
John III, king of Portugal 346
John IV, king of Portugal 163, 201, 203
John V, king of Portugal 203, 214–16, 555
John VI, king of Portugal 513, 562
Johnson, Edward 358
Johnson, Walter 642
Jones, Eric 303
José I, king of Portugal 207, 215, 216, 555
Josselyn, John 439
Junta Central 569–70, 575, 578, 579
Justinian
codes 396
Digest 403–4
Justinian, Emperor 403
Kalm, Peter 465
Kelton, Paul 295 n., 301 n.
Keymis, Lawrence 61
Khaldún, Ibn 33
King George's War 341
King Philip's War 118, 126, 226, 266, 402, 408
King William's War 230
King's College 230
Kiple, Kenneth 302 n. 25
Klein, Herbert 603 n.
knörr 73
Knox, Henry 507
Kongo 27, 28, 32, 41, 392
Christianity in 42, 51–2, 489
involvement in slavery 46
relations with Europe 42–3
Kourou expedition 239
Kpengla, king of Dahomey 591
(p. 660) Kubler, George 433–4, 437, 447
Kupperman, Karen 142, 438, 641
la Salle, Cavalier de 237
lançados 51, 206
land acquisition 394–8
Landa, Fray Diego de 121
Las Casas, Fray Bartolomé de 57, 127, 261, 343, 346, 407, 455
latitudes 72, 74, 75–6, 82, 94
Laudonnière, René de 64
Laveaux, étienne 541
law 647
Amerindians and Atlantic 407–8
English common 401, 403, 405, 408, 413, 491
maritime 408–9
martial 413–14
pirates and 402, 408–9
Roman 395, 396, 403–4, 453, 491, 492
ships and 402–3
slave 411–12, 491
Law, John 241
Law, Robin 271 n.
Laws of Burgos 151
Lawson family (Slave Coast) 591–2
Lawson, George 591
Le Moyne d'Iberville, Pierre 238
Leclerc, Gen. Charles V.-E. 239, 543–4, 548
Leclerc, Georges-Louis 381, 466, 476
l'Écluse, Charles de
Leo X, Pope 42
León, Juan Francisco de 191, 198
Léon, Juan Ponce de 64, 79
Léry, Jean de 115, 120
Lescarbout, Marc 138
Levant Company 220
l'exclusif 329, 330, 339
Liberia 310, 591
Library Company of Philadelphia 230
Lienas, Juan de 140
Lienzo of Tlaxcala 253–4
lienzos 107–8, 258
Ligon, Richard 358–9
Lima 343, 345
limpieza de sangre 375–6, 487
lineage/kinship systems
European 366–8, 369
Mesoamerican 368–9
Native American 365–6, 369, 371
West African 366–7, 369
see also identities
Linnaeus, Carl 465, 466, 476
Linné, Carl
Little Ice Age (LIA) 292–3, 303
London Missionary Society 600
longitudes 72, 82–3, 112
Louis XII, king of France 350
Louis XIII, king of France 237
Louis XIV, king of France 237, 242, 248, 384, 425
expands army 427–8
Jean-Baptiste Colbert and 238, 351, 376
Louis XV, king of France 241
Louisiana 194, 196–7, 239, 377, 520
French 237, 241–2, 321, 505
Purchase 508, 544
Louverture, Toussaint 538, 540, 541, 547, 548, 560
Napoleon Bonaparte and 542–3
Loyalists (American) 531, 546
Loyola, Ignatius 442–3
Lucan (Roman poet) 454
Lunda empire 279, 280
Luso-Africans 206, 211, 212, 386, 388, 402
involvement in trade/economies 27, 29, 162, 205
Luso-Brazilians 205, 212
Lynch, John 567
Macaulay, Lord 639
MacLeod, Murdo J. 188
McNeill, J. R. 467, 644
Madagascar 280–1, 283
Madeira 24, 29, 44, 75, 148, 325
importance of 208
migration to/from 314
overcrowding in 204
Madison, James 530, 636
(p. 661) Magellan, Ferdinand 293 n. 9, 451
magnetic compass 75, 85
maize 53, 136, 213, 290, 294
slaving and 301
spread of 298–9
Malaspina expedition 467
Mali 21–2
Mali, Mansa 23
Malocello, Lanzarotto 23
Mancke, Elizabeth 641
manioc 53, 213, 290
slaving and 301
spread of 298–9
Manoa, the 63
Mansfield, Lord 232, 412
Manuel, Francisco 256
Manuel I, king of Portugal 44, 125
mapping 112, 404
