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date: 21 February 2020

(p. 731) Index

(p. 731) Index

Aargau421
Abbey Theatre (Dublin)82
Abduh, Muhammad221, 676
Abdülhamit II (of Ottoman Empire)220–1, 223
Abkhazia552–3, 563
Abu Dhabi476
Abyssinia576
Aceh481, 483–4, 664, 678
Free Aceh Movement484
activism51, 88, 559, 566, 679, 705
Acton, Lord150, 718
Adams, John Quincy113
Addis Ababa319
Aden345, 436
administration, see bureaucracy
Adriatic, the430, 559
Adulyadej, Bhumibol474
Advani, L. K.503
Adyar252
Afgani, Jamal ad-Din676, 689
Afganistan12, 445–6, 504, 508–11, 568, 687
Africa7, 11, 57, 59, 63, 65–6, 69–71, 72 n. 33, 265, 309, 312, 314–15, 319, 333, 347–8, 351–3, 360, 362, 365–8, 372, 393 n. 31, 423, 430, 442–3, 539, 543, 545, 554 n. 13, 559, 568, 576, 578, 672–9, 681, 683, 686, 688–9, 697, 699, 706, 720–1
African Union568
Anglophone370–1
Cape346
Central12
colonial311, 315, 330, 341–2, 366, 372, 686, 697, 720
culture of313
East327, 351
ethnicity and313
French313, 327, 351, 370
Horn of435
Intellectuals in7, 85
nationalism in10, 65–8, 310, 315, 318, 321–3, 332, 334, 359, 372–3
North9, 223–4, 447, 576, 677, 686
Organization of African Unity319, 543, 548, 568, 686
Pan-African Congress321, 683, 686
pan-Africanism9, 61, 85, 149, 167, 319, 321, 327, 543, 672–81, 683, 686, 688–9
people of/from118, 122, 344, 577, 679
Sub-Saharan8–10, 308, 310–11, 315, 319, 322, 327, 362, 367, 372–3
West60–1
Afro-Asian Conference685–6
agriculture86, 115, 309, 365, 521
Aguliar, Freddie
‘Bayan Ko’475
Agung (Sultan of Java)275
Ahmadis504, 513 n. 18
Ahmed, Mirza Ghulam513 n. 18
Akhand Bharat (integrity of the nation)257
al-‘Ahd224
al-Fatat224
‘al-Husri, Sati232
al-Husseini, Grand Mufti237
al-Qaida687
al-‘Urwat al-Wuthqa (pan-Islamic magazine)676
Alawites230
Albania176, 192–3, 195, 221, 223, 349, 416, 430, 516, 518–19, 522, 525, 528, 530, 553, 558, 560, 563
Democratic Party519
International Control Commission for Albania563
people of/from517, 529, 552, 561, 565
Sigurimi (secret service)519
Socialist Party519
(p. 732) Aleppo231
Alexander (of Serbia)186
Alexander I (of Russia)144
Alexandria449
Algeria12, 322, 436–8, 441–2, 445, 449, 675–6, 686 n. 7
FIS445
Algiers345, 449
Algonquin599
Ali, Abdullah bin225–6, 229
Ali al Kailani, Rashid236–7
Ali, Feisal bin225–6, 228–30
Ali, Hussein bin225–7
Ali Khan, Liaqat505
Ali, Muhammad221, 252
Ali, Shaukat252
Alia, Ramiz519
Aligarh University500
All-Russian Society for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments90
Allahabad Congress261 n. 29
Allenby, General226, 234
Allied Coalition (of World War I)224–5, 227, 229, 253, 547
Allied Powers (of World War II)684, 698
Almaty215
Alsace-Lorraine143, 416, 422–3
Altamirano, Ignacio383, 391
Amangkurat (Sultan of Java)275
Ambedkar, B.R.257, 663
America
South10, 341, 385, 542
Americas, the8, 10, 14, 342, 582, 655, 696
independence processes98
constitutions380–1
nationalism in378–80, 384
Amharic culture319–20
Amin al-Husseini,Haj234–5, 238 n. 14
Amin, Shahid255
Amman440
Ammende, Ewald427
Amritsar253
Amsterdam77, 663
Anatolia223, 231
Anderson, Benedict4, 21–3, 27, 29, 33, 68, 103, 115, 117, 123, 242, 245, 263, 270–2, 277, 377, 388, 390–1, 451 n. 11, 615–16, 655, 699, 723
Imagined Communities264, 380, 616
Anderson, Perry650–1
Andes, the115, 121
Andrić, Ivo518
Animism565
Angola333
Annales school718–19
Annam271–2, 274, 484–5
Annan, Kofi560
Antequera, Fernando de 596, 613 n. 44
anti-imperialism9, 36–8, 48, 59, 69, 88, 264, 269, 271, 280, 294, 315–16, 321, 331, 360, 379, 389, 436, 449, 453–4, 509, 526, 543, 554 n. 13, 681, 687, 702; see also resistance movements
anti-Comintern Pact577
anti-modernism66, 302
anti-nationalism3, 525
anti-slavery69
anti-westernism56–7, 62–4, 66, 70–1, 88, 445, 684
Antonescu, General Ion424, 587
Antonius, George222
Appadurai, Arjun370
Applegate, Celia627
Apter, David322
Arab-Israeli conflict9, 233–5, 436, 438–41, 687
Arab League237, 442, 451 n. 9, 687
Arab Maghrib Union449
Arab Revolt (1936)235, 237
Arab world11, 221–5, 227, 235–7, 243, 331, 350, 435, 437, 439, 443–5, 447–50, 686
identity435, 442, 444, 449
pan-Arabism9, 149, 221–2, 231–3, 235, 237, 435, 438–9, 444, 448, 687
‘socialism’ in442
unity of442
(p. 733) Arabia268, 664; see also Saudi Arabia
Arabic (language)674
Arafat, Yasser440, 443
Aragon613 n. 44
Aramaeans85
architecture624–5, 627
Arctic Home of the Vedas248
Arequipa121
Argentina98, 109–10, 117, 120, 342, 354, 377–9, 382–6, 388, 391, 393 n. 21, 544, 700, 702
Declaration of Economic Independence388
National Action Party383
Armand, Inessa647
Armstrong, John723, 725
Arndt, Ernst Moritz
Landwehrkatechismus142
Arnold, David64
art610, 625
Artigas, José121
artists521
Asad, Talal664
Ashanti9
Asia8, 11–12, 60, 66, 71, 78, 88, 90, 342, 344, 346–8, 354, 393 n. 31, 476, 543, 568, 656, 662–3, 673–5, 677–9, 684, 686, 688–9, 704, 706, 721
Asian Development Bank685
Asian Football Federation685
Asian Games685
Asian News Network685
ASEAN263, 480, 698
Central202, 206, 208–14, 341, 353
Greater East Asia Conference684
intellectuals7, 682, 685
League of Asian Nations684
Minor430
Network of Asian Think Tanks685
pan-Asianism9, 15, 287, 296–7, 304, 672–5, 677–9, 681–5, 688–9, 691 n. 26
South68, 333, 435, 443, 546, 656, 674, 699
South West67
associations (non-political)161
Ataturk (Mustafa Kemal)547; see also Kemal, Mustafa
Atlantic Charter541, 684
Atlantic Monthly409
Atlantic Ocean696
Atsumaro, Konoe680
Attlee, Clement257
Aufruf an die Kulturwelt (Appeal to the Cultured World)718
autochthony370–1, 374
