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date: 28 February 2020

(p. xviii) Chronologies

(p. xviii) Chronologies

These are very selective. They are intended to help readers follow political events involving nationalist movements in non-national states and state-led and oppositional national movements in nation states. I have organized the chronologies in terms of the regions and cases covered by the chapters in Parts 3 and 4. The chronologies go back no further than the eighteenth century and do not go beyond 2000.

Europe until 1918 (Excluding Habsburg and Ottoman Europe)

DATE

EVENT

1707

Union of England and Scotland

1756–63

Seven Years War involves global conflict between Britain and France and is associated with patriotic discourse and movements in both countries

1772

First partition of Poland

1787

Fiscal measures proposed by French Crown lead to demands for an Estates General to be called

1789

Estates General called; Third Estate declares itself National Assembly; Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

1792

France: First Republic declared; war between France and other states, which extends with short breaks until 1815

1793

Second partition of Poland; execution of Louis XVI

1794

Rising in rump state of Poland suppressed

1795

Third and final partition of Poland

1796

Napoleon begins reorganization of Italian lands, first as republics and later as monarchies

1799

Napoleon becomes French First Consul

1804

Napoleon declared Emperor

1806–7

French defeat of Prussia; end of Holy Roman Empire; formation of Confederation of the Rhine; formation of Grand Duchy of Warsaw

1814–15

Defeat of Napoleon; Congress of Vienna confirms partition of Poland; organizes German lands under a Confederation, organizes Italian lands under Austrian domination; restores monarchy in France

1821

Austrian military intervention in Italian states

1830–1

July Revolution in France; insurrection in Congress Poland suppressed by Russia; disturbances in various German and Italian states; uprising against Dutch rule leads to establishment of Belgium

1832

Mazzini founds Young Italy

1834

Formation of German Customs Union under Prussian leadership

1846

Failed nationalist uprisings in Galicia and Posen

1848–9

Revolutions, with many national demands, followed by counter-revolution in France, the Habsburg Empire, the German, Italian, and Polish lands

1857

Formation of Italian National Society

1859–60

France and Piedmont defeat Austria in war, sparking off a chain of events leading to unification of Italy (except the Papal States and Venetia) under Piedmontese rule; formation of German National Association

1862

Bismarck appointed Minister President of Prussia

1863–4

Insurrection in Congress Poland suppressed by Russia, leading to direct incorporation of the territory under Russian rule; beginning of ‘Russification’ policy by Tsarist state

1864

Austria and Prussia defeat Denmark and take over Schleswig and Holstein

1866–7

Prussia and Italy defeat Austria and other German states; Prussian annexes Schleswig-Holstein and Hannover; creates North German Confederation; Italy acquires Venetia

1870–1

Franco-Prussian War leads to formation of the German Second Empire; Third Republic formed in France; Italian troops enter Rome and take over Papal States

1881

Three Emperor’s League hardens control over the Polish lands

1890

Resignation of Bismarck as German Chancellor; Three Emperor’s League not renewed

1894

Franco-Russian alliance

1898

Germany embarks on a battleship fleet building programme as part of an imperialist strategy

1904

Unrest in Finland in response to tightening of Russian control; war between Russia and Japan

1905

Revolution in Russia stimulates nationalist movements

1907

Elections to Russian Duma encourage nationalist organizations

1914

Start of World War I

1916

Austria and Germany create an autonomous Poland; ethnic uprising against Russian rule in Turkestan

1917

Russian revolutions in February and October; Lenin supports ‘national liberation’ and Woodrow Wilson ‘national self-determination’

1918

Germany ends war against Bolshevik Russia with draconian treaty of Brest-Litovsk; launches offensive on Western Front, which fails, and sues for peace in September; national and other uprisings throughout Europe

1918–19

Peace Conference in Versailles leads to formation of new nation states in central Europe

