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date: 15 October 2019

(p. 609) Index

(p. 609) Index

access spillover 468
ACIRRT 99
Ackers, Peter 14, 52–73
Acquired Rights Directive 519
ADR (alternative dispute resolution) 19, 427–8, 430–49
African Renaissance model 565
Air New Zealand 244
Algeria 244
alienation 135–6
all‐affected principle 591–2, 596
all‐subjected principle 595–6
analytical HRM see HRM
Anarcho‐Syndicalism 114
anti‐discrimination law 77
appraisal 416
Approved Profit Sharing 319, 351
arbitration 434
Archer, Robin 21, 590–606
Argentina 365, 375
asset specificity 603
Australia
consultative committees 86, 89
consultative councils 77
and ERB 243–4, 245
Howard Government 86, 87, 88, 89, 98
joint consultation 87–9
Keating Government 85, 86, 88, 89, 98
regulation 84–9
Rudd Government 86–7, 88, 89, 97
superannuation funds 513
voluntarism policy 97
worker support for 34
Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC) 244
Australian Conciliation and Arbitration Commission 85
Australian Industrial Relations Commission (AIRC) 85
Australian Labor Party (ALP) 86, 87, 89
Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Surveys 87
Australia Post 244
Austria 202, 238, 239
authoritarianism 560
authority
employer 600–1
and English common law 607
and freedom 591–6
AWRPS 99
Bakunin, Mikhail 62
Balnave, Nikki 16, 237–54
Banking Crisis (2008) 72
bargaining process 16
Belgium 17, 195, 201, 202, 239, 294–6
Berg, Peter 16, 186–208
Berlin Centralverein 540
best practice 31
Bevin, Ernest 62
Biedenkopf Commission 247
bilateral mechanisms 91, 372
Blair, Tony 579
Blauner, R. 135
Block, Richard 16, 186–208
boards 513–15
Bolivia 365, 375
bonus schemes 68
bottom‐up movements 134
bounded rationality 138, 603, 604, 605, 607
Boxall, Peter 14, 29–46
Braverman, H. 111
Brazil 343, 552, 564
Britain see United Kingdom
British Coal 170
British exceptionalism 581
British Steel Corporation 243
Brown, Gordon 342
Bryson, Alex 18, 383–400
Budd, John 19, 476–99
Bullock Royal Commission on Industrial Democracy (1977) 66, 117
Canada 34, 214, 215, 222, 227, 267, 349, 351, 401, 529, 544–5
Cañibano, Almudena 15, 131–56
capitalism
neoliberal 571
and participation 377
varieties of see VofC
(p. 610) capitalist voice 599
capital/labour tension 118
capital mobility 598
cascade briefing 35
case law countries 509
Centre for Economic Performance (CEP) 143
Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) 581
China 41, 564, 565, 584
Christian Socialists 56
Chrysler 207
civil law countries 509
Clegg, Hugh 54, 55, 61–4, 65, 66, 71, 120
Clinton, William 95
closed shops 395, 397
coal nationalization 61
Coase, R.H. 131
Coates, Ken 55, 64–6, 67
codetermination 139, 301, 495–6, 509, 515, 532, 542, 543
cognitive competence 603
Cole, G.D.H. 55, 59–61, 62, 64, 65, 67
collaborative market economies 557
collective bargaining
autonomy of 575
collective agreements 76–7
decentralization 308
decline 118
and democracy 61–4, 66
in emerging markets 564
as employee participation 186–208
extension mechanism 496
free collective bargaining 368, 536
growth of 53
and industrial democracy 536
legal support 496, 575
and management 368
militant 114–15
and mutual gain 429
and neoliberal convergence thesis 528
in New Deal era 534
non‐union 16, 34, 258–79
pluralist convergence thesis 528
structured 195–6
and trade unions 4–5, 111, 364, 579 see also ADR
collective consultation 580
collective power 485–6
collectivism 558
colonial paternalism 560
Combination Laws 402
Commission on Codetermination (Germany) 247
Commission on the Future of Worker‐Management Relations 287
Commons, John 53
Commonwealth v. Hunt 188
Commonwealth v. Pullis 188
communication 122
Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers (1989) 196–7
company
councils 68
egoism 291
unions 90, 222
Company Share Options Plan 319
computer‐aided design (CAD) 39
computer numerical control (CNC) 39