autonomy2, 7, 17 n. 24, 63, 179, 206, 232, 507, 525, 596–7, 600, 602, 609–10, 626, 636
cultural4, 644–5
national150, 163
political91, 595, 605–7
Australia12, 346, 476, 681, 697, 700, 702–4, 718, 721
Austria24, 53 n. 9, 130–1, 134–5, 138, 140, 150, 152, 156–61, 165–6, 182–4, 187, 190, 192, 416–17, 419, 426, 597, 641, 644–5, 717
constitution of181
empire48, 175
monarchy of143, 147 n. 55
nationalism in144, 177
occupation by Germany427–8, 431, 576
Tyrol170 n. 20, 565, 575
Austria-Hungary179, 194, 233, 350, 353, 415, 428, 588, 639–40, 644
Austrian Alliance129
authoritarianism37, 86, 309, 313, 332, 361, 388, 478, 482–4, 504, 510, 519, 530, 577
Aventinus, Johannes715
Avignon143
Awolowo, Obafemi319, 328–9, 333
Axis Powers237, 517, 587, 601
Ayacucho120
Aydin, Cemil9, 11, 15, 393 n. 32
Ayyangar, G.497
Azania319
Azerbaijan203, 214–15, 558–9
Azikiwe, Nnamdi328
Azouri, Najib222
Ba’ath Party237, 441–2, 450 n. 7
Badinter Commission550, 571 n. 31
Bages, Torres i597
(p. 734) Baghdad237, 440, 449
Bahrain438, 452 n. 18, 685
Baker, Keith130
Baku208, 213, 683
balance of power221, 353, 524, 539
Balbo, Italo576, 578
Bale, John
Scriptores Britanniae31
Balfour Declaration227, 234
Balkanization543
Balkans8, 85, 177, 188, 192–3, 221, 223, 350, 365, 447, 517, 519, 549, 559, 568, 576
Balmes, Jaime597
Balochistan507–12
Baloch Students’ Organization509
Balochi Peoples’ Liberation Front509
Kalat508
Sardars508–9
Baltic region47, 203, 427–8, 559
Bamar (language)264
Bancroft, George
History of the United States of America718
Banda Oriental121
Bandung270, 685–6
Banerjea, Surendranath260 n. 16
Bangladesh9, 259, 495, 506, 510–11, 544–5, 558
Bangkok474, 479
Banti, Alberto17 n. 23, 152
Banyamulenge371
Barber, Benjamin R.617
Barcelona597, 601, 613 n. 44
Bardèche, Maurice588
Barrès, Maurice643
Barros, João de30
Bartók, Béla627
Basel233
Bashkirs207
Basques49, 540, 594, 609
language26
Batavia31, 76, 270
Battle of Austerlitz714
Battle of Bunker Hill105
Battle of Carabobo388
Battle of Custozza157
Battle of Kosovo (1389)516
Battle of Leipzig135
Battle of Maysalun229
Battle of Mohács28
Battle of Plassey356 n. 23
Battle of Sedan422
Battle of Verdun586
Bauer, Otto4, 629 n. 19, 639, 643–5, 649
The Question of Nationalities and Social Democracy643
Bavaria608
Bayart, J.-F.360, 367
Bayly, Christopher A.14, 63–4, 66, 69, 243
Bayreuth Theatre82
Bebel, August642
Bede, the Venerable
Ecclesiastical History of the English People714
Bedouins226, 229, 576
Begin, Menachem687
Beijing292–3, 351, 479
Beirut225, 228, 234, 239 n. 17
Belanda, Hindia278
Belarus201, 203, 207, 209–10, 214, 217
people of/from415–17
SSR213
Belgium135, 137, 143, 196, 265, 355, 373, 565, 608, 619, 657, 702
colonies of9, 308, 321–2, 327, 331, 342, 351, 371
Belgrade186, 191, 519, 524, 529, 552
Bellarmino, Roberto27
Bellini, Gentile660
Bello, Ahmadu328
Benedict XVI (Pope)662
Beneš, Edvard419
Bengal57, 60, 69, 247, 252, 254, 256, 258, 356 n. 23, 499, 504–6, 512, 558
Awami League506
Benner, Erica7
Benz, Arthur608
Berg Report362
Berger, Stefan714, 717, 724–6
Berlin45, 77, 155, 163, 350, 354–5, 699
University of716
Berlin, Isaiah595
Berlin West African Conference (1884–5)351, 543
Berman, Bruce10, 309, 315
Bernacacina movement83
(p. 735) Bernstein, Eduard639
Besant, Annie252
Bessarabia417
Bharat Mata Mandir500
Bhindranwale, Sant500
Bhutan541
Bhutto, Benazir507
Bhutto, Mumtaz509
Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali-504, 506–7, 509–10
Biafra544–5, 570 n. 6 and n. 16
Bialik, Haim82
Bible, the25–7, 29–30, 38, 320, 325
Bielefeld school719–20
Bildung83
Billing, Michael615–16, 620
Banal Nationalism615
bin Laden, Osama443
Binglin, Zhang295
Bismarck, Otto von159–61, 164–5, 351
Bloch, Marc718
Blum, Léon585, 649
Blyden, Edward61–2, 677
Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race61
Bobrikov, N.I.203
Boers88
Bogomils194
Bohemia,80, 153, 155–6, 158, 163, 172 n. 45, 180–2, 418, 427
Royal Society of Sciences77
Bolívar, Simón112, 120, 388–9
Bolivia110, 114, 120, 377–8, 385, 389
1812 Constitution121
Revolution of 1952385
Bolsheviks3, 208, 210, 353, 541, 550, 554 n. 8, 581–2, 636, 645–8, 701
Bombay250, 256, 276
le Bon, Gustave575, 681
Bonaparte, Joseph118
Bonaparte, Napoleon8, 45, 108–9, 111, 118–19, 127–8, 134–7, 140–2, 144, 147 n. 53, 149–50, 152, 168 n. 7, 183, 197 n. 5, 540, 594, 698
Bopp, Franz78
Borneo265, 268, 486–8
Borussian myth142
Bose, Subhas Chandra684
Bosnia176, 183, 185–7, 193–5, 237, 349, 446, 529, 550, 571 n. 26
Bosnia-Herzegovina220, 223, 526–8, 531, 558, 561–8
Communist Party528
people of/from522, 528
Boston102, 104–5
Bourbons597
Bourganville551
bourgeoisie, see class, middle
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros547–8, 558–9, 561
Agenda for Peace547–8, 558–9
Boves, José Tomás121
Brahmins60
Brasillach, Robert585, 588
Bredero, Gerbrand
Spanish Brabanter32
Bremen700
Bretton Woods system460
Breuilly, John271–2, 397, 403, 451 n. 11, 715
Briand Kellogg Pact697
British North Borneo Company487
Brittany23, 49, 540, 606
language of29
Brown, Judith254
Brubaker, Rogers415, 420, 428
Brunei263, 265, 282, 286 n. 54, 486, 488
Partai Rakyat Brunei488
Brussels355
Bruter, Michael623
Bryce, James400
Bucharest190–1, 521–2, 625
Cotroceni Palace625
Buckle, Henry
History of Civilization in England718
Budapest155
Budi Utomo276–8
Buenos Aires119, 386
Bukovina416–17
Bulgaria176, 191–2, 195, 220, 349, 416–17, 516, 518–22, 531, 542
Constitution of520
Movement for Rights and Freedom520
people of/from517
Pomaks520
Socialist Party520
(p. 736) ‘Bulgarian Horrors’350
Bull, H.