(p. xix) Habsburg Empire

DATE

EVENT

1780

Joseph II becomes Emperor, introduces enlightened reforms

1789

The first Czech patriotic newspaper founded

1791–2

Magyar and Bohemian nobility demand repeal of reforms

1792

Slovak Learned Society founded; wars against France begin

1804

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, declares himself Francis I, Emperor of Austria

1806

Abolition of the Holy Roman Empire

1808–9

‘Patriotic’ war against Napoleon

1809

Illyrian provinces created by Napoleon; philologist J. Kopitar proposes the name ‘Slovene’

1818

Czech Patriotic Museum founded

1825

Hungarian Diet begins national reforms

1830

First Slovene literary almanack

1841

Magyar liberals led by Kossuth enter Hungarian Diet

1843

Slovak patriots approve new version of Slovak written language

1847

Liberals achieve majority in the lower chamber of Hungarian Diet

1848

Magyar national revolution; publication of Czech political programme; Slovenes officially approved as a nationality in Austria

1848–9

Austrian Constitution proclaimed but never implemented; Magyar revolution suppressed

1851–9

Neo-absolutist government in Austria

1861

Start of constitutionalist era

1866

Concept of Unified Slovenia approved; Austria defeated in war with Prussia

1867

Austro-Hungarian compromise creates dualist monarchy

1867–8

Mass protests in Bohemia against dualism

1868

Magyar-Croatian agreement; start of Magyarization

1871

First unsuccessful attempt at German-Czech compromise

1874

University in Zagreb opened

1907

Universal direct suffrage for Austrian and Bohemian lands

1918

Dissolution of Habsburg Empire; formation of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia; Transylvania incorporated into Romania

(p. xx) Ottoman Empire and Middle East to 1923

DATE

EVENT

1791

Sultan Selim III starts rationalizing reforms in the empire

1789

First steps toward state organization in Montenegro

1792

Declaration in favour of ‘Romanian nation’ published in Transylvania

1804–13

Serbian peasant uprising leads to autonomy (George Karadjordje)

1815

New Serbian upheaval (Milos Obrenovic)

1821

Start of Greek revolt

1822

Greek independence and first Constitution

1826

Serbian Matica founded in southern Hungary

1827

British, French, and Russian intervention in favour of Greeks

1829

Greek independence approved by Great Powers

1830–1

Autonomous Serbian Principality approved

1835

Establishment of first school with Bulgarian as language of education

1839

Formal declaration of equality between Muslims and Christians

1848

Russia invades Danubian principalities

1852

Independence of Montenegro under Russian protection

1859

Unification of Wallachia and Moldavia into one independent state

1861

Danubian principality becomes Kingdom of Romania

1862

Bulgarian government in exile formed

1875–8

Eastern Crisis (from Bosnian revolt through suppression of Bulgarian uprising to Ottoman-Serbian and Ottoman-Russian War)

1876

23 December: Promulgation of Ottoman Constitution

1878

14 February: Suspension of Ottoman Constitution; Prizren League, first Albanian national association

1878

Treaty of Berlin: Great Powers approved independence of Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, and Bulgaria; Bosnia and Herzegovina occupied by Austria

1882

British occupation of Egypt following rising under Arabi Pasha

1893

Underground Army for Macedonia’s liberation established

1897

First Zionist Congress (Basel, Switzerland)

1903

Ilinden revolt in Macedonia; linguistic definition of Macedonian nation

1911

Italian invasion and occupation of Ottoman-ruled Tripolitania (Libya) and the Dodecanese islands

1912–13

First and Second Balkan Wars; independent Albania recognized by Major Powers; takeover of Ottoman territory by Greece and Serbia

1914

November: Ottoman entry into war on side of Central Powers

1917

2 November: Balfour Declaration

1918

Formation of Yugoslavia

1919

Transylvania becomes part of Romania; uprising in Egypt

1920

Treaty of Sèvres (ending state of war between Allies and Ottoman Empire); San Remo Conference (formal Anglo-French partition of Middle East); Iraqi Revolt