geographical 102–6
indigenous 101–2
real property 109–11
sensuous 106
terrestrial modes of 101–11
topographical 106–9
maps
urban 106
world 94, 100
Marchionni, Bartolomeo 23
marine navigation and charting 90–8
Markgraf, Georg 465
maroon communities 384, 388, 412, 539, 609
Maroon Wars 232
Marques, Joseph 314
marriage 364, 380–1
African-European 50–1, 206, 377, 590
English-African/Native American 224
in Americas 369–70, 372–3
in West Africa 373, 590
in Western Europe 367–8, 379
inter-475
Native American-European 124, 350, 374, 376–7
Martinique 237, 239, 241, 243, 248, 250, 353, 620
Martyr, Peter 126, 452
Mascates War 556
Massachusetts Bay Company 220, 221, 356
Massasoit (Pokanoket sachem) 264, 266
Mather, Cotton 225
Mauritius 238, 239, 240, 242
Maurits, Johan 355
Maximilian I, Holy Roman emperor 142
Maya, the 32, 35, 510
Mayer, Tobias 82
Mazagão 207
Mazarin, Card. Jules 237
Mbayá, the 510–11
Meinig, D. W. 341, 342
Menchaca, Fernando Vázquez de 455
mercantilism 203, 215, 321, 326, 619, 621
Mercator, Gerhard 94
Mercator projection 94, 95
mercenaries 68–9, 117, 420, 428
mercury 189
Merian, Maria Sibylla 465
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 144
Mesgouez, Troilus de La Roche de 236
Mesoamerica 32, 35–6
mapping in 102, 109
mestiços 160, 205
mestizaje 502–3, 513
mestizos 124–5, 159, 163, 184 n. 3, 319, 363–4
as elites 502–3, 512
as enemies 508, 512
discrimination against 375
forming communities of 486
see also Peru
Metacom (Wampanoag sachem) 266
metals/metallurgy 48, 471–3
Michelet, Jules 450
Mickle, William Julius 638
migrants
child 308, 309, 321
gender of 310, 312, 314, 316–17, 321
penal 308, 309, 318
sourcing of 308–10
trans- 319, 320
military practices/technologies/attitudes
African 420–1, 422
Amerindian 56, 420–1
Native American 68–9
Military Revolution 418–20, 421, 422, 426–7
Miller, Perry 640
Mina 27, 29, 40, 41, 44, 76, 176, 201, 346
Minas Gerais 347, 349, 351, 360, 552, 556, 603, 604
uprisings/unrest in 553, 557–8, 562
mining 157
Miranda, Francisco 578
misalliances 378
British on 377
French on 376–7
Portuguese on 376
Spanish on 375–6
miscegenation 160, 178, 377, 475–6
identity and 486, 494
inter-Indian 484
Mississippi Company 242
Mixtón Wars 256
Mohawk, the 266–7, 384
Mohicans, the 65
Moll, Herman 100
Monardes, Nicholas 133, 465–6, 471
Monardus, Nicolas
money 333–4, 619
monogamy 366, 367, 372–3, 378, 380, 381
Montaigne, Michel de 452, 455
Montesquieu, Charles de 383, 481, 558, 562
Montezuma I, Aztec ruler 468
Montreal 350
Peace of 245
Morales, Cristobal 140
Morelos, Father José María 577
Morgan, Lewis 365
Morgan, Philip 634, 636, 646 n. 59
Morieux, Renaud 641
Morillo, Marshal Pablo 579
Moriscos 119
Mosse, George L. 113
Moteuczoma (Aztec leader) 256
mulattos 205, 209, 216, 244, 319, 363, 625
involved in Brazilian conspiracies/unrest 559–60, 561, 562–3
Mūsā, Mansa 21
Muscovy Company 220
music 138–41
Muslims
as slaves 564–5, 594
conversion of 119, 148
Mutis, Jose Celestino 467
naos 25
Napoleon
narratives
of civility 385–6, 388–9, 392, 393, 401
of sovereignty 385–6, 388–9, 391, 392, 393, 401–2
see also violence
nations and nationalism 481–2, 574–5
Native Americans
see individual entries
nature
Navajo, the 66
navigation 25
African 593
(p. 663) by Pole Star 25, 74, 75–6
coastal 34
early Atlantic 72
Mediterranean 75
Muslim 33
of Christopher Columbus 78–9, 87, 90