Confederation Of British Industry (CBI) 37, 70
conflict and participation 119–24
Congress of Industrial Organization 532
Conservative Party (Australia) 85, 86
Conservative Party/governments (UK) 67, 69, 244, 342, 386, 544, 579, 582
consultation 12, 37, 78–9, 83, 84–6, 121, 231, 494, 582, see also joint consultation
consultative councils/committees 77, 86, 213, 228
consumer control 59
Consumer Cooperative Movement 55–9
consumer theory 18
contingent claims contract 604
Continuous Improvement 417
contracts 19, 603, 604
control model 409
cooperative banks 252
cooperative partnership 56, 57, 237
Co‐operative Productive Federation (CPF) 56–7, 58
Cooperative Union 58
coordinated decentralization 201
coordinated market economies (CMEs) 508, 531, 572, 573, 583
coordination in production 132, 141
core competencies of firms 557
corporate governance
AGMs 511, 512
allignment of interests 516–18
boards and governing bodies 513–15
coordination by firms 572
corporate control 518–19
definition 505–6
dimensions of 510–20
employee participation 19, 20, 238, 504–20
employee pension funds 513
employees as shareholders 512–13
executive pay and performance 517–18
(p. 611)
incentives 516–18
informational asymmetries 516
information disclosure 515–16, 516
information flow 515–16
and investors 506, 557
key components of 510–20
and labour contract 506
law and finance view 509
market for corporate control 518
ownership 511–13
perspectives on 505–7
shareholder involvement 511–13
shareholder lobbying 512
stakeholders 238, 506–7
stewardship theory 507
stock‐based remuneration 517
systems 506
transparency 515–16
types of 507–10
workers' capital 510
workers' rights 506
corporate law 511
corporate values 122
corporatism 112–16
cost effectiveness 40–1
CRANET study 346
creeping control 140
cross‐training 416
cultures 558–9
customer‐generated problems 416
customer service 5
Cyprus 201
Czech Republic 200, 201, 288
Daimler Benz 578
debt crises 555
deferral to arbitration 434
Delta Air Lines 215, 217, 222, 272
democracy 61, 590–606
Denmark 195, 201, 238, 239, 247, 300
dependency theory 556
developing/emerging countries 19, 20, 552–66
development and participation 556–9
dialectics of participation 125
direct communication 4
direct employee participation 167–82
across organizational boundaries 460–4
analysis of 173–8
context for 169–71
definition 168–9
depth 173
escalator 11, 174
form 173
impacts of 15
information sharing 174
and labour process 366
level 173
management choice 171–2
Marxist view 366
practice and impact of 178–81
scope 173
self‐management 177–8
strategic choice 172
task autonomy 176–7
upward problem solving 175
and voice 175–6, 179
and wage‐effort bargain 366
discourse of empowerment 367
Discretionary Share Options 319
disputes resolution 19, 427–8, 430–49
distributive bargaining 429
division of labour 135
Dofasco 267
downward communications 68
DPG (Deutsche Post Gewerkschaft) 576
Dual‐Channel Voice 387, 401
dual system representation 330
dual voice systems 37–8
Dundon, Tony 16, 167–82
Dunlop Commission 287
dynamic capabilities of firms 557
economic democracy 316, 596–606
economics and participation 15
Egypt 244
EI 7–8, 55, 67, 482–3
amd employee commitment 68
and financial participation 488
and high performance system 416
initiatives 7–8, 9
as phantom participation 68
techniques 68
Electromation Inc. 90, 91, 92, 95
electronic data interchange (EDI) 39
emancipation through participation 118
emerging/developing countries 19, 20, 552–66, 584
employee
committees 77, 260
consultation 221
cooperation 15
council prohibition 77
empowerment 44, 125, 171
financial reports 68
incorporation 119, 174
involvement see EI
motivation 135, 138, 149, 420
ownership 538
(p. 612)
participation see employee participation
pension funds 513
relations 572
rights and EU Directive 78–84
share ownership see employee share ownership
training 415
voice see employee voice
Employee Free Choice Act (2006) 538