1920–2

Turkish-Greek War

1922

Britain recognizes kingdom of Egypt

1923

Treaty of Lausanne (granting Turkey much more favourable terms than the now defunct Treaty of Sèvres); 29 October 1923: Proclamation of Turkish Republic, with Mustafa Kemal (later Atatürk) as president

(p. xxi) Europe after 1918

1919

Formation of Weimar Republic

1922

Formation of USSR initially with six ‘national republics’: Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia; Mussolini becomes prime minister of Italy

1923

Failure of putsch in Munich led by Hitler

1927

Romanian Fascist organization the Iron Guard established

1932

USSR: Nationality to be entered on passports

1933

Hitler appointed German chancellor; Nazi takeover

1936–9

Spanish Civil War ends with Franco’s military dictatorship

1938

USSR: National republics now reached fifteen; plus thirteen autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics and seventeen national regions and autonomous provinces; Austria merged with Germany; Munich agreement on Czechoslovakia

1939

Start of Second World War

1941

German attack on USSR; renewed Russification policy by Stalin and deportation of whole peoples

1945

USSR confirms and extends its direct or indirect control over Eastern Europe

1948

Tito-Stalin split; break between Albania and Yugoslavia

1949

Establishment of NATO; constitutions for the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic

1953

Death of Stalin

1955

Establishment of Warsaw Pact

1956

Khruschev’s speech at 20th Congress of Soviet Communist Party; Hungarian Revolution

1957

Treaty of Rome establishes European Economic Community, forerunner of the European Union

1961

Non-aligned movement formed in Belgrade; Albania breaks off relations with USSR

1963

Third Yugoslav Constitution grants right of secession to republics

1965

Ceausescu takes over in Romania

1968

Prague Spring

1972

Albania breaks with China; now totally isolated

1980

Death of Tito

1984

Forced Bulgarization of Turkish people

1985

Death of Enver Hoxha, ruler of Albania; Mikhail Gorbachev party leader in USSR

1987

Gorbachev publishes Perestroika; warns of threat of nationalism in USSR; Slobodan Milosevic comes to power as head of Serbian League of Communism

1988

Start of large anti-communist demonstrations in USSR and other communist states in Eastern Europe

1989

Collapse of communist regimes throughout Eastern Europe

1991

End of Soviet Union; Croatia and Slovenia declare independence; war between ‘Yugoslavia’ (effectively Serbia) and Croatia

1992

European Union recognizes Croatia and Slovenia; Bosnia-Herzegovina declares independence and at war with Serbia

1996

Dayton Agreement ends war between Bosnia and Serbia

1998–9

War between Serbia and Kosovo; ended following NATO bombing

1999

Death of Croatian President Franjo Tudman

2000

End of Milosevic’s rule in remainder of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)

(p. xxii) Middle East and North Africa after 1923

1924

Turkey abolishes Caliphate

1925–7

Syria’s Great Revolt

1928

Muslim Brotherhood founded in Egypt

1929

Western Wall riots in Palestine

1930

Anglo-Iraqi treaty (implemented 1932); name of Constantinople changed to Istanbul

1932

Turkey admitted to League of Nations

1936

Anglo-Egyptian treaty; Arab High Committee formed to combat Jewish claims; Franco-Syrian treaty (never ratified by French); Bakr Sidqi’s coup in Iraq

1937

Assassination of Bakr Sidqi; British Royal Commission on Palestine recommends establishment of Jewish and Arab states

1936–9

Arab Revolt in Palestine

1939

British White Paper on Palestine; the British plan for an independent Palestine by 1947 denounced by both Arabs and Jews

1941

Rashid Ali’s Revolt in Iraq; demand for British military withdrawal from Iraq; British and Free French seize Syria and Lebanon from Vichy France

1942

Egypt cleared of Germans

1944–5

Formation of Arab League

1947

British proposal to divide Palestine rejected by Arabs and Jews and matter referred to United Nations