The Anarchical Society538
bureaucracy139, 144, 165, 178, 188, 191, 197 n. 5, 200–1, 213, 244, 272, 276, 288, 309, 313, 360, 367–8, 407, 409, 460, 506–7, 510
Burgfrieden636
Burke, Edmund50–1, 99
Burke, Peter6–7
Burkina Faso370
Burma263–7, 281–3, 476–82, 484, 488, 490
Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League479
1962 Coup478
British Burma268, 283 n. 8, 341, 478
Burma National Army477–8
Chettiar ‘Indians’476
Communist Party479
independence479
Kuomintang forces478–9
Language of, see Bamar (language)
nationalism479
Pembela Tanah Air477
Young Men’s Buddist Association266
Burundi371, 558
Bush, George Jr.566
Bush, George Sr.547
Byzantine Empire188–9, 194
Cabral, Amilcar323, 333
Cádiz112, 119
Cairo221–2, 224–5, 440, 449, 687
Calabria138
Calcutta77, 245, 247
Callahan, Kevin640
Cambodia9, 263–4, 267–72, 278, 281–3, 285 n. 51 and n. 54, 341, 458, 480, 484–7, 564
Communist Party485–6
Khmer264, 270, 272, 285 n. 49, 484–5
Khmer People’s Revolutionary Party485
‘Super Great Leap Forward’486
‘Cambridge School’245, 260 n. 6
Cambridge University680, 691 n. 26, 718
Cameroun326, 351, 542
Camp David440
Canada12, 80, 107–8, 373, 384, 549, 599–600, 604–5, 609, 697, 704
Act of Union (1841)600
Charter of Rights and Freedoms604
Constitution549
Constitutional Act (1791)599
Quebec Act (1774)599
Tremblay Report604
capitalism14, 23, 29, 177, 309, 312, 331–2, 359, 361, 368, 372, 374, 378, 460, 472, 481, 515, 523, 529, 574–5, 581, 637–8, 647, 650, 695, 698, 701, 705
Caplan, Richard10
Caracas119
Cárdenas, Lázaro110
Carew, Richard30
Caribbean108, 111, 341, 681, 683
Carinthia183–4
Carlyle, Thomas400
Carniola183–4
Carnot, Lazare133
Carol I (of Romania)423, 587
Carol II (of Romania)424
Carr, E.H.638, 640, 648
Twenty Years’ Crisis541
Carrère de’Encausse Hélène214
Cartier, Jacques599
Castile597
Castro, Fidel388
Catalonia11, 134, 196, 592, 594–7, 600–3, 605–7, 611, 613 n. 32
Catalonia’s Socialist Movement602
CiU (Convergence and Union Coalition)602–3, 613 n. 32
Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (Catalonia’s Republican Left)601, 603, 613 n. 32
Generalitat597, 601, 603
language of25, 29, 601
Mancomunitat597
nationalism597, 721
Nationalist Party597
Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya (Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia)601–3
Statute of Autonomy602
Usatges (the uses)596
Cattaneo, Carlo154
Caucasus202, 207–8, 221, 345, 353, 365
(p. 737) Cavour, Count Camillo Benso di160–2, 164, 171 n. 37
Caxton, William29
Ceauşescu, Nikolae521, 532 n. 23
Celtic Red Branch and Finn Cycles82
Celts78
centralization51, 139, 187, 200, 213, 243, 265, 477, 505, 512, 655
Červenkov, Vălko519
Cesairé, Aimé683
Ceuppens, Bambi369
Ceylon 322; see alsoSri Lanka
Ch’ao Chie284 n. 29
Chad366
Champlain, Samuel de599
Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan255
Chansonette, Claude29
Charles I (of England)598
Charles II (of England)598
Charles III (of Spain)100
Charles Albert (of Piedmont-Sardinia)157
Charleston (USA)108
Chatterjee, Partha56, 68, 247, 390, 393 n. 31
Chatterji, Joya9, 495
Chattopadhyay, Bankimchandra246–7
The Bengal Peasantry247
Chaura, Chauri255
Chávez, Hugo378
Che Guevara378
Chechnya211, 217, 446, 552, 563
Chiapas114
Chicago666, 675, 679
Chile110, 120, 377, 379, 384, 387
Chin479
China8–9, 58–9, 63, 77–8, 86–8, 206, 210, 273–4, 282, 284 n. 29, 287–9, 291, 293, 296–305, 308, 342, 344–7, 351–4, 373, 441, 453, 456–9, 461–3, 467, 473, 477–8, 482–3, 487, 518–19, 521, 544, 552–3, 559–60, 563, 571 n. 21, 650, 656–7, 660, 662, 665–9, 674–7, 680–2, 684–6, 689, 701, 704–6, 715
Anti-Rightist Campaigns456, 467 n. 6
Army290, 301–2
Boxer Rebellion351–2, 667–8
Communist Party (CCP)295, 300–1, 303–5, 453–4, 456–8, 460, 466, 485, 668–9
Cultural Revolution458
Great Leap Forward456
Han295, 457–8, 715
Hui457
identity455, 458
Jiangxi Soviet455
Kuomintang (Nationalist Party)666, 668
language456
Manchu289, 295–6, 302, 457, 704
Manchuria, see Manchuria
‘Manchukuo’301–3
May Fourth movement, see ‘New Culture’ movement
Mongolia, see Mongolia
nationalism66, 291–4, 298, 304, 353, 457–9, 668, 704
Nationalist Party (GMD)294–5, 300–1, 303, 305, 453–6, 458, 466, 467 n. 1, 668
New Citizen movement303
‘New Culture’ movement293, 295, 299, 301
New Fourth Army Incident455
New Life movement298, 303
Northern Expedition294, 298, 303, 455
People’s Republic of292, 295–6, 303, 454–7, 459, 461–2, 467, 479, 486, 546
‘sinosphere’287
Song715
Tibet, see Tibet
Tongmenghui295
United Front298, 304, 455
Uyghur457
Yan’an Rectification Campaign455–6
Yi457
Chongqing300, 303–4
Christianity24, 60–2, 114, 176–7, 190, 194, 203, 215, 221–3, 230–2, 248, 267, 287, 299, 313, 319, 325, 329–30, 333, 349–50, 438, 444, 446, 501, 538, 565, 581, 584, 657, 660–6, 668, 675–7, 679–80, 685–6, 686, 688, 724
Anglicanism25–6
Calvinism25–8, 663
Coptic85, 660
(p. 738) Eastern Orthodox25, 27–8, 86, 90, 184, 186–8, 190–1, 193, 200, 205, 217, 224, 228, 320, 350, 418, 586–7, 676
Evangelical659
Greek Catholic158
Lutheranism25
Maronite85, 228
Methodism334
missionaries331, 664
Presbyterianism598
Protestantism12, 26–8, 30, 34 n. 24, 46, 83, 85, 156, 180, 200, 330, 538, 565, 578, 581, 598, 608, 659, 668
Puritanism99
Uniate190, 222, 418
Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania214
Chulalongkorn (of Siam)266
Chung Hee, Park466
Church Missionary Society61
Church Slavonic language191
Churchill, Winston257
Cieszyn418
Ciibasa, Mathewos320
civilizationism675
Cioran, E.M.587
citizens11, 133, 135–7, 179, 372, 610, 615–16, 621, 624, 701
citizenship83, 102, 111, 121, 136, 144, 259, 312, 316, 321, 330–1, 333, 360, 364, 367, 369–71, 389, 408, 426, 478, 482–3, 531, 541, 582, 639, 656, 704
Cittolini, Alessandro30
civil conflict122, 366, 373
civil service, see bureaucracy
Clark, Ian696
class4, 11, 33, 121–2, 130, 155, 196, 230–1, 235, 311, 360, 385, 637, 639, 716
consciousness516
divisions22, 154, 318, 354, 364, 368–9, 388, 635
middle42, 80–1, 83, 88–9, 128, 159, 164, 204, 237, 323, 387, 421, 423, 489, 512, 578, 587, 602, 610, 641, 643, 649
upper137, 139–40, 155, 164, 176, 178–9, 190, 696
working4, 180, 206–7, 460, 475, 501, 517, 642–3, 645–6, 650, 652, 720
classlessness518
client regimes350
Clinton, Bill551
Clive, Robert356 n. 23
Cloots, Anarcharsis131
Cobban, Alfred540
National Self-Determination540
Coca Cola705
Cochinchina271–2, 274, 279, 484–5
Cochrane, Thomas120
Codreanu, Corneliu424, 586–7