Employee Involvement 67
Employee‐Management Advisory Committees (EMACS) 263
employee participation 6
advantages of 9, 407
on boards of management (ERB) 16–17, 238–48, 513–15
classic accounts of 556
and collective bargaining see collective bargaining
collective power 485–6
comparative perspectives on 570–84
contemporary institutional approaches 556–8
and corporate governance 19, 20, 238, 504–20
cross national rights 19, 20
cultural accounts 558–9
in decision making 8, 237–8
definition 553–5
in developing/emerging countries 19, 20, 552–66
disadvantages of 10, 407
dynamics 7–10
economic perspective 131–56
in emerging markets 564–5
in employee share ownership 324–5
employer/employee balance 330
escalator of participation 11
and ethics 590–606
historical institutionalism 531–3
and HRM 29–46, 415
as individual choice 497
individualism 558
individual self‐determination 483
and industrial relations 52–73
in informal sector 563
information and consultation 484–5, 491–4
international perspectives 19, 20–1, 570–84
and Labour Process 105–26
legal perspective 76–98
and legitimacy 106, 498
managerial attitudes 12–13
Marxist perspectives 105–26
meanings of 10–13
and mutual gains 19
national variations in rights 530–3
non‐union 16, 17, 34, 53, 258–79
in organizations 553–5
and performance 18
in private sector 7
producer cooperatives 237, 248–53
and productivity 553, 583
and public policy 19–20, 476–99, 481–97, 498
in public sector 7
radical 179
resistance to 67
rights‐based 8
self‐determination 488–91
self‐limitation 375
self‐management 9, 43–4, 65, 177–8
as shareholders 238
synergistic effects 329
system design issues 180
trust‐based 12
and union hostility 62
and varieties of capitalism 571–83
and worker control 365 see also representation rights
Employee Participation in Organizational Change 346
Employee Representation in Non‐Union Firms 275
employees
and corporate governance 506
decision making 18
efficiency factors in workplace 170
employment relationship regulation 477–81
engagement 10
financial stakes 5
in governance 504–20
hearts and minds 174, 371
increased accountability 119
investment in 41–2
management of 42
motivation schemes 411
multidimensional capital/labour relationships 363
non‐union collective voice 212–32
non‐union representation 16, 17, 34, 53, 258–79
representation 88–9, 93, 260
as shareholders 512
share ownership 17
short term interests 363
status barriers 415
and takeovers 518–19 see also NER; trade union; workers; works councils
employee shareholdings 582
employee share ownership 315–31 (p. 613)
approaches to 339–44
assessment 323–4
characteristics of 322
and company performance 327–9
determinants of 320–4
employee attitudes 325–7
employee participation 324–5, 329–31
employee rights 315–16
employer/employee balance 330
incidence of 319–20
in liberal market economies 320
liquidity constraints 323
mainstream 317, 318, 321, 323, 328, 329
opposing views on 316
and participation 329–31
and performance 328
phantom shares 31
risk 322–3
schemes 346, 582
size of 317, 321–2
types of 317–19
workforce 322
and workplace performance 327–9
work settings 322
Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP) 68, 316, 317, 319, 326, 341, 582
employee voice
definition of 401
grievances 136, 429
and HRM 32–45
impacts of 179
importance of 77
legitimacy 106, 498
managerial perspective 69, 223–4
and managerial representation 509
mutual gains 427–49
and mutual gains 427–49
and NER 270
non‐union 18, 171, 212–32, 398, 428
observations on 385–97
and performance 136
and power effects 141
systems 175–6
through trade unions 18, 70, 171, 582 see also ADR; trade unions; voice
employers 6
choice 171–2
commitment to NER 278
and cost effectiveness 40–1
employer/employee balance 330
employer violence 298
employment relationship regulation 477–81
goals 40, 41
hostility to unions 393
multidimensional capital/labour relationships 363
multi‐employers 455–60