1948

Formation of state of Israel, which defeats Arab attacks

1949

Israel admitted into United Nations

1952

Anti-British riots in Egypt; King Farouk abdicates in favour of his son, Fuad

1954

Gamal Abdel Nasser takes power in Egypt

1956

Suez crisis: Anglo-French forces land in Egypt; soon removed following Egyptian resistance and pressure from USA; Sudan, Morocco, and Tunisia declare independence

1958

Syria and Egypt form the United Arab Republic (UAE) with Nasser as president; monarchy overthrown in Iraq

1961

Syria leaves UAE

1967

Six-Day War

1969

Yasser Arafat elected chairman of Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization

1970

Death of Nasser

1973

Renewed Israel-Arab War

1975

Onset of civil war in Lebanon

1978

Camp David accord signals withdrawal of Egypt from united Arab front against Israel

1979

Iranian Revolution; Saddam Hussein becomes president of Iraq

1982

Israel invades Lebanon; start of war between Iraq and Iran

Late 1980s

Palestinian revolt in occupied West Bank and Gaza; formation of Hamas

1990

Iraqi invasion of Kuwait defeated by military forces led by USA; end of Iraq-Iran war

(p. xxiii) Sub-Saharan Africa after 1800

DATE

EVENT

1814

Cape of Good Hope becomes British colony

1836

Beginning of ‘Great Trek’

1838

Battle of Blood River: Boers defeat Zulus

1869

Opening of Suez Canal

1873

Ashanti War

1879

British-Zulu War

1883

Germany begins settlements in south-west Africa, France taking over upper Niger

1884

Berlin Conference of fourteen states to agree on territorial claims in Africa

1885

King Leopold takes over Congo; Germany annexes Tanganyika and Zanzibar; British protectorates over North Bechuanaland and Niger river region

1886

Anglo-German agreements on areas of control in west and east Africa; German-Portugese agreement in south-west Africa

1887

Britain annexes Zululand; British East Africa Company chartered

1890

Cecil Rhodes premier of Cape Colony; Lugard occupies Uganda for British East Africa Company

1895

Creation of Rhodesia and East African Protectorate

1896

Kenya incorporated into East African Protectorate

1899

Second Boer War

1901

Ashanti kingdom annexed to Gold Coast colony

1902

End of Second Boer War

1910

Union of South Africa established

1918

Britain takes over Germany’s East African colonies

1920

Colony of Kenya created

1945

First parties formed in Uganda

1946

New Constitution in Gold Coast; first British African colony with African majority in legislature

1947

Nigeria acquires modified self-government

1948

National Party wins general election in South Africa

1952

Formation of Uganda National Congress; state of emergency declared in Kenya following murders by what British identify as the ‘Mau-Mau’

1953

Federal constitution of Rhodesia and Nyasaland

1954

Nkrumah forms government in Gold Coast following electoral victory of Convention People’s Party

1957

Ghana becomes independent

1960

Independence for Belgian Congo: France agrees to independence for Dahomey, Niger, Upper Volta, Chad, Ivory Coast, Central Africa, and French Congo; Nigerian independence

1961

Independence for Sierra Leone

1962

Independence for Uganda and Tanganyika

1963

Kenyan and Zanzibari independence

1964

Zambia (formerly Northern Rhodesia) and Malawi (formerly Nyasaland) become independent; creation of Tanzania

1965

White regime in Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declares independence

1967

Civil war in Nigeria, which lasts until Biafran defeat in 1970

1975

Angola, Mozambique, and other Portugese African colonies independent

1979

Southern Rhodesia becomes independent as Zimbabwe under majority rule

1990

Release of Nelson Mandela

1994

Introduction of majority rule in South Africa; Mandela becomes president

(p. xxiv) India from the Late 18th Century

DATE

EVENT

1793

East India Company introduces the Permanent Settlement

1802

Start of a series of victories by the Company leads to its control of large parts of India

1857

Revolution in India (‘Indian Mutiny’)