Portuguese 76
study of Atlantic 85
under sail 80
Navigation Acts 225, 329, 339, 409, 629
Ndongo 42
Neolin (Delaware prophet) 505
Netherlands, the see New Netherland; United Provinces
New Amsterdam 353–5
New Calabar 277
New Christians 156, 162, 206, 215, 315
New England 356, 358, 359–60, 364, 613, 628
warfare in 425–6
New France 233, 245, 266, 320
loss of 239, 505, 626
population 228, 321, 353
settling 240, 350–1
trade 241
New Granada 186, 190, 578–9, 581–2, 609
New Laws (1542) 256
New Netherland 223, 228, 320, 328, 424
settlement 354–5
New Spain 96, 107, 109, 157, 184, 312, 623
economy 188–9
indigenes appeal for royal help/relief 252–3, 255–6
indigenous communities in 258–9, 510
Mexico City 258, 574, 575–6
resistance/violence/unrest in 256, 576–7
secedes 581
Tlaxcalan delegations from 252–3, 255
Newfoundland 74, 78, 403
cod 64, 79, 137, 167, 169
Company 220
France and 236, 246, 329
‘newness’ in the Atlantic world 449–52
intellectual history and 459–61
origins of American Indians and 456–8
words/terms and 453–5
Newton, Isaac 467
Nicholas V, Pope 28
Nicot, Jean 133
Niger River 589, 599
Noah (biblical figure) 456–7, 474
North America
encounters in 64–6
English-Native American relations/violence in 264–6
European-Native American trade in 266–7
indigenous delegations from 267–8
inter-colonial tensions in 194
North, Lord 522, 525
northern European Atlantic, the
collaboration/instability in 176
colonization of 168, 173–9
Indian-black-European relations in 178
intermediaries in 171–3
privateers, merchants and fishermen of 165–70
religion in 177–8
northern land bridge 456–7
Norway 73–4
Nova Scotia 519
novohispanos 575, 581
Occom, Samson 477
Ogé, Vincent 536, 537–8
Oglethorpe, James 341
Ohogbua, King 52
Olañeta, Gen. Pedro 582–3
Old Calabar 277, 283, 591, 592
Oldenburg, Henry 463
Oñate, Juan de 66
Opepechanconough (Powhatan chief) 144
Ordás, Diego de 62
Ordenaçöes Manuelinas 406
O'Reilly, William 634
Orellana, Francisco de 61
O'Rourke, Kevin 632
Oroz, Pedro 134
Orpin, Juan de 58
Orta, Garcia da 466
Osma, Pedro de 471
(p. 664) Osorio, Dr Alonso 442
Ouidah 275–6, 281
Oviedo, Gonzalo Fernández de 120, 126, 454, 465
Ozolua, King 52
padrón real 95, 96
Paine, Thomas 517, 528
palm oil 597–8
Palmer, R. R. 536, 546
pan-Africanism 489–90
Panama 435–6
see also cimarrones
papal bulls 28, 209
Paracelsus 457–8
Pascal, Blaise 460
Passe, Simon van de 265
patronage 24, 29, 30, 31
patroons/patroonships 354, 396
Payaguá, the 503–4
Peace of Paris 527
Pearl Coast 58
Pedro I, emperor/regent of Brazil 562, 563
people movements in the Atlantic world
African 311
reasons for 305–6
pepper exports 45
Pepys, Samuel 72
Pequot War 224
Pequots, the 265–6
Pereira, Duarte Pacheco 451
Perestrello, Bartolomeo 24
perfume 131–4
Pérotin-Dumon, Anne 353
Pétion, Alexandre 543, 545
Petty, William 307
Peyrère, Isaac La 458
Phibbah (creole slave) 373
Philip II, king of Spain 117, 160–1, 260
Philip III, king of Spain 175
Philip IV, king of Spain 551
Philip V, king of Spain 466–7
Philippine Ordinances 161
Phyrro the Sceptic 145
Pies, Willem 465
Pilgrims, the 177, 222, 264
Pina, Rui de 27
Pinelo, Leon 476
piracy/pirates 159, 167, 169, 222
Barbary 125, 201
Dutch 166, 328
English 84, 166, 257, 423
Flemish 257
French 84, 236
Portuguese 313
see also law; privateers
Pitt, William (the Elder) 521
Pizarro, Francisco 152, 154