mutual gains 19
and non‐union collective voice 212–32
participation 18, 19, 365
power 369
strategies 16
and trade unions 365
and union endorsement 374
and worker control 365
and works councils 294 see also management
employment
contracts 598, 600
relationship models 15
relationship regulation 477–81
security 9
Employment with a Human Face 401
Employment Relations Act (1999) 497
empowerment 417, 418
enlargement procedures 496
enlightened paternalism 222
enlightened shareholder value 507
Enterprise Management Incentives 319
equal liberty 591
equitable compensation 416
ERB
effectiveness of 245–8
EU legislation 239
incidence of 238–45
escalator of participation 11, 174, 365
Estonia 201
ethics and employee participation 590–606
EU
advisory committees 198
collective bargaining 195, 200–7
collective representation 200
compared to United states 194
and consultation 83
Council of Europe 195
Directives 78–9, 202, 263, 401
Informing and Consulting Employees (I and C) 295, 581, 583
and modernising labour market 83–4
and national laws 82–3
and works councils 289, 571, 574, 580
EC Council of Ministers 196
and ERB 239, 246
European Community established 195
ICED 78–84
Article 1 81, 82
Article 2 79, 81, 83
Article 4 79, 80, 81, 82, 97
(p. 614)
Article 5 80, 81, 82
Article 8 82
Recital 16 81
and representative consultation 96
and United Kingdom 82
legislation 78–84
Social Charter 195
social partners 196–8
social policy 196–8
supranational law 79–82
and trade union roles 117, 194–8
Treaty of Rome 195, 196 see also individual member states; individual statutes
European Companies 514
European Company Statute (2001) 243
European Directive on Information and Consultation 263
European Foundation 298, 324
European Foundation for the Improvement of Employment and Living Conditions 196, 346
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EPOC) 582
European Union see EU
European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 147, 324
European Works Councils (EWCs) 69, 117, 577, 580, 583
Eurotunnel 227–8, 229, 230
Euro tunnel 581
Events of May 1968 (France) 134
excellent companies 31
executive pay and performance 517–18
exit control 597, 598, 600, 602
exit, voice and loyalty theory 136–7
extension mechanism 496
extensive training 417, 418
Fabian socialism 57, 60, 62
failure of the state theory 556–7
Fairris, P. 222
Fibreboard v. NLRB 192, 194
financial considerations as dominant 119
financial EI 68
financial participation 4, 5, 17–18, 338–54, 482–3
calculation games 348
consequences 349–53
design 339–41
and EI 488
employee absenteeism 352
and employees 343, 350, 352–4
and high commitment management 349
hybrid schemes 340
impact of 348–53
macroeconomic effects 350
managerial behaviour 343, 348–9
nature of 340
objectives 342–4
political games 348
practice of 345–7
process 348–9
spece influence 345
tax advantages 344
time influence 345
trade unions views 343
and union presence 347
Finland 200, 238, 346, 349
First National Maintenance 193, 194
First National Maintenance Corporation v. NLRB 193, 194
flexible bureaucracy 39–40, 42
flexible work systems 414
Fordism 178, 564, 565
foreign direct investment 578
formalized proceduralization 299
formative scales 423
Foundation of Labour 292
Fox, Alan 67
France 17, 133, 134, 145, 195, 202, 203, 239, 296–8, 319, 346, 347, 496
Frankfurter Paulskirche 541
Frankfurt School 108, 125
freedom and authority 591–6
Frege, Carola 20, 526–45
French Regulation school 109
Friedmann, Georges 133
frontiers of control 134, 138–42
Gall, Gregor 18, 361–78
General Motors 207
Germany 16, 17, 21, 117, 123, 141–2, 195, 200, 202, 238, 239, 243, 246, 247, 290–2, 320, 346, 347, 512
Berlin Centralverein 540
boards 513–15
codetermination 139, 301, 495–6, 509, 515, 532, 542, 543
as coordinated market economy 583
Frankfurter Paulskirche 541
governance systems 529
historical background 539
representation rights 539–43
social and industrial reforms 539