1858

Powers of Company transferred to British Crown

1877

Queen Victoria declared Empress of India

1886

First meeting of Indian National Congress

1906

All India Moslem League formed

1909

Indian Councils Act gives greater powers to legislative councils and ensures appointment of an Indian to Viceroy’s executive council

1919

Constitutional reforms increase Indian participation in government and widen franchises to local legislative councils; troops fire on demonstrators in Jallianwala Bagh; martial law declared in Punjab; Mahatma Gandhi starts first non-cooperation campaign

1921

First Indian Parliament meets

1922

Gandhi sentenced to six years’ imprisonment for civil disobedience

1925

Establishment of Hindu nationalist organization Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (National Volunteer Corps)

1929

Round Table Conference between Viceroy and Indian leaders on dominion status

1930

Gandhi opens civil disobedience campaign; Simon Report on India published

1931

Delhi pact: civil disobedience campaign suspended, Congress promises to recognize Round Table Conference, political prisoners released

1932

Indian Congress declared illegal; Gandhi arrested; third India conference in London

1934

Gandhi suspends civil disobedience campaign

1935

Government of India Act reforms government; separates Burma and Aden from India; grants provinces greater self-government; creates central legislature in Delhi to come into operation on 1 April 1937

1937

Congress wins elections to provincial governments but abstains from forming a government, demanding full independence

1940

Congress rejects Viceroy’s invitation to serve on War Advisory Board

1942

Gandhi arrested

1945

Congress demands Britain ‘Quit India’; Congress and Muslim League win most seats for Central Legislative Assembly

1946

Constituent Assembly, boycotted by Muslim League, discusses independence

1947

Independence declared; country partitioned into India and Pakistan, with many deaths and refugees in Punjab and Bengal

1948

Gandhi assassinated

1950

Indian Constitution recognizes fifteen official languages

1951

Jana Sangh, Hindu nationalist political party, formed

1956

Reorganization of Indian provinces along linguistic lines agreed

1959

Ayub Khan bans political parties in Pakistan

1970

Victory for East Pakistan Awami League in general election

1971

East Pakistan becomes independent state of Bangladesh

1977

Jana Singh merges with Janat party to win general election

1980

Bharatiya Janata (BJP) Hindu nationalist party formed

1984

Assassination of Indira Gandhi by one of her Sikh bodyguards

1992

Destruction of Ayodhya mosque; violent Hindu-Muslim conflict

(p. xxv) Southeast Asia from the Mid-18th Century

1740

First of series of wars and annexations by Dutch East India Company

1819

Sir Stamford Raffles of British East India Company establishes trading post on Singapore island

1863

French take formal control over Cambodia

1867

France annexes Cochinchina; the Straits Settlement (Singapore, Malacca, Penang) becomes a British Crown colony

1884

French take formal control of Vietnam

1885

British takes formal control of Burma

1898

USA takes control of the Philippines

1904

Phan Boi Chau founds Viet Nam Duy Tan Hoi (Vietnam Reformation Society)

1908

Formation of nationalist organization Budi Utomo in Java

1920

Formation of Indonesian Communist Party

1927

Formation of Vietnamese Nationalist Party; Sukarno founds Indonesian Nationalist Party

1930

Vietnamese Communist Party changes name to Indochinese Communist Party

1940–4

Japanese conquest of Southeast Asia

1945

Japanese forces surrender, nationalist leaders proclaim independence in Indonesia and Vietnam

1946

Philippine independence proclaimed; French troops arrive in Vietnam, Dutch troops in Indonesia

1949

Dutch acknowledge Indonesian independence

1954

Geneva Accords: Independence for Cambodia and Laos, French withdrawal from Vietnam; Democratic Republic of Vietnam confined to north, with US-backed regime created in the South, reunification postponed

1957

Federation of Malaya granted independence

1959

Singapore granted independence

1962

Military coup establishes Army rule in Burma

1963

Singapore, Sabah, and Sarawak join Federation of Malaysia

1965

Singapore expelled from Malaysia; Army coup topples Sukarno, sparks anti-communist pogroms in Indonesia

