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date: 28 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter is divided into four parts. First it establishes a distinction between the concepts of nation, state, and nationalism and argues that not all nationalisms aim at outright independence. Second it considers the influence of Romanticism upon the revival of vernacular languages and cultures; a process, which at the turn of the nineteenth century prompted a shift from cultural to political demands on behalf of nation without, states such as Catalonia and Scotland. Third, it offers an outline of the development of nationalism in Catalonia, Scotland, and Quebec. Fourth it examines different political responses to the nationalism of nations without states; these include cultural recognition, political autonomy, and federation. Finally, the chapter considers whether devolution fosters separatism or, on the contrary, it locks regional movements into a constant tension with the state.

Keywords: Nation, nationalism, state, devolution, separatism, federation, repression, recognition, Catalonia, Quebec, Scotland

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