(p. 615)
unification 575, 578
unions rights 541
and VofC 574–9 see also works councils
global competition 8
globalization 19, 309, 528, 571, 578, 580
global market pressures 221
GM‐Toyota 181
Godard, John 20, 526–45
Gollan, Paul J. 3–21, 212–32, 275
Gomez, Rafael 18, 383–400
Gospel, Howard 20, 504–20
governance see corporate governance
government regulation 596–7
Gramsci, Antonio 108–9
Great Britain see United Kingdom
Greece 202, 239, 296, 320
grievances 19, 429, 433, 435, 449
Guild Socialism 55, 59–61, 62, 66, 71
Gumbrell‐McCormick, Rebecca 17, 286–309
hardship clauses 291–2
harmonization 415
health and safety 123
hearts and minds 174, 371
high‐commitment, HRM 471
high commitment
management 171, 409, 419, 471
model 408
higher value added production 20
high involvement
management (HIM) 18, 226, 351, 407–22
management performance studies see performance studies
model 408
work systems (HIWS) 9, 38, 39, 41, 46, 261
high performance
work design 9, 261
work practices 535
work systems (HPWS) 38, 134, 233, 408
high transaction cost HR practices 147
high value added operations 170
Hot Autumn of 1969 (Italy) 134, 299
HRM
aims of 45
analytical 14, 30–4
appraisal 416
companion disciplines to 30
contemporary approaches 119
in developing countries 558, 565
different management/worker systems 38
discourse of empowerment 367
diversity of 30
and employee attitudes 32
and employee share ownership 327
equitable compensation 416
failures 31
and financial participation 350–1
high‐commitment 471
high‐involvement 10
high transaction cost practices 147
hotel industry 39
illegal practices 386
Industrial Relations 30
international 30
international differences 31
job rotation 416
management role 30, 32
managerialist agenda 126
Micro 30
models of 31, 32
moderators 31
and NCV 217
and new management techniques (NMT) 371, 372
and non‐union voice 390
and Organizational Behaviour 30
and organizational performance 31
and organizations' growth 29
outsourced 40
performance studies 413
perspective on employee participation 29–46, 112, 370, 377
quality circles 68, 114, 168, 170, 178, 232, 371, 416, 578
research and mutuality 32
in rest homes 42
selection 416
socio‐political goals 42, 43
Strategic 30, 38
strategic practices 122
team meetings 416
and trade unions 35, 373–4, 395–7
training 415, 416
trends in 46
as voice substitute 398 see also IR
human capital development 557
Human Relations School 170
human resource management see HRM
human resource system 414
Hungary 202, 288
Hyman, Richard 17, 65, 113, 286–309
IBM 67, 392
ICED see EU
ICI 170
ideas brokers 8
(p. 616) IG BCE (Industrie‐gewerkschaft Bergbau, Chemie und Energie) 576
illegal migrant workers 42
IMF (International Monetary Fund)
policy 244, 557
structural adjustment programme 555
immediate job cycle 410
Imperial Oil 214, 215, 217, 227, 228, 269, 272
India 564
indirect participation 122, 187
across organizational boundaries 460–7, 468
individual freedom 21
individualism 558
Industrial Democracy 54, 57–9, 60, 63, 65, 69
industrial democracy 4, 7, 61–4, 117, 118
and collective bargaining 536
goals 63
three principles of 63
and works councils 286–309
Industrial Democracy and Nationalization 62
industrial organization 18
industrial relations see IR
industry ownership 63
informal participation 12
informational asymmetries 516
information and consultation 484–5, 491–4
Information and Consultation Regulations 84, 121, 378
Information and Consultative Directive 7
information disclosure 516
insecure tenure 561
Institute for Workers' Control 55, 65, 368
institutional complementaries 572
Institutional Labour Economists 53
instrumental stakeholder value 507
integrative bargaining 429
interest‐based negotiations (IBN) 429–30
inter‐firm relations 572
International HRM see HRM
International Labour Organisation 584
inter‐organizational contracting 19, 470
intersectoral bargaining 200
involvement, forms of 554