Pizarro, Gonzalo 61, 114, 262
plantation
colonies 222, 347, 358–9
economies 60, 62, 240, 241, 242, 605
plantation ecology 299–302
Plato 457
Plymouth Company 220
Pocahontas 264, 265, 377
Pocoke, Dr Edward 135 n. 17
Polaris 78, 79
see also navigation
polities
African 386–8
Amerindian 389–93
autonomous 384, 385
Aztec/Inca 391
consolidating and integrative 383, 384–5, 386–8, 390–1, 392, 393
diasporic 383–4, 385, 386, 394–5
formation of 382–3
hierarchy of 385–6
niche 383, 384, 385, 387–8, 391, 393, 395
Polo, Marco 29, 452
Polverel, French official 539–40
Polybius (Greek historian) 451
Pombal, marquis of 13, 215, 331, 336, 520, 555, 624
(p. 665) pombeiros 51, 205, 279
Pomponazzi, Pietro 457
Pontiac (Native American leader) 477
Pontiac's Conspiracy/War 232, 505–6, 508, 512, 513
portolani 91
Portugal
Castile and 147–8, 201
England/Britain and 203, 214
northern Europeans and 175–6, 179
Spain and 160–2, 163, 186, 201, 327
Portuguese
-Africa relations/trade 39–43, 489
-Amerindian relations 205
exploration 22–9, 36–7, 153
language in Africa 50, 51
Portuguese Atlantic, the (1650–1760) 201
archipelagos 208–10
change, decline and colonial influence in 214–18
emigration/migration in 203–4, 216
identity in 216
maritime aspects of 202–3
people 203–7
role of non-Europeans in 204–5, 209
settlements, economies and societies 207–11
South Atlantic exchanges in 213–14
Posadas, Gervasio Antonio 580
potatoes 297–9
Powhatan (Native American leader) 65, 115, 145, 264
Powhatans, the 65, 104, 224
Pownall, Thomas 645
Prester John 28
Price, Jacob 646 n. 59
Priest, Claire 641
privateers 84, 174, 185
English 220, 222, 430
French 237, 429, 430, 542
Spanish 430
prize courts 408–9
Proclamation, the (1763) 505–6
Protestantism 223, 224, 387, 438, 446
see also violence
Protten, Rebecca 438
Providence Island Company 220
Provisional Governing Junta of the Provinces of the Río de la Plata 579–80
Ptolemy 78
Pueblo, the 66, 187, 501
pueblos de indios 258–9, 502, 510
Puerto Rico 58
Purchas, Samuel 145, 466
Puritans 265–6, 360
purity of blood 493, 494
quadrants 25
Quaque, Philip 591
Quauhtlehuanitzin, Don Domingo de San Antón Muñón Chimalpahin see Chimalpahin
Quebec 237, 350, 351, 519, 521
quilombos 349, 553–4, 563, 565
Rabbards, Ralph 132
race/racism 375–8, 388
ethnicity and 486–7, 491
slavery and 492
Raimond, Julien 244
Raleigh, Sir Walter 61, 65, 132, 293, 356, 473
rape 124–5
Rauwolf, Leonhard 135
Raynal, Abbé 558, 612, 639, 646
Rayón, Ignacio López 576
Real Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas 191–2, 198
Recopilación de los reynos de las Indias 410
Red Sticks 508, 512–13
reducciones 345, 349, 502, 503, 511
Reformation, the 459, 493
Catholic/Counter 156, 177
Reis, Piri 100
religion in the Atlantic world 433–4, 447–8
English and 438–9
indigenous 438–9
interpreting unfamiliar 435–6, 444–6
Spanish and 434–6, 440–2
Removal policy 509
repartimiento 502–3
‘repugnance’ doctrine 413
Reunion 238, 240, 242
rhumbs/rhumb lines 23 n. 6, 25, 75, 91
rice 136–7, 299
Richelieu, Card. 117, 176, 237, 376
Rigaud, André 541, 548
Río de la Plata 161, 162, 184, 186, 511, 574, 624
grazing in 622
obtains independence 581
settlement 152, 197
Robertson, William 450
Robespierre, Maximilien 595
Rockingham, Marquis of 521
Rodger, n. A. M. 638
Rodgers, Daniel 643
Rodríguez O., Jaime E. 567, 575
Rogers, Clifford 418
Rogers family (Sierra Leone) 590