Cohen, S.P.507
Colebrooke, Henry77
Coleman, James S.67
Nigeria: Background to Nationalism66
collaborationists583
collective consciousness21
collective identification, see identification
Collier, Paul365
Colombia113, 117, 120, 379
Columbus, Christopher695
colonialism49, 58, 60–1, 63–9, 86, 115, 122, 263, 266, 281, 285 n. 48, 299, 313–16, 322, 324, 331, 435, 446, 448, 543, 662, 665, 676, 684, 696–7, 702–3; see also imperialism
COMECON245
Cominform650
Comintern454, 636, 647–8, 649–50, 683
communication110, 244, 277, 279, 617, 621, 625, 695, 698, 700
developments in22, 163, 269–70
social4, 195
communism84, 193, 207–8, 210, 213–15, 217, 278–9, 285 n. 51, 289, 300, 304, 353–4, 442, 450 n. 7, 455, 460–1, 466, 478, 480, 485–6, 488, 517–26, 530, 559, 582, 587–8, 636, 639, 646–51, 658, 666, 668, 683
‘Eurocommunism’648
First International637, 640
International Brigades649
(p. 739) Second International636, 639–43, 646–8, 650
Third International 636, 646, 648, 650 see also Comintern
communitarianism83–4, 622, 624
communities80, 83, 267, 616, 724
associations of396
cultural448, 593, 644
imagined24, 27, 127, 141, 312
linguistic22, 42, 607
moral76, 91, 318
national39, 75, 87, 128, 138, 179, 202, 343, 580, 592, 620–1, 639
political22, 75
‘community of destiny’629 n. 19
Companys, Lluís601
concentration camps582–3, 585
Concord (USA)105
Confederation of the Rhine168 n. 7
conflict prevention561
conflict mitigation561–3
conflict resolution563–5
Confucianism86, 268, 272–4, 280, 287–8, 299, 302, 662, 665–9, 674, 678
Congo, the314, 321–2, 342, 351, 354, 366, 543, 545, 568
Democratic Republic of371, 373
Congress of Berlin192, 221, 557
Congress of Vienna150, 540, 557, 674
Connolly, James84
conservatism1–2, 165, 332, 419, 422, 427, 459, 462, 464, 488, 549, 604
Constantinople25, 79, 189, 191, 193, 223, 225
constitutionalism64, 185–6, 188, 290–2, 297, 331, 541, 609
contractarianism41
Convention of Tauroggen140
Cooper, Frederick59, 66
Copenhagen77
Coronil, Fernando388
corporatism419, 584, 587
corporations47, 363–4, 388, 404
transnational389, 475, 705
corruption46, 369
Corsica40
cosmopolitanism705
Council of Europe564
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities564
Council of Trent26
counter-insurgency473, 488
Counter-Reformation177–8
Counter-Revolution158–9, 179, 181
Crakow154, 172 n. 43
Cree599
Creoles116–23, 243, 383
independence109, 111
patriotism116, 118, 120
Crete349
Crispi, Francisco161, 163
Croatia84, 134, 155, 175–6, 178–9, 183–8, 194, 196, 197 nn. 5 and 7, 524, 526–8, 550, 559
Croatian Democratic Union527
independence of527
language of29
Liberal Party524
National Party185
nationalism525
people of/from517, 522, 565
‘Croatian Spring’516, 524
Cromer, Lord350
Cromwell, Oliver24
Crummell, Alexander677
Crush, Jonathan371–2
Cuba59, 118, 377, 388
Revolution378, 389
Cuchulain82
cult of personality361, 517, 526, 530, 575, 577, 580
cultural
affinities39
archetypes386
assimilation202, 385, 415
awareness266
claims594
distinctiveness680
diversity134, 209–10, 242, 278, 472, 482, 489–90, 595, 606, 608
essentialism56
homogeneity58, 81, 449, 459, 463, 596, 704
influences597
movements6–7
networks689 n. 2
(p. 740) policy184
production245, 515, 599, 617, 644, 678, 714, 726
recognition605–6
regeneration246, 283, 316
resistance602
traditions122
unity714
culture13, 33, 40, 42–3, 62, 75, 78, 82, 88–9, 170 n. 20, 177–8, 187, 193, 195, 199, 201–2, 211, 222, 247–8, 252, 270, 273, 277, 288, 312, 327, 347, 366–7, 377, 379–83, 390–2, 419, 448, 462, 501, 526, 578, 592, 594–5, 601, 608, 610–12, 616–17, 619, 621, 627, 645, 655, 673, 676, 678, 716, 723
change in24
common606, 644, 674
counter-84
dominant416, 721
folk80–2, 275, 320
indigenous265, 313
material458
non-Western60
official274
popular30, 46, 158, 349, 360
preservation of474
repression of596
sub-state594
theories of678
Cunningham, Major General Alexander663
Curzon, Lord252, 258
customs32, 46, 62, 314, 380, 594, 715
Cuza Alexandru424
Cuzco121
Cyprus349, 437, 447, 450 n. 1, 557
Cyrenaica576
Czartoryski, Prince (of Poland)151
Czech Republic549, 552, 611
Czechs25, 30, 79, 85, 91, 153, 155, 158, 172 n. 45, 175–7, 180–1, 184, 194–6, 203, 243, 353, 419, 541, 645, 717
language of the26, 28–9, 181
Patriotic Museum of the180
Czechslovakia182–3, 212, 415–16, 418–19, 424–6, 428, 431, 521, 526, 627
National Assembly419
Dalmatia184–5, 197 n. 5, 430
Damas, Léon Gontran683
Damascus225–6, 228, 440
Dante22, 29
Danubian Principalities189
Danzig (Free City of)563
Daoism662, 666, 668–9
Darfur365, 560, 568
Darío, Rubén386
Darré, Walther580
Darwin, Charles681
Darwin, John8, 13
Darwinism62, 87
Social203, 287, 291, 295–7, 383, 385, 419, 668
Daula, Suraja356 n. 23
Davids, Rhys663
Davidson, Basil323
Dayton527–8
Dayton Agreement/Accords527, 529, 550
Deak, Ferenc179
Declaration of the Rights of Man113, 380–1
decentralization483–4, 523, 602, 605–6
decolonization57, 308, 331, 438, 544, 672, 686, 720, 726
deconstructivism516
Delafosse, Maurice65
Delanty, G.15 n. 1
Delany, Martin R.677
Delavignette, Robert65
democracy1, 13, 60, 62, 67, 69–70, 87, 139, 154–5, 170 n. 22, 188–9, 253, 292, 297–8, 334, 372–4, 386, 389, 406, 419, 530, 540–1, 549, 551–2, 593, 595, 601, 608, 609, 611, 651, 658–9, 717
autocratic323, 388
electoral316, 368, 505, 628 n. 16, 641–2
liberal3, 16 n. 14, 86–7, 381, 387, 390, 515, 585, 648
presidential474
social642
democratic centralism647–8
democratization181, 290, 310, 367–70, 373, 454, 483–4, 509, 511, 526–7, 548, 552, 559, 605, 638, 701
(p. 741) demographics326, 405, 619
Denmark22, 25, 30, 80, 83–4, 160, 354, 622–3
language of26, 29
people of/from155
Déroulède, Paul422
Derozio, Henry60
Desai, Morarji502
Deutsch, Karl4, 616, 722
Devanagari497
devolution596, 605–7, 610–11
Dewar, Donald603
Dhammapala, Anagarika663
Díaz, Porfírio383
Dickenson, John399
Đinđić, Zoran528
diplomacy 347, 440, 457, 538–9; see also international relations
disease326
dislocation325, 374, 562
Djibouti544
Dmowski, Roman Stanislaw165–6
Dolet, Etienne30
Donne, John403
Doriot, Jacques585
Dorpat201
Doumer, Governor General (of Vietnam)274
Doyle, Don10
Drake, Sir Francis111
Dred Scott v. Sandford408
Dreyfus affair422, 584
Drieu La Rochelle, Pierre585
Druze226, 228, 230–1, 239 n. 17
Du Bellay, Joachim30
Duara, Prasenjit63–4
Du Bois, W.E.B.677, 679–80, 683, 686, 689
Dubrovnik527
Duchesne, Sophie622
Dumfries598
Dunmore, Lord107
Dunmore’s Ethiopian Regiment107
Durand Line510