Involvement and Participation Association 37
IR 14, 30, 52–73, 572, 579
academic perspective 53, 58
American 53
collective bargaining 53
contemporary radical 71
and EU law 78–84
financial considerations as dominant 119
grievances 19, 429
management dominance 119
and Marx 108
Marxist 65
neo‐pluralist 55
and non‐union representation 53
Oxford School 54
realism theory 54, 55, 57–9, 62, 63
in Russia 61
and Thatcher era 67
United Kingdom 54, 579
Ireland 34, 200, 201, 239
iron rice bowl model 565
Italy 17, 195, 200, 201, 239, 298–300, 320, 346
Japan 38–9, 68, 118, 122, 123, 144, 145, 146, 170, 245, 261, 411, 529
Jefferson, Thomas 592
J‐form organizations 144, 145
job rotation 416
job satisfaction 5, 18, 408
John Lewis Partnership 67, 317
joint consultation 4, 68, 87–9
Joint Consultative Committees (JCC) 4, 36, 37, 213, 263, 264, 275, 279
Joint Industrial Councils (JIC) 263, 264, 279
Joint Production Committees 62
joint ventures 19
Kaarsemaker, Eric 17, 315–31
Kaizon 417
Kaufman, Bruce E. 17, 258–79
Kessler, Ian 17, 338–54
Klikauer, T. 125
knowledge economy 145–6
Korea 227, 288
Labor governments (Australia) 244
Labor Management Relations (Taft‐Hartley) Act (1947) 90, 193, 194
labour
and communicative rationality 125–6
law 46
organizations 91
power 599
productivity 414
relations and Marx 108
tension with capital 118
turnover 178
unions see trade unions
Labour Co‐partnership Association (LCA) 56
Labour‐Management Cooperation Committees 94
(p. 617) Labour Party 58, 60, 61, 69
New Labour 69, 121
and social partnership 69
Labour Process 106, 111, 115, 116–18, 119, 123, 124–6
Labour's Capital 505
Lansbury, Russell D. 20, 570–84
Late Capitalism 123
Latvia 201
lean production 9, 38, 178, 415, 578
legislation 5, 6, 7, 14–15, 16, 46, 76–98, 103–4, 509, see also indidual statutes
Lenin 108, 114
Lewin, David 3–21, 427–49
liberal corporatism 113
liberal market economies (LMEs) 508, 531, 557, 558, 572, 573, 583
Liberal party (Australia) 86
Lithuania 201
lock‐in effect 603
Loewe v. Lawlor 189
London Transport 62
Low Pay Commission 579
Luxembourg 201, 239
Maastricht Treaty (1992) 197
McDonalds 304, 577, 579
Machine that changed the world 134
macro‐corporatism 112–16
management
action 125
attitudes 12–13
authority 119
autocratic styles 558
behaviour 343, 348–9
buy‐in 553
by stress 367
and collective bargaining see collective bargaining
as employees 448
and employee voice 69
and empowerment 125, 171
high commitment 171, 349
high involvement (HIM) 18, 226, 351, 407–22
and NCV see NCV
as outdated 13
participation 70
paternalist 561–3
performance studies 413
power 119
rhetoric 125
right to manage 154
small firm 36
status barriers 415
Strategic Management 30
strategies 220–1
success criteria 147
TQM 68, 123, 124, 170, 232, 415, 416, 417
as workers 125 see also employers
Management Choice and Employee Voice 69, 275
managerial agenda and trade unions 120
managers of discontent 536
Manchester capitalism 540
Marchington, Mick 3–21, 455–71
market‐based regulation 76
market‐outsider systems 508
Markey, Raymond 16–17, 237–54
Marsden, David 15, 131–56
Martinez Lucio, Miguel 15, 105–26
Marxist theory 57, 59, 65, 72, 105–26, 136, 366, 599
Marx, Karl 62, 65, 107, 135
mass meetings 122
mass production 38
Matching Shares 318
Mayo, Elton 63
Mersey Docks and Harbour Board 243
micro‐corporatism 112–16, 119
microcorporatism 299
Micro HRM see HRM
militancy 65, 114–15, 118
Miners Next Step, The 59
minimal inventory system 415
Mintzberg, H. 132, 155
mission statements 122
moderators 31
modernization theory 556
Mondragon cooperatives 248, 249, 251, 253
Mond‐Turner talks 61
monitoring 137–8
Morrison, Herbert 60, 62
Morris, William 62, 65
motivation 135, 138, 149, 420
motivation schemes 411
multidimensional capital/labour relationships 363
multi‐employers 455–60
multinational corporations (MNCs) 42, 43, 469, 557, 571, 574, 577, 578, 579, 580, 583, 584
mutual adjustment 132, 144