1969

Ethnic riots in Malaysia lead to authoritarian controls, New Economic Policy; Indonesia absorbs West Papua

1972

President Marcos proclaims martial law in the Philippines

1973

Student-led protests end military rule in Thailand

1975

Reunification of Vietnam, incorporation of South into DRV; Communist victories in Cambodia and Laos; Indonesian invasion of East Timor, initiating twenty-four years of occupation

1976

Army coup restores military rule in Thailand

1978–9

Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia, onset of ten-year occupation

1986

‘People Power’ revolt ends authoritarian rule in the Philippines, oligarchical democracy restored

1988

Election of civilian prime minister in Thailand

1989

Vietnamese withdrawal from Cambodia

1991

Military coup in Thailand

1992

Civilian rule restored in Thailand

1993

UN-supervised elections in Cambodia, incumbent Hun Sen remain in office

1997–8

Asian economic crisis

1998

Indonesian President Suharto forced to resign

1999

UN-supervised referendum for independence in East Timor, Indonesian military occupation ends

(p. xxvi) Northeast Asia from 1840

DATE

EVENT

1839–42

First Opium War

1850–5

Tai’ping Rebellion

1854

USA makes first trade treaty with Japan

1857

Royal Navy destroys Chinese fleet; British and French forces take Canton

1858

End of Anglo-Chinese War; further ports opened up to Britain and France; opium trade legalized; Anglo-Japanese commercial treaty providing for unsupervised trade and setting up of a British residency

1860

Anglo-French forces defeat Chinese at Pa Li Chau

1864

British, French, and Dutch fleets attack Japan in reprisal for closing ports and expelling foreigners; Japan made to pay indemnity

1868

Shogunate abolished; Meiji dynasty restored

1871

Abolition of domains and replacement by prefectures

1877

Satsuma rebellion crushed

1887

China cedes Macao to Portugal

1889–9

Japanese Constitution followed by first general election

1893

China-Japan War

1895

Japan gains port facilities and ceded areas at end of war

1897

German and Russian occupations in China

1898

Formation of ‘The Boxers’, an anti-Western organization; emperor starts extensive reforms but removed by dowager empress who revokes reforms

1900

Boxer uprising; many foreigners killed and the occupying powers suppress uprising

1901

China made to pay indemnity to occupying powers

1904–5

Russo-Japanese War ends with substantial cessions by Russia

1905

Sun Yat Sen founds union of secret societies to expel Manchus from China; Korea made a Japanese protectorate

1908

Dowager empress dies

1910–45

Korea under Japanese rule

1911

Establishment of Chinese Republic with Sun Yat-sen as president and Chiang Kai- shek his military adviser

1919

4 May: Student demonstration in Beijing against treatment of China at Versailles Peace Conference

1922

Nine-power treaty in Washington preserves principle of ‘open door’ in trade with China; civil war

1924

First Kuomintang Congress includes Communists

1925

30 May: Worker demonstration in Shanghai against foreign firms

1927

Conflict between Chiang Kai-shek and communists who are massacred in Shanghai

1928

Clashes between China and Japan; China annuls ‘unequal treaties’; Chiang Kai-shek elected president of China

1933

Japan occupies China north of Great Wall and withdraws from League of Nations

1934–5

Long March led by Mao Zedong

1936

Chiang Kai-shek enters Canton and declares war on Japan

1937

Japan seizes Beijing, Tienkin, Shanghai, Nanking, and Hangchow; Kuomintang and Communists declare common front against Japan

1938

Japan installs puppet government of Chinese Republic of Nanking

1941

Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour; China allied with USA

1942

Major Japanese advances, including in Singapore and Burma, Indo-China, and the Dutch East Indies

1943

Churchill, Roosevelt, and Chiang Kai-shek meet in Cairo

1945

USA drops two atom bombs on Japan, which surrenders a week later; fighting breaks out between communists and nationalists in north China

