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date: 18 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter reflects on the late- and post-socialist societies of Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia/its successor states. It argues that nationalism was an intrinsic part of the communist project in all states, resulting in differing transformations towards market economy and democracy. In these countries, nationalism was successfully used for legitimizing power structures, in the face of the failures and dysfunctionalities of the system. In the transition following state socialism’s demise, the ephemeral and transitory social contexts were even more in need of a sense of belonging, and appeals to the national proved apt to fill the existing voids.

Keywords: Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, state socialism, nationalism, Yugoslav wars of the 1990s, transformation

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