mutual gains 427–49
mutuality 32
National Employers' Survey 416–17
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) (1933) 90, 99, 190
nationalization 61
(p. 618) National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) 91, 93, 191, 192, 193, 199, 269, 537
National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act (1935) (NRLA) 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 190, 191, 193, 194, 198–9, 261, 401, 497, 498, 532, 535, 537, 538
National Minimum Wage 69
National Wage Case 85, 98
NCV 212–32
main aims 216
management strategies and 216–27
in perspective 213–16
reasons for establishing 225–7
shift from union voice to 383–400
structures 232
negotiated collective agreement regulation 76–7
neo‐corporatism 113
neo‐institutionalism 556–7
neoliberal capitalism 571
neoliberal convergence thesis 528
neoliberal ideology 582
neoliberal structural adjustment programmes 560
NER 16, 17, 34, 53, 258–79
challenges 278
complementary voice 272–3
and cooperation 268
definition 259–63
degree of permanence 269–70
diversity of 265–6
empirical research on 274–8
evolutionary voice face 270–2
extent of power 267–9
forms 263–4, 276, 279
four faces of 270–3
functions of 264, 267
goals for adopting 276
greenfield plants 263
history 259–63, 275
legality 261
models of 273–4
outcomes and effectiveness 277–8
power 268, 276
purpose 276
representation modes 267
structure 269, 276
theory 273–4
topics/subjects 267
union avoidance 272
unity of interest 272
wage negotiation 264
Netherlands 17, 195, 200, 202, 239, 292–4, 346
New Approach to Industrial Democracy, A 63
New Deal 53, 538
New Developments in Employee Involvement 275
New Labour 386
New Left socialism 55, 64
new management techniques (NMT) 371, 378
New Right 70
New South Wales Electricity Commission 243
New South Wales railways 243
New South Wales State Dockyard 243
New South Wales State Superannuation Board 243
New Theory of Democracy 63
New Unionism strikes 57
New United Motor Manufacturing Inc. (NUMMI) 175, 181
New York traders 146
New Zealand 244, 419
New Zealand hotel industry 216
Nike 469
non‐citizen workers 470–1
non‐union ADR systems 430–47
non‐union businesses characteristics 438
non‐union collective voice see NCV
non‐union employee representation see NER
Nonunion Employee Representaton 274
Non‐Union Voice 387
Norway 238, 300
No Voice Default 388
off‐line participation 11
Olivetti 392
on‐line participation 11
opportunism 603, 604
option‐based consultation 37
Organizational Behaviour 30, 32
organizational democracy 13
organizational ecology 146–7
organizational flexibility 42
organizational goals 5
organizational participation 68
organizational structures and participation 143–5
organizational types 144
Owen, Robert 54, 56
Panitch, L. 113
participation
across national boundaries 467–70
across organizational boundaries 19, 455–71, 467–70
and autonomy 120
bureaucracy 39
(p. 619)
and capitalism 377
classic accounts of 556
and conflict 119–24
contemporary institutional approaches 556–8
cultural accounts 558–9
deficit 471
definition 553–5
in developing world context 555
dialectics of 125
diffusion 146–7
direct 122
direct employee see direct employee participation
diversity 574
and emancipation 118
in emerging markets 564–5
employers 18, 19, 365
forms of 554
historical institutionalism 531–3
and HRM practices 377
individualism 558
in informal sector 563
information and consultation 484–5, 491–4
in institutional terms 121–2
and knowledge economy 145–6
as management rhetoric 125
managers' choice of 179
in multi‐employer context 455
and multinationals 571
national models 559
national variations in rights 530–3
non‐citizen workers 470
organizational ecology 146–7
and organizational structures 143–5
in organizations 553–5
partnership 375
and paternalism 561–3
and performance 134–46
performance measurement 123, 148–53
politics 112–16
productivity effects 553
radical 179
and renegotiation 142–3