Durkheim, Émile618–19, 724
Dutch, the23–4, 26–8, 31–2, 76, 99, 116, 134–5, 137, 275–8, 663, 678
Anthem of Commemoration27
‘Beggar Songs’27
colonies9, 265, 277–8, 344–5, 664
‘Dutch studies’59
East India Company275–6, 345
East Indies, see under Indonesia
language26, 28, 30, 44
Republic312
Dutt, Romesh Chandra247, 254
Duxiu, Chen293
Dvorak, Antonin80, 627
Dyer, General253
early modern period7, 23–5, 28, 31, 38, 76
East Timor263, 265, 269, 481, 483, 490, 550–2, 563
Fretilin (national liberation movement)481
Easter rebellion89
Eastern Bloc517–18
Eastern People’s Congress683
Eatwell, Roger11, 15
Eckert, Andreas7
École Normale William Ponty313
economic
activity377, 478, 699
autarchy449, 478–7, 480, 698
crises370, 429, 482, 577
development61, 110, 196, 244, 359–63, 423, 458, 460, 508, 512, 621, 644, 724
differences108
growth67, 184, 575, 599
imperialism354, 355 n. 6
networks689 n. 2
power490
reconstruction121
reform153, 575
strategy580
support602
economics75, 91, 115, 177, 195, 217, 232, 251, 257, 297, 309, 311, 326–7, 334, 349, 352, 363–4, 366, 370, 388, 390, 392, 473, 489, 510, 526, 580, 584–5, 600, 616, 621, 695, 698, 700–2; see also finances; moral economy; tax; trade
global310, 346–9, 354, 362, 472, 480–1
Keynesian359, 701
(p. 742) macro-363
and nationalism13, 343–4, 355, 388, 449, 482, 489, 511–2
Ecuador120, 377, 387
Edda, the82
Edinburgh60, 598
education22, 59–61, 75, 80, 83, 86, 110, 117, 141, 177–9, 188, 195, 209, 235, 246, 248, 259, 273, 279–81, 320, 327–8, 417–18, 474, 500, 524, 598, 617
and nationalism13, 51, 81, 152, 165, 182–3, 185, 191, 260 n. 16, 349, 462, 625, 666
policy184, 201, 212, 383, 387, 445
systems of45, 213, 218, 270, 481, 501, 600, 723
universal23, 312
egalitarianism39, 41, 48, 50
Egypt9, 57–8, 63, 78, 85, 221, 226–8, 230, 237, 240 n. 52, 243, 268, 341–2, 349–52, 436–7, 439–42, 445, 447, 450 n. 3, 660, 672, 674–6, 679–80, 685–7, 697
nationalism323, 353, 435
Muslim Brotherhood237, 441, 445
Wafd Party227, 237
Young Egypt83
Eiji, Oguma459
Eisaku, Satō461
Elazar, Daniel607
Eley, Geoff378, 420, 427
Eliade, Mircea587
Elias, Norbert624
elites4, 14, 21, 30, 38, 41, 43, 61–3, 65, 79, 97, 104, 115, 117, 121, 129, 135, 137, 139, 152, 154, 156, 169 n. 16, 202–3, 217, 220, 222, 224, 227–8, 231, 237, 254, 257, 289, 313, 315, 320, 325–8, 332, 343, 379, 389–90, 404, 420, 450 n. 4, 504, 517–8, 586, 588, 626, 675–6, 680, 682, 696, 703, 715–17, 723–5
educated/intellectual60, 66–8, 70–1, 81–2, 112, 181, 187, 234, 270–1, 505, 677
local176, 346
mercantile103, 111, 347, 488
military331, 333, 369, 509
patriotic/nationalist88, 162–3, 167–8, 195, 261 n. 42, 380, 382–5, 508, 511, 516, 617, 622, 668
social226, 230
emigration, see migration
Emili, Paolo
De Rebus Gestis Francorum31
Engels, Friedrich48, 642, 651, 652 n. 18
England23–5, 27, 31–2, 38, 41, 54 n. 31, 59, 61, 80, 88, 111, 251, 265, 291, 311–12, 318–19, 398, 598, 637 n. 2, 641, 659, 696, 714–15, 717 ; see also Great Britain
Anglo-Saxon17 n. 22
identity32, 147 n. 42, 444, 714
language26, 28–30, 594, 679, 696
nationalism34 n. 15
Enlai, Zhou457, 461–2
Enlightenment (European)47, 62, 76, 98, 100, 107, 112, 138, 177–8, 188, 300, 305, 378, 381, 383, 390, 594, 599, 637, 656, 667
Entente Cordiale423
Enzinas, Francisco de26
equality63, 68, 100, 129, 137, 175, 188, 250, 409, 423, 684
Erasmus, Desiderius29
Erdmann, Karl720
Erevan206
Eritrea367, 550–1, 563
Estienne, Henri30
Estonia27, 196, 201, 203, 210, 212, 215, 217, 416
Ethiopia240 n. 49, 319–20, 366–7, 373, 544, 551, 563, 680
Ogaden region544
1974 Revolution319–20
‘Ethiopianism’679
ethnic
cleansing414, 528, 553, 562, 582; see also genocide
communities182, 312, 315, 324–5, 365, 371, 374, 714
conflict4, 115, 155, 310, 364, 366, 369, 371, 507, 526, 528, 558, 565
consciousness516
diversity117, 154, 277, 289, 327, 386, 390, 418, 472, 482, 489–90, 540, 608, 644
(p. 743) discrimination417, 449, 512
formation314
groups175–6, 189, 194, 196, 203, 212, 273, 275, 380, 415
homogeneity385, 425, 459, 463, 523, 720
identity5, 122, 183–4, 267, 364, 369–70, 385, 402, 405, 478, 485, 528, 541
loyalty361
minorities483, 522
patriotism328
patronage networks360, 372
population exchange522
representation528
revival76
self-discipline335
uprisings205, 490
ethnicity31, 56, 98, 121, 170 n. 20, 195, 203, 206, 237, 250, 264, 274, 281, 309–10, 313, 315–16, 359, 364, 367, 369–70, 372–3, 377, 382, 384, 386, 389, 409, 420, 423, 427, 479, 495, 507, 528, 541, 543, 550, 669
‘moral’314–15, 321, 326
ethno-cultural nations208
ethno-demographics224
ethno-linguistic identity503–4
ethno-nationalism49, 153, 158, 166, 217, 507, 511, 526–8, 550, 558, 565, 607, 651
ethno-regionalism585
ethno-religion233
ethno-symbolism723
ethnocentrism40–1, 46, 49, 507
ethnography5
eugenics581
Europe15, 42, 44, 48, 58, 61, 69, 78, 124, 151, 287–90, 311–13, 315, 344, 448, 450, 476–7, 538, 541, 547, 623–4, 656–7, 662, 680–1, 685, 688, 697, 701, 716–19, 726
Central3, 8, 175, 177, 236, 416, 431, 643
Eastern31, 67, 81, 84, 86, 236, 416, 431, 546, 583, 643
eurocentrism58, 68, 674–5, 678, 722
European Community558, 563, 571 n. 31
European Economic Community245
European Parliament637
Europe of the Regions594
European Security and Defence Policy568
‘European studies’59
European Union217, 442, 444, 550, 552, 563–4, 596, 605, 609, 622–3, 637, 698–9, 705
‘old regime’23
pan-Europeanism676
peoples of384
South-Eastern175
united52
Western21, 41, 373, 462, 568, 598
Falkland Islands544
Fall, Bernard272
de Falla, Manuel627
Fanon, Franz67–8, 323, 333, 686
Farinacci, Roberto577
Farouk (of Egypt)237
fascism3, 11, 13, 15, 414–15, 419–24, 430–1, 450 n. 7, 547, 573–88, 649
Fashoda351
Febvre, Lucien718
Feder, Gottfried580
federalism407–9, 592–3, 595, 604, 607–9, 677, 697
Ferdinand I (of Austria)170 n. 25
Ferdinand VII (of Spain)110, 112, 118–19
Ferguson, James309, 363
Fernando (of Aragon)597
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb7, 44–7, 54 n. 20, 142
Addresses to the German Nation22, 45–6
finances350, 361, 480, 621
Finland78, 196, 203, 206–7, 210–12, 217, 416, 728 n. 25
Grand Duchy of201
language of26
Literary Society77
First Coalition (against Revolutionary France)131–2, 138, 141
Flanders29, 196, 565, 608, 620
Florence22
Foucault, Michel21, 617–18