1946–52

US occupation of Japan

1948

Chiang Kai-shek re-elected president by Nanking Assembly and granted extensive powers; communists announce formation of North China People’s Republic

1949

Chiang Kai-shek forced to withdraw to Formosa (renamed Taiwan); Communist People’s Republic proclaimed under leadership of Mao Zedong

1958–61

‘Great Leap Forward’ in China

1966–76

Cultural Revolution; death of Mao Zedong in September 1976

1978

Deng Xiaoping launches economic reforms

1979

Formal diplomatic relations between China and USA

1989

June: Suppression of protest in Tiananmen Square

1997

Hong Kong incorporated into China

(p. xxvii) (p. xxviii) Colonial and Post-Colonial America

1754–63

French and Indian War, North America

1759

Charles III (r.1759–88) accedes to Spanish throne; era of Bourbon Reforms

1762

British capture and briefly hold Havana

1764

British Sugar Act imposed on Thirteen Colonies

1765

British Stamp Act imposed on Thirteen Colonies, Stamp Act Congress formed

1767

British Townshend Duties on selected imports prompt colonial boycott; Jesuits expelled from Spanish America

1773

Boston Tea Party, colonials protest by dumping tea in harbour

1774

British Coercive Acts shut down Boston harbour, ban public meetings, and end local government; first Continental Congress meets

1775

April 19: Battles of Lexington and Concord begin armed conflict

1776

January: Tom Paine’s Common Sense published; July 4: Declaration of Independence of the United States of America signed

1777

Articles of Confederation establish national government for USA

1778

British defeated at Battle of Saratoga; French form alliance with USA; Spanish colonial trading system partially opened as measure of Bourbon Reforms

1780–1

Tupac Amaru revolt in Peru; Comunero revolt in Colombia

1781

British surrender after Battle of Yorktown

1783

Treaty of Paris formally ends British-USA conflict

1788

Charles IV (r.1788–1808) accedes to Spanish throne

1789

Constitution of USA establishes stronger federal government and adds Bill of Rights; French Revolution sparks revolts in French, Portuguese, and Spanish American colonies; anti-Portuguese Tiradentes Conspiracy in Brazil

1791–1804

Slave revolt in Saint Domingue wins independence for new Republic of Haiti

1794

Colombian patriot Antonio Nariño publishes French revolutionary ‘Declaration of the Rights of Man’

1803

Louisiana Purchase

1806

British invade and briefly hold Buenos Aires

1807

King João VI and court flee Portugal to Brazil to escape Napoleonic invasion

1808

Napoleon places his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne; Peninsular War begins; US termination of external slave trade

1810

Creoles establish ruling juntas in Venezuela, Chile, and Argentina; Miguel Hidalgo’s ‘Grito de Dolores’ in Mexico; Hidalgo executed in 1811

1812

Constitution of Cádiz promulgated; US at war with Britain (until 1815)

1814

Ferdinand VII returns to Spanish throne

1815

Simón Bolívar retreats to Jamaica; execution of José María Morelos in Mexico

1821

Mexico becomes independent; King João VI returns to Portugal from Brazil

1822

José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar confer in Guayaquil, Ecuador; San Martín goes into self-imposed exile in France; King Pedro I declares independence of Brazil

1824

Bolívar defeats Spanish forces at Junín, and José Antonio Sucre does the same at Ayacucho, consummating independence of Spanish South America

1829–52

Argentina: Confederation of Río de la Plata run by arbitrary power as dictator Rosas establishes dominance of Buenos Aires

1830

Disintegration of Gran Colombia (est. 1819) into Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador; US Indian Removal Act

1830–42

Mexico: Civil war between conservatives and liberals; in 1836 secession of Texas, which becomes a US state in 1845

1838–40

Disintegration of United Provinces of Central America (est. 1823–4) into Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua, the independent states of today