Rojas, Gabriel de 139
Rolfe, Lady Rebecca
Roma 205–6
Rosas, Juan Manuel 514
Rowlandson, Mary 126
Royal Academy of Sciences (Lisbon) 464
Royal African Company 118, 226
Royal Society of London 464
Rubiés, J.-P. 148, 324, 439, 456 n. 28
rutters 91, 92, 96–7
St Augustine 456
St Bartholomew's Day massacre 120, 126
St Clair, William 646
St Croix 176
St Thomas 389, 436
Saint-Domingue
see Haiti
Saint-Domingue Revolution
Saint-Marc Assembly 535
Salazar, Antonio de 140
Salle, Gadifer de la 24
Salvador, Fray Vicente do 347, 350
San Martín, José de 580, 582, 608
Sandoval, Alonso de 50, 436–7
Sandys, Sir Edwyn 308
Santa Casa de Misericordia 346, 347
Santa Maria Novella 131–2
Santo Domingo 150, 151, 343, 538–9, 542
São Jorge da Mina
see Mina
São Tomé 27, 29, 43, 44, 148
and Príncipe 208–10
slavery and 45–6
Schivelbusch, Wolfgang 135
Schöner, Johann 452
science
accounts of nature and 465–6
and ‘nature’ as terms 469
expeditions 466–7
hierarchies 468
history/diffusion of 463–5, 467–8, 471, 478
knowledge of nature and 470–3
models for studying 468–9
racial 473–8
Scotland 222, 226–7, 230, 317
sea pilots 90–1, 93–6, 98
Second Hundred Years War 238, 526
Sedeño, Antonio de 62
Senegal 238, 239, 595
Senegal River 22, 26, 34, 273, 589
Senegambia 29, 34, 45, 46, 176, 284, 585
identity in 206–7
Sensbach, Jon 438
senses, the 130–1, 145
Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de 57, 127
Serna, Gen. José de la 582
sertão 346, 347, 349
settlement in the Americas
British 356–60
Dutch 353–6
Portuguese 346–50
scholarship 341–2
Spanish 343–6
Seven Years War 13, 196, 410, 431, 477, 519, 605, 612
American Revolution and 14, 517, 519–20, 527
Britain and 195, 230–1, 233, 518, 619
France and 239, 620, 626
nature of 430–1
Spain enters 509
sexual
exploitation 151, 244
relations 178, 204–5, 262, 309, 373–4
Shammas, Carole 379
Sharp, Granville 612
sheep 66
Shields, David 641
ships 25, 26
capabilities of 72–3
guns on 419
ports and 80, 83
sails on 77
steam- 598, 599, 637
Sierra Leone 25, 26–7, 388, 398, 589, 590, 610
Company 597, 600
sight 141–3
silver 162, 187–8, 472–3
ecological effects of mining 291
fleets 158–9, 164, 422
procured by France 249, 250
trade 325, 501–2, 622
Slauter, Eric 634
Slave Coast 274, 284, 586, 591, 592–3
as source of slaves 275–6
slave trade 116
abolition of slavery/ 529, 545, 595–7, 599–600, 602, 613–15, 637
Africa-Brazil 213–14, 278, 284–5, 311, 315, 564
African involvement in 488–9, 605
British/English 228, 277, 284–5
control, order and credit in 275–6, 277
development/growth of 4, 212, 272, 275, 281
Dutch 284
opposition to 232, 322
peaks/periods of 311, 519, 585, 602
Portuguese 272, 278–80, 315
pre-1650 African 45–7, 271, 272–3
routes 272, 283, 284
Spanish 256–7
violence of 114
see also individual entries
slaves
African sources of 273–81, 605
arming 607–9
British use/supply of 116, 128, 191, 222, 224
conditions on ocean passages for 282–3
creole 373–4
demand in Africa for 598
destinations of 284–5
Dutch use of 173
French use of 241, 245
gender/age of 281–2, 311, 596
household formation and 370–1
justifying taking/supplying 492, 594
markets for 273
marriage and 372–3
Portuguese use of 44–6, 60, 153, 205
rebellions/uprisings of 232, 239, 248, 283, 414, 422
return to Africa 591
runaway 609–10
Spanish use of 66, 157