France5, 8, 14, 23, 25–7, 31–3, 41–3, 46, 48, 53 n.7, 54 n. 31, 65, 79, 85, 90–1, 99, 108–9, 112, 129–41, 144, 152, 157, 160–2, 164, 167–8, 169 n. 16, 172 n. 40, 177, 196, 227, 229–31, 233, 237, 265–6,290, 293, 312, 350, 353, 360, 373, 380, 420, 422–3, 428, 430–1, 447, 454, 465, 540–1, 545, 547, 553, 5 (p. 744) 59, 574, 584–6, 594, 597, 599, 613 n. 43, 618, 621–3, 628 n. 14, 637 n. 2, 638, 640–3, 647, 649–50, 658, 667, 675, 696–7, 700, 714, 716, 718–20
Académie Française65
Action Française422, 584–6
Archives Nationales716
Army118, 127, 132–5, 140, 142, 151, 619
August laws (1789)130
Bourbon150
Cercle Proudhon584
Collège de France717
Communist Party648–9
Consulate134
Constitution (of 1791)131
Constitution (of 1795)189
Constitution (Napoleonic)136
Council of State136
culture of82
Directory133
empire8, 15, 48, 51–2, 98, 197 n. 5, 268, 279, 282, 341–2, 345, 348, 351–2, 354–5, 390, 423, 542, 576, 656, 682, 697
Empire134
enemies32, 100
fascism584–6
Faisceau574, 584–5
foreign policy127, 129, 519
French people52
July Revolution (1830)714
language22, 24, 26, 28–30, 134, 270, 311, 599–600, 604
League of Patriots422
Légion d’Honneur137
Legislative Assembly132, 136
National Assembly65, 130, 133, 140
National Convention131–2
National Front90
nationalism of3, 128, 656
Navy189
Parti Populaire Français574, 585
Popular Front230, 649
religious wars28
Republic131, 135, 143
Resistance585
Section française de l’Internationale Ouvrière641
South East Asian colonies, see Indochina, French
Third Republic422
Vichy236, 422, 586
Francis (of Austria)144, 147 n. 55
Francis I (of France)599
Franck, Sebastian29
Franco, General Francisco597, 601–2, 605
Frankfurt155–6
Franklin, Benjamin104–5
Franz Ferdinand, Archduke3
Franz Josef I (of Austria)170 n. 25
Frederick the Great (of Prussia)32
Frederick William III (of Prussia)140–1, 144
Frederick William IV (of Prussia)156
freedom36, 39, 45, 62, 80, 89, 98, 169 n. 11, 378, 386, 451 n. 7, 483, 598
individual1, 41, 46, 377
political190
of the press250
Freemasons137
Freher’s Marquard
Germanicarum rerum scriptores31
French Guiana683
Fries, Laurentius31
Frobenius, Leo65
Frognier, André-Paul622
Fu, Yan291, 295
Fukuzawa, Yukichi
Outline of a Theory of Civilizaton50
Futenma463
Gabon545, 570 n. 6
Gaelic culture88, 585
Gagnon, A.604
Gaj, Ludovit183
(p. 745) Galicia84, 150, 154, 158, 163–5, 169 n. 11, 196 n. 2, 203, 205, 416, 592, 611
Galilee239 n. 17
Gallagher, Jack260 n. 6, 323, 343–4
Gálvez, José de116
Ganda9
Gândavo, Pero Magalhães de30
Gandhi, Indira500, 502–3, 511
Gandhi, Mahatma57, 59, 64–6, 68, 70, 253–7, 496, 498, 665, 682
Hind Swaraj64, 254
Gandhi, Rajiv500–1
García, Carlos32
Garibaldi, Guiseppe154, 157, 161–3, 167, 169 n. 14, 191
de Gaulle, Charles381, 545
Garvey, Marcus683–4
Gellner, Ernest4, 21–3, 85, 242, 393 n. 17, 451 n. 11, 612, 640, 722–3
Gelvin, James230
Gemeinschaft538, 547
‘General Will’ (concept of)53 n. 4, 382
Geneva421
Geneva Accords (1954)485
Genoa143
genocide212, 224, 371, 528, 545, 567, 582–3, 588
Gentile, Giovanni577
geography10, 39, 122, 192, 199, 270
geopolitics49, 90, 138, 355, 420, 423, 674
national22, 194, 391, 405, 674
political8, 11
George III (of Great Britain)106, 130
George V (of Great Britain)205
Georgia203, 207, 214–16, 552–3, 558, 563
George Washington University680, 691 n. 26
Germany22, 25–6, 30, 32, 41–3, 45–6, 82, 128, 131, 134, 137, 143–4, 144 n. 1, 152–3, 155–6, 159–60, 163–6, 177–8, 186, 194, 196, 202, 210–11, 227, 233–4, 293, 350, 380, 400, 416–17, 420–9, 431, 519, 557, 564, 577, 580–8, 594, 597, 608, 611, 623, 627, 640–2, 657, 676, 680–1, 683, 697, 700, 705–6, 716–19, 721
Anschluss577
Army205, 237, 426, 579
Army League427
Association of Germandom Abroad428
Breslau428
Chemitz Zwickau428
colonies of9, 331, 542
Confederation150, 152, 155, 157, 161, 169 n. 7, 181, 400
East Prussia428
empire341–2, 348, 352–5, 390, 415, 576, 678
Federal Republic of521, 608, 719–20
Frankfurt Oder428
German Basic Law608
German Democratic Republic608, 720
German National Socialist Workers’ Party573, 579, 581, 587
German Protective League for Border and Foreign Germandom428
German Workers’ Party579
Germanic people52, 76, 78, 565
Gestapo601
historical writing16 n. 11, 142, 532 n. 24, 716, 718–20
Imperial Constitution157
Imperial League against Social Democracy427
language of26, 28–30, 32, 44–5, 175, 178, 182, 185, 645
Lebensraum428, 578, 583
Liegnitz428
National Assembly155–6, 181
National Liberal Party165
National Verein159, 161, 171 n. 34
nationalism8, 82, 135, 138, 141–2, 149, 151–6, 167–8, 170 n. 20, 172 n. 45, 175, 197 n. 11, 627, 706, 715
Navy League427
Nuremberg Laws582
Organization of German Ethnonational Groups428
Palatinate429
Pan-German League427
pan-Germanism575, 579, 676
people of/from176, 205, 266, 415, 417–19, 426–8, 517, 521, 541
Pomerania428
Progressive Party161
(p. 746) Reichsdeutsche205
Reichstag428, 716
reunification171 n. 35
Ruhr429
Schleswig-Holstein155, 160, 416, 428
Second-Empire160–1, 343, 416
Society for the Eastern Marches427
Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD)640, 642 and n. 3, 648
Third Reich, see Germany, Nazi
Thule Society581
unification of156, 161, 164, 171 n. 34, 426, 540, 563
Wars of Liberation142
Weimar Republic166, 426, 428
Zollverein (Customs Union)159
Geschiere, Peter369
Gesellschaft538
Ghana315, 319, 322–4, 327–31, 360, 362–3, 365, 543
Akan324, 327
Asante319, 327–8, 330–1
Asante National Liberation Movement329–30
Convention People’s Party327
Rawlings regime362
Gheorgiu-Dej, Gheorghe521
Ghibelline ‘nation’22
Gibraltar544
Giddens, Anthony620
Giese, Ernst426
Giolitti, Giovanni429
Gladstone, William676
Glasgow598–9
Glenny, Misha546
globalization11, 58, 293, 367, 372–4, 378, 435, 594, 651, 656, 660–1, 669, 672–5, 688, 694–5, 698, 700–6
Gluck, Carol289
Godkin, E.L.409
Godse, Nathuram665
Goebbels, Josef580
Gokalp, Ziya680
Golan Heights239 n. 17
Gömbös, Gyula425
Gongbo, Chen304
Gorakhpur255
Gorbachev, Mikhail215–17
Gorica184
Göring, Hermann426, 579–80
Goscha, Christopher484, 486
Goswami, Manu700
Goths31
Gotovina, Ante527
Gouraud, General229
government39, 49, 51, 108, 137–9, 163, 245, 273, 291, 398, 400, 402, 406, 409, 488, 545, 549, 617, 675
good545, 666
Gower, John29
Gramsci, Antonio168, 261 n. 42, 377, 648
Prison Notebooks648
Gran Columbia120
Granados, Enrique627
Grant, Susan-Mary10, 17 n. 25, 380
Great Britain14, 16 n. 14, 23, 50, 78, 87, 129–31, 135, 138, 143, 150, 152, 157, 160, 164, 168, 177, 196, 221, 228, 234–7, 244–5, 254–5, 257–8, 290–1, 293, 319–20, 343–4, 350, 352, 407, 430, 443, 510, 540–1, 547, 559, 582, 598–600, 603, 605, 607, 609, 615, 641–2, 658–60, 663, 676, 696, 700–2