1846–8

Mexican-American War: US acquires over one-third of Mexico’s territory, including California

1860

Republicans (Abraham Lincoln) win presidential election; South Carolina secedes

1861

Start of US Civil War

1862

Mexico: Napoléon III supports conservatives and installs the Hapsburg Maximilian as emperor

1863

1 January: US Emancipation Proclamation

1865

Robert E. Lee surrender to Ulysses Grant at Appomattox; 14–15 April: Abraham Lincoln assassinated

1865–70

War of the Triple Alliance: Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay defeat Paraguay

1867–76

Mexico: Maximilian defeated by Liberals with help of United States

1868–78

Cuba: First war of independence

1879–83

Chile: War of the Pacific—Chile seizes nitrate deposits from Peru and Bolivia, which is left landlocked; Argentina and Chile: War of the Desert; ‘Pacification’ of the Mapuche (extermination of indigenous peoples)

1886

Cuba: Slavery abolished

1888

Brazil: Slavery abolished

1889

Brazil: Army overthrows emperor and a republic is founded; First Inter-American Conference held in Washington at US instigation

1895

Cuba: Second War of Independence launched

1898

Spanish-American War: US intervenes in Cuban independence struggle and expels Spain from Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines; US military occupation of Cuba

1902

Cuba: Inaugurates Republic, but Platt Amendment to Constitution gives US right to intervene, which it does militarily in 1906–9, 1912, and 1917

1903

US intervenes to secure Panama’s independence from Colombia; Canal; Treaty signed immediately (Canal opens 1914); Dominican Republic: US assumes control of customs’ house

1905

Honduras: US marines intervene, and again in 1907 and 1911

1910–20

Mexico: Revolution; US sends troops twice (1914 and 1916–17)

1915–34

Haiti: US military occupation

1916–24

Dominican Republic: US military occupation

1927–33

Nicaragua: Augusto Sandino leads guerrilla struggle against US military occupation (since 1912, with short interruptions); Sandino killed 1933; US withdraws in 1934 but leaves behind pro-US dictator Somoza

1930

Argentina: Fascist coup gives way to restored oligarchic rule from 1932; Brazil: Oligarchic government overthrown in Liberal Revolution led by Getúlio Vargas, who dominated Brazilian politics until death in 1954

1938

Mexico: Nationalization of oil industry pioneers wave of economic nationalism across the region

1938–52

Chile: Popular Front governments (Communist Party in alliance)

1941–2

Latin American countries support US in declaring war on the Axis powers (Chile in 1943; Argentina in 1945)

1947

Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Treaty) signed by US and Latin American countries—a mutual assistance pact

1948

Organization of American States (OAS) founded as section of the United Nations

1952

Bolivia: Revolution carried out by MNR (National Revolutionary Movement)

1954

Guatemala: Reformist government led by Jacobo Arbenz overthrown in uprising orchestrated by CIA, after land reform that affected United Fruit Company (UFCO)

1959

Cuba: Revolution led by Fidel Castro and Che Guevara; attempts to imitate it in many other Latin American countries

1960

Cuba: US economic embargo declared; later supported by OAS states (except Mexico)

1961

Cuba: Bay of Pigs invasion by exiles organized by CIA fails; President Kennedy launches Alliance for Progress ($20 billion development aid over ten years, plus counter-insurgency training for Latin American militaries)

1962

Cuba: Alliance with Soviet Union sealed although no formal treaty signed until 1989; Missile Crisis

1965

Dominican Republic: US secures OAS support for military invasion to ensure ‘No more Cubas’

1970–3

Chile: Popular Unity government led by Salvador Allende; overthrown by coup, which leads to military rule by Augusto Pinochet until 1990

1976

Argentina: Coup initiates seven years of military rule and ‘Dirty War’; Venezuela: Nationalization of oil industry (negotiated)

1979

Nicaragua: Sandinista Revolution; Brazil: Formation of Workers’ Party (PT) led by ‘Lula’ da Silva