see also asientos; Code Noir; Haitian Revolution; indentured labourers; and individual entries
Sloane, Sir Hans 465
Smallwood, Stephanie 641
smell 131–4
Smith, Adam 243, 520
Smith, Capt. John 104, 105, 116, 144, 145, 439
Society/Company of Jesus see Jesuits
Solow, Barbara 644
Somers Isle/Island Company 220, 465
Somerset Decision/case 232, 412, 642
Sonthonax, French official 539–40, 541–2
Sores, Jacques de 120
Soto, Domingo de 454
Soto, Hernando de 295–6, 423
Sousa, Gabriel Soares de 465
Sousa, Tomé da 346
South Africa 585, 595
Souza, Francisco Felix de 590
space, sense of 144–5
Spain
as conqueror 152–3
Britain and 194–5, 623
Enlightenment in 193
France and 248–9, 568–9, 570–1, 574, 575, 623
Haitian Revolution and 538–9, 540
in Caribbean 149–51
northern Europeans and 175, 179
Spanish America
Catholic Church in 197
foreigners/soldiers in 184, 195
migration to 197
reform in 186, 192–3
revolutions in 15
Spanish Atlantic, the (1650–1780) 183
law in 414
population growth in 184–5, 197
reorganization and reform in 192–7, 199–200
revolts and reaction in 187, 191–2, 193, 198–200
spontaneous generation theory 457
Squanto (slave) 264
Staden, Hans 67, 120, 126
Stamp Act 521, 524, 529
Steele, Ian K. 81 n. 20
Stiles, Ezra 531
Stono Rebellion 232
Stowe, John 132
Strachey, William 132
Stradivarius, Antonio 292
Stuyvesant, Peter 355
subjecthood 401–2, 404
Sucre, Gen. Antonio Jose de 582–3
Suez Canal 293 n. 9
sugar 136, 170, 179, 241
British production of 627
consumption in Britain 229, 627, 631–2
Dutch production of 625–6
French production of 626
history of 299
production in Barbados 173
production in sixteenth century 44–5
slaves and 281, 603, 631–2
Spanish production of 624
trade 330–1
see also Brazil
Sugar Act 521
Sumner, Thomas 83
suplentes 570, 571
Supreme Junta to Conserve the Rights of Fernando VII 577
Supreme National American Junta 576
Suriname 319, 355, 625–6
Sweden 384, 426
Tabataba'i, Ghulam Husain Khan 522
Tacitus 637 n. 13, 638
Tacky's Rebellion 232
Tailors' Revolt 559, 565
Tainos, the 30, 32, 34, 35, 113, 119, 149
Taqui Onqoy 259
taste 134–8, 145
Tea Act 522
Tecumseh (Native American leader) 393, 508
Teixeira, Pedro 61
Tenochtitlan 36, 66, 107, 115, 253, 258, 452
Mexico City built on 152, 343
Tenskwatawa (Native American leader) 393, 505, 508
terra nullius 398, 453
Texas 194, 196, 197
textiles 48, 195
(p. 669) Thévet, André 120, 133
Thirty Years War 425, 426, 427, 428, 431
Thistlewood, Thomas 373, 374
Thórvaldsson, Eirík Rauõi 73
Tidewater Virginia 342, 356, 359–60, 425
Tlaxcala 257
cabildo of 253, 255–6
see also New Spain
Tlaxcalans, the 485
tobacco 53, 65, 170, 179, 241, 297, 299, 622
Amerindians and 301
in British Atlantic 221–2, 264, 627
Tocqueville, Alexis de 459
Tomocomo (spy for Powhatan) 145
Tordesillas
Line 59, 61, 161
Treaty of 88, 90, 148, 175, 394
Torrid Zone 456, 457
torture 122
Toscanelli, Paolo 29
touch 143–5
Toussaint see Louverture, Toussaint
Townshend duties/Acts 521–2, 524
trade 324
African-European 36, 39, 40, 41–2
Amerindian-European 59–60, 67
coastal 32, 34, 35
contraband 159, 162, 169, 179, 187, 190, 192, 408
controlling/managing 335–8
Dutch merchants and 171–3
early 325–7
eighteenth century 330–2
English/British 328–9, 330–1, 623–4, 627–31
finance and 333–4
free 621
information and 334–5
intra-Spanish 189
liberty of transit and 394–6
northern European Atlantic 177
polities and long-distance 386–7, 394