Army225–7, 600, 619
British National Party463
British Slave Trade Act (1807)346
Commonwealth (of nations)546
Commonwealth (of Oliver Cromwell)598
Communist Party Historians’ Group719
empire8, 15, 48–9, 60, 64, 88, 90, 98, 101–4, 106–9, 113, 123. 240 n. 52, 245, 259, 265, 268, 341–2, 345–6, 348, 351–5, 356 n. 10, 390, 423, 450 n. 1, 454, 487–8, 542, 576, 601, 656, 664, 678, 682, 721
foreign policy130
government61
identity34 n. 24, 147 n. 42
Labour Party603
Liberal Party603
(p. 747) Loyalists107–8
nationalism of3, 656, 721
Navy101, 112, 150, 189, 297
Parliament51, 99–102, 106, 251, 257, 598, 641, 701
Act for Securing the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government598
Coercive Acts105
Navigation Acts99, 101–2
Reform Acts641
Stamp Act of 1765102, 104
Sugar Act of 1764101
people of51, 444
Royal Commission on Scottish Affairs603
Great Depression, the3, 297, 325, 354, 580
‘Great Divide’, the21, 23, 25, 33
Great Powers40–1, 44, 48–50, 86, 220–1, 294, 344, 539–40, 542, 551–3, 582, 650, 702
Greco-Turkish Convention224
Greece32, 78–9, 85, 120, 152, 176, 186, 188–91, 193, 195–6, 223–4, 265, 349, 416, 519, 542, 566, 701, 703
Ancient13, 38, 78, 620, 657
language of30, 177
Greenfeld, Liah34 n. 15, 714
Greenwich Naval College291
Grégoire, Henri22
Greig, Edvard627
Grenville, Lord100
Griffith, Arthur93 n. 38
Grosby, Steven713–14
Groulx, Abbé604
Grundtvig ‘meeting movement’83–4
Guangdong294
Guanyu, Peng666–7
Guatemala377, 390
Guesde, Jules641–2
Guibernau, Montserrat11
Guicciardini, Francesco
History of Italy31
Guinea331, 333
Parti Démocratique de Guinée331
Gulf Airways452 n. 18
Gulf Cooperation Council449
Gulf States510
Günther, H. F. K.581
Habermas, Jürgen
The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere128
Habsburg Empire3, 4, 8, 23, 43, 48, 76, 129, 145 n. 1, 149–50, 153–4, 156–60, 163–5, 167, 172 n. 45, 175–9, 180–1, 183–4, 186, 191, 194–6, 197 n. 11, 226, 243, 353, 540, 611, 640
Hadžić, Goran528
Hague Congress of 1872638 n. 2
Haiti111, 122, 558, 570 n. 6, 697
Halbwachs, Maurice626
Halid, Halil681, 691 n. 26
The Crescent versus the Cross680
Halliday, Fred9, 650, 692 n. 49
Ham Nghi (of Vietnam)271, 274
Hamburg700
Hamilton, Alexander399
Hamilton, Andrew113
Hannover164
Hanoi267, 270, 285 n. 51, 303, 485
Hanseatic League142, 400
Hardenberg, Karl August von139–40
Harper’s Weekly409
Harvard University680
Hashemites226, 229, 232, 237
Hastings, Adrian714
Hatoyama, Yukio461, 463
Haugerud, Angelique361
Havana98, 113
Hayato, Ikeda461
Hayes, Carlton3, 722
Hayford, J. E. Casey
Ethiopia Unbound679
Hebrew30, 200
Hebron234
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich45–8, 51, 616
The German Constitution46
Heine, Heinrich141
Hejaz225–6, 229, 349
Helsinki206
Helsinki Accords516
Heltai, Gáspár29
Henley, David9, 484
Herder, J.G.22, 41–4, 46–8, 76, 81, 381–2, 393 n. 17, 627
(p. 748) ‘Idea for the First Patriotic Institute for the Common Spirit of Germany’42
Treatise on the Origins of Language43
Hernández, José
Martín Fierro386
Herzl, Theodor204, 233
Hesen, Cai295
Hidalgo y Costilla, Miguel113, 120
Himmler, Heinrich581, 583
Hindenburg, Paul von580
Hindi (language)497–500
Hindu-Buddhism664
Hindus86, 247–8, 251–2, 258, 261 n. 29, 268, 495–6, 499–500, 502–4, 511, 565, 658–9, 662–3, 665, 679
nationalism of9, 87, 256, 258, 496, 501, 503, 511, 513 n. 14, 665, 682, 705
Hindu Patriot249
Hiroyuki, Katô295
Hirschman, Albert102
historical development41
historiography, see history, writing of
history6, 10, 67, 177, 320, 391, 447–8, 462, 592, 617–19, 656, 713–23, 726
global328
historia magistra715
of ideas2, 6–7
nationality of2, 22, 78–80, 594, 717–18
of nations, see national history
official288
theory of41, 44
transnational720, 726
writing of6, 12, 16 n. 10, 142, 163, 168, 325, 382–4, 573, 656, 713–15, 717–23, 725–6
Hitler, Adolf186, 210, 354, 420, 425, 557, 573, 577, 579–83, 586, 649, 698, 706
Mein Kampf579, 581–2
Hobbes, Thomas538
Hobsbawm, Eric21, 451 n. 11, 723
Hodgkin, Thomas318–19
Hohenzollerns149–50, 190
holidays99
national110, 618
Holocaust, the211, 214, 236, 573–4, 582–3
Holy Roman Empire30, 45, 143, 147 n. 55
homelands80–1, 85, 547; see also nationalism, homeland
Homer82
Hong Kong291, 454, 459, 476
Hooft, P.C.
Nederlandsche histoorien31
Hopkins, Anthony56
Horthy, Miklós425
Horton, James Africanus60–1
Hoxton, Enver519
Hroch, Miroslav8–9, 13, 16 n. 8, 34 n. 14, 88–9, 203, 266, 277
Hrushevsky, Mikhail79
Hué485
Human Rights Watch566
humanism378, 715
humanitarianism547, 559–60, 562, 564, 566–7, 707
humanity51, 76, 78, 80, 131, 380
Hume, David32
Hungary29, 31–2, 49, 155, 157–60, 169 n. 14, 170 n. 18, 178–80, 182, 184–7, 191, 194, 197 n. 3, 416–17,420–1, 423–7, 431, 521, 627
Academy of Sciences179
Arrow Cross425
Compromise of 1867179–80
Diet of 1827179
Government Party425–6
language of26–7, 178–9
Magyars48, 155, 175, 176–7, 181, 185, 195–6, 243, 417
Magyar National Museum77
Magyarization165
people of/from415, 418, 517, 541
Trianon424–5
Huns31
Hurgronje, Christiaan Snouck664
Huron599
Hus, Jan25, 30
Hussain, Altaf508
Hussein, Sadam442–3, 547, 559, 566
Hutchinson, John7
Hutus331, 371, 564
Huxley, Thomas
Evolution and Ethics291
(p. 749) Icelandic (language)26
Ichirō, Hatoyama460
Ickelsam, Valentin31
identification615–17, 623–4, 627, 705
identity62, 79–80, 86, 155, 188, 191–4, 200, 209, 211–12, 222–4, 230, 270, 272, 302, 314, 316, 370–1, 374, 380, 386, 392, 448, 517, 543, 585, 625, 629 n. 16, 640, 656–7, 675, 684–5, 689, 716, 724–6
ambiguities of300, 444, 542
creation of390, 455, 516, 677, 720–1, 725, 728 n. 25
crises of304
cultural43, 45, 69, 397, 485, 600–1, 645, 725
debating451 n. 11
defining33, 45, 311, 438, 463, 542, 674, 677
individual4, 722, 724
language-based46, 499
local622–3, 658, 695
markers604, 625, 677
minority658
national, see national identity
new325, 530
political507, 512, 540
religious237, 247, 258–9, 478, 485, 500, 669, 681–2
sense of14, 47, 151, 606
social516
supranational676–7, 680, 687–9, 698
symbolic625
walls676
Ikki, Kita298
Illiescu, Ion522
Illyria138, 168 n. 7, 183, 187, 519
immigration, see migration
imperialism3–4, 8, 10–11, 13, 15, 37, 39–43, 50, 52, 75, 97, 152, 291, 293–4, 343–4, 349, 366, 378, 423, 446, 455–7, 467, 669, 688; see also colonialism
independence64, 67, 70, 75–6, 97, 102, 110, 120, 195–6, 206, 216–17, 253, 264–7, 277, 286 n. 55, 308, 316, 321–2, 333, 347, 382, 384, 479, 482, 552–3, 596, 600, 678
