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date: 23 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

The development towards modern nation-states in the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires proceeded as a series of national movements acting on behalf of subordinate ethnic communities and seeking the attributes of a fully fledged nation. These movements had three main aims: the development of national culture based on the local language, the achievement of some degree of political rights and self-administration, and the formation of a full social structure of equal citizens. Differences between the empires were important in shaping the specificity of singular national movements. We can distinguish national movements which began with linguistic and cultural goals from those in the Balkans which gave priority to the political goals. The cultural movements are highly diverse while the political movements belong to a rather homogeneous type of ‘secessionist nationalism’. The chronology of national movements varied with some starting at the end of the eighteenth century, some in the first half of the nineteenth century, and some even later.

Keywords: National movement, ethnic group, Ottoman Empire, Habsburg (Austrian) Empire, cultural nationalism, Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenes, Serbs, Croatians, Bulgarians, Greeks, Albanians, Montenegrins, Magyars, Rumanians

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