Portuguese 43, 326–7, 328, 331, 624–5
proprietors, family firms, partnerships and 336–7
routes for West African 386–7
seventeenth-century diversification of 327–9
shell 48–9, 587
shipping and 332–3
trans-Saharan 38–9
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database 635
Treaty
Adams-Onís 508
Jay's 506
Methuen 203, 214, 624
of Ghent 508
of Greenville 506–7
of London 223
of Madrid 186, 198, 222, 511
of Paris 233, 321, 431, 505, 506
of San Lorenzo 197, 393
of Union 227
of Utrecht 191 n. 21, 321
see also Tordesillas
Trinidad 57, 58, 62
Tristão, Nuno 26
Tryon, Thomas 128
Tucker family (Sierra Leone) 590
Tudor, Mary 123
Túpac Amaru 260, 263, 393
revolt 193, 198, 199
Tupinambá, the 61, 67, 69, 143
Upper Guinea 272, 284
as source of slaves 273–4
urban spaces 387–8
uxer 26
(p. 670) Vaca, Cabeza de 144
Valdes, Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y see Oviedo, Gonzalo Fernández de
Vallseca, Gabriel de 24
Vásquez, Father Juan 440
Vega, Garcilaso de la 262, 263
Vega, Garcilaso ‘Inca’ de la
Vega, Juan Garcilaso de la 262
Velasco, Juan López de 456 n. 28
Venezuela 57, 58, 190–2, 197, 198, 581–2
Venezuelan Charter 578
Verazzano, Giovanni da 237
Vere, Edward de 132
Verstegan, Richard 128
Vespucci, Amerigo 79, 90, 94, 455, 466
Vieira, António 128, 203
Vikings, the 6
Atlantic of 73–4
Villegagnon, Nicolas Durand de 60
Vinson, Ben 603 n.
violence
Catholic-Protestant 119, 120, 126, 127
controlling 117
early modern period 114–15
European 116
judiciary and 122–4
justifying anti-indigenous 120–1
narratives of captivity and 125–8
race and 128–9
religion and 120–2
Spanish 66
tolerance for 113, 114
Virginia Company 220, 264, 406, 465
Vitoria, Francisco de 407, 454
Vivaldi brothers 26
Vodou 437, 538
Voltaire 451, 455, 558, 638
Von Humboldt brothers 145
Voyages database 283–4, 635 n. 6
Waldseemüller, Martin 98, 466
War of Jenkins's Ear 231, 409, 621
War of the Austrian Succession 430
War of the Barbarians 552
War of the League of Augsburg 427, 428–30
War of the South 541
War of the Spanish Succession 249, 428, 429–30, 555, 621, 624
War of 1812 607
Ward, William G. 469
warfare
African 588
defining Atlantic 417–18
Dutch influence on 423–5
English influence on 423–4, 425–6, 427
French influence on 423–4, 425, 427–8
frontier 429–30
Portuguese influence on 421–2
restraining/limiting 428–9, 430–1
Spanish influence on 422–3
Warri, kingdom of 51, 52
Wars of Religion 116, 126, 493
Washington, George 110, 360, 524
Waterhouse, Edward 359
Wayne, Anthony 506
wealth-in-people/knowledge 387, 393
Weber, Max 117
Weiditz, Christoph 142
West Central Africa 48, 49, 51, 53
as source of slaves 278–80, 281, 596
slave exports from 45, 46, 284–5
see also Kongo
West Indian Company (French) 238
‘West’, the 461
Wheatley, Phillis 477–8
White, John 142–3, 438–9, 444
White, Richard 644
Wigglesworth, Edward 381
Wilberforce, William 596
William III, king of England 226
Williams, Bernard 636
Williams, Eric 247, 632
Williams, Roger 439
wind systems
Indian Ocean 85–6
Winthrop, John 463
Wood, William 439
Xavier, Francis 442
Yale College 230, 531
Yorubaland 587–8, 598
Young, Egbo 596
Yupangui, Dionisio Inca 570
Yupanqui, Túpac Inca 262
Zankli, Akuété see Lawson, George
Ziff, Larzer 445
Zipoli, Dominico 140
Zumárraga, Fray Juan de 121
Zumba, Ganga 554
Zumbi (Palmares chief) 554
Zurara, Gomes Eanes de 26