legitimation of66, 360
limits of517
loss of282
of a nation49–50, 61, 123, 326, 451 n. 7, 477, 509, 519, 527, 593, 598, 698, 717
of a people39, 116
of a state47, 83, 90, 194, 273, 283 n. 7, 359, 415, 483, 551
transition to69, 527, 545, 720
wars of381–2, 484–5
India9, 57–60, 65, 67–9, 77, 79, 83, 86, 88, 117, 244, 246, 249–53, 258, 265, 276, 296, 299, 373, 459, 477, 495, 498–9, 504–6, 511–12, 543, 552, 560, 566, 608, 657–8, 660, 663, 665, 677, 681–2, 684–6, 700, 704–5, 721
Ahmedabad500
Akali Dal499–500
Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (Indian Student Association)501
Aligarh246, 252, 500
Andra Pradesh498
Army545
Assam499, 511
Ayodhya movement503
Bengali, see Bengal
Bharatiya Janata Party502–3, 511
Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (Indian Workers’ Association)501
Bombay Presidency499
Bombay Province505
British Raj8–9, 14, 49, 62, 87, 226, 242–6, 248–52, 255–8, 283 n. 8, 345, 504–5, 664, 696, 721
Chhattisgarh511
Congress Party255–8, 496, 498, 500–3
Constituent Assembly496, 499
Constitution496–8, 500
Darjeeling499
Defence of India Regulations253
Dravidia Munnetra Kazhagam499
Dravidians498, 512
East India Company243–4, 246
Goa543
Gorkhaland499
Himachal Pradesh503
Home Rule League253
Hyderabad543
(p. 750) Ilbert Bill248
independence64
India Act (1920)254
Indian Civil Servants (‘the Guardians’)244, 505
Indian Councils Act245
Jabalpur500
Jammu511
Janata Party705
Jharkhand511
Justice Party252
Khalistan512
languages242, 495–500
Lok Sabha503
Lucknow500
Lytton’s Vernacular Press Act249
Madhya Pradesh503, 511
Madras498
Meghalaya499
Mizos499
Mughal9, 243
Mutiny248, 346, 675
Nabagopal ‘National’ Mitra’s Hindu Mela247
Nagaland499, 511
National Congress248–54, 256–8, 260 n. 16, 495
nationalism64, 66, 242–3, 245–6, 248–53, 256, 258–9, 276, 323, 353, 495, 662, 689, 696
Nehru Report256
Official Languages Act497
people of/from225, 478–9
Rajasthan503
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (National Volunteer Corps)501–3
Reforms of 1870244
Seva Bharati (Indian Service)502
States Reorganization Commission498
Tamil Nadu498–9, 512
Uniform Civil Code497
Uttar Pradesh500, 503, 505, 511
Uttaranchal511
Vanavasi Kalyan Ashram (Ashram for the welfare of the tribals)501
Varanasi500
Vidya Bharati (Indian Knowledge)501
Vishva Hindu Parishad (World Council of Hindus)501, 503
Working Committee256
indigenous peoples98, 110, 114–15, 121–2, 374, 379, 383, 385, 401–2, 513 n. 14, 582, 599, 703, 718
individualism37, 62, 400, 604, 624
individuals39, 47, 83, 137, 385, 624, 644, 722
Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation545
Indochina473, 475, 490
French9, 264, 267–8, 270–1, 276, 280–2, 285 n. 49, 303, 486
Indochinese Communist Party485
indoctrination518
Indonesia5, 9, 57, 263–70, 272, 275–7, 282–3, 285 n. 42, 341, 456, 458, 461, 476–8, 480–4, 488, 490, 543, 551, 672, 684
Aceh, see Aceh
All-Indonesian Association of Islamic Intellectuals482
Bali664
Dayak264
Dutch East Indies8–9, 264, 267–70, 278, 476, 483, 487, 489, 664, 674
People’s Council265
Hokkien476
Indies Party277
Java, see Java
Kalimantan483, 488
Konfrontasi480, 488
Malay264, 270, 277
Maluku483
nationalism279, 281, 480, 482
Pakempalan Kawulo Ngayogyakarta278
Parindra (Party)277
People’s Consultative Assembly482
Revolusi480, 482
Sarawak, see Sarawak
Sumatra, see Sumatra
Industrial Revolution659
industrialization21, 159, 177, 359, 396, 460, 480, 508, 530, 599, 601, 695, 700, 722–5
industrialism4, 10, 15
inequality368–9, 523
infrastructure479
(p. 751) Ingush211
intellectuals4, 7, 62, 70, 89, 110, 246–7, 255, 270, 275–6, 288, 521, 615, 676–7, 679, 689 n. 2
intelligentsia208, 232, 248, 250, 276–7
international administration553
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty570 n. 18
International Criminal Court564, 569
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda564
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia527–8, 564
International Crisis Group561
international interventions556–9, 560–1, 566–9
International Monetary Fund362
international movements25
international norms706–7
international order10–11, 541, 547, 551, 563
international organizations593
international relations10, 47, 77, 131, 161, 195, 458, 490, 526, 538–9, 556, 607, 660, 687
international society537–9, 542, 545–6, 549, 551, 553
International Standards Organization464
internationalism11, 51, 56, 312, 637–8, 643, 647–9, 651–2, 680, 702
socialist635–41, 645–52, 673, 682–3, 692 n. 41
invasion40
Ion Cuza, Alexandru190
Iorga, Nicolae79
Iqbal, Muhammad680
Iran12, 31, 342, 345, 353, 443, 445, 448, 547, 675, 680, 685, 687, 689
Iraq9, 224–6, 228–30, 232–3, 236–7, 240 n. 52, 349, 353, 436–8, 440–2, 445–6, 449, 547, 558, 560, 562, 565–6, 568, 687
nationalism435
Ireland12, 27, 32, 36, 78, 80, 82–5, 88–9, 93 n. 38, 196, 566, 696, 703
Irish Free State549
Northern565
Republic of544
resistance to England24, 28, 702
Royal Academy77
Young Ireland83
Iroquois599
irredentism426, 485, 510, 544, 557
Isabelle (of Castile)597
Islam11, 85, 222, 231, 267, 269, 328, 330, 332, 435, 440, 444–6, 449, 478, 480–2, 503–4, 520, 576, 660–4, 668, 675, 679–81, 688; see also Muslims
anti-Islamism667
fundamentalist56
Wahhabi226
Jihad441, 483
modernist221–2
Organization of the Islamic Conference687
pan-Islamism9, 15, 226, 231, 237, 664, 672–4, 678–83, 686–9, 689 n. 2, 692 n. 45
Islamabad506, 508, 511–12
Israel211–2, 214, 228, 233, 235, 240 n. 49, 320, 329, 349, 439–43, 447–8, 687
nationalism443
Israelites27
Istria184, 197 n. 5
institutions136, 267, 270, 315, 386, 417, 601, 610, 655, 696
political277, 281, 477, 490, 526
private404
traditional46, 279
Alto Adige565, 575
Blackshirts575
Brenner frontier430
Catholic PPI429
Communist Party648
Concordat and Latern Pacts577
Dopolavoro577
empire342, 351, 390, 544, 550 578
fascist3, 15, 429–31, 574–8, 588
Fascist National Party573, 577, 587
Fiume430
Italian Nationalist Association575, 577
Kingdom of168 n. 7
language26, 29–30, 32
nation-states159
National Society163
(p. 752) nationalism8, 149, 153–4, 161, 163, 167–8, 175
people of155, 175, 266, 384, 517
Risorgimento17 n. 23, 171 n. 33
Società Nazionale159
South Tyrol430, 565, 575
Trentino575
Trieste430
Unification of161–2, 164, 540
Young Italy78, 83
Iturbide, Agustín de120
Ivory Coast331–2, 363, 370, 545, 566, 570 n. 6
Parti Démocratique du Côte d’Ivoire332