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date: 22 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

European and African migrations brought waves of change to millions of people on the western side of the Atlantic world. This article examines indigenous responses to some of these changes in three regions of the Americas (New Spain, Peru, and North America), from about the mid-sixteenth to the second half of the eighteenth centuries. It highlights indigenous attempts to reach out across the Atlantic, to meet imperial authorities face to face, to speak to them through mediators and messengers, or to influence them with writings. Many writings from Mexico and Peru reveal a tension between hope and despair, expectation and frustration, as possibilities for cooperation, trade, and alliance between colonists and indigenous gave way in many places to competition for resources and profit. The long-term costs of this competition to Native Americans were incalculable.

Keywords: Native Americans, New Spain, Peru, North America, Atlantic world, Americas, Mexico, trade

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