and revolution 365, 375
schemes 173
self‐determination 488–91
and shared commitment 562
spontaneous 133–4
and strong labour institutions 154
symbolic 122
system design issues 180
trade unions responses 361–78
union/employer balance 369 see also employee; employers; HRM; VofC
partnership
agreements 371, 375
and bargaining 375
and consultation 376
Partnership Shares 318
Pateman, C. 64
paternalism 561–3
Patmore, Glenn 14, 76–98
Patmore, Greg 16, 237–54
pay levels 415
peer group monitoring 137–8
Pendleton, Andrew 17, 20, 315–31, 504–20
performance measurement 123, 148–53
performance studies
Arthur 419, 420
Birdi, Clegg, Patterson, Stride, Wall and Wood 417–18
Cappelli and Neumark 416–17
Fey, Bjürkman and Pavlovskaya 421
Guthrie 419, 420
Huselid 420
Koch and McGrath 421
MacDuffie 414–15, 418
and other HRM studies 419–21
overview 418
Wall and Wood 421
Wood and de Menezes 413–14, 415, 418
Wright, McCormick, Sherman and McMahon 415–16
Youndt, Snell, Dean and Lepak 421
peripheral Fordism 560–1
Personnel Leasing Act 468
Personnel Management see HRM
phantom shares 331
piecework 410
Plan Epargne d'Enterprise 318
pluralist convergence thesis 528
pluralist employment relations policies 565–6
Plywood Cooperatives 248, 249
Poland 201, 288
Polaroid 269
political science 15
popular capitalism 339
Portugal 202, 239, 296, 320, 346
positive‐sum negotiation 139
Post‐Fordism 178
Post Office 243, 515
Poutsma, Erik 17, 315–31
power equalization 170
power sharing 7
principal agent 506
(p. 620) privatizations 555
producer cooperatives 237, 248–53, 546
productivity 414, 421–2, 553
Product Life Cycle (PLC) stages 391–3
product market competition 8
product quality 5
profit 5
profit‐related pay 371
profit sharing 68, 340, 582
protective tariffs 555
public policy, and employee participation 19–20, 476–99, 481–97
public‐private partnerships 19
public sector unionism 397
Purcell, John 14, 29–46
Qantas 244
quality circles 68, 114, 168, 170, 178, 232, 371, 416, 578
quality control systems, Japanese 573
quality, and lean production 415
Quality of Working Life (QWL) 170, 179
rail nationalization 61
Railway Labor Act (RLA) (1926) 189, 262
Ramsey, Harvey 118
RBV 151
Realities of Partnership at Work, The 67–8
reflective scales 423
regulation
Australia see Australia
EC see EC
employee committees 77
market‐based 76
negotiated collective agreements 76–7
regulatory frameworks 167–8
state intervention 77
United States see United States
relational‐insider systems 508
Renault 295
renegotiation 142–3
representation
on boards 493–4
cross‐national 526–45
gap 368, 579
indirect 121
representation rights 19, 526–45
Canada 544–5
Germany 539–43
Sweden 545
United Kingdom 544
United States 534–9
variation 528–33
representative participation 4, 68
representative voice 559–60
Reserve Bank (Australia) 244
revolution 365, 375
right to manage 131–2
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 53
Royal Mail 143
Rucker Plan 340
Russia 61, 71, 421
Save As You Earn (sharesave) (SAYE) scheme 318, 319, 341, 351
Scanlon Plan 340
Schmoller, Gustav 541
Scientific Management 409
Section 423 plans 318
sectoral bargaining 200
segmented business system 557
selection 416
Self‐Government in Industry 60
self‐management 9, 43–4, 65, 177–8, 232, 416
Selfridges 36
sequential spot contracting 604
service firms 39
shareholders
control 602
and employer authority 601–2
involvement 511
value 5, 506
value management 575
value strategies 517
voice 599, 601–2
Share Incentive Plan (SIP) 318, 319, 341
share ownership schemes 346
shop stewards' movement 133–4
Siemens AG 578
Simon, H.A. 131
single channel representation 330
Single European Act (SEA) (1985) 196
Six Sigma 170
Slovakia 201
Slovenia 202, 288
Smith, Adam 135, 154, 603
social democratic reconstruction 61
Social and Economic Council 292
socialist collectivism 60
social legitimacy 42
societal corporatism 113
South Africa 20, 287, 552, 564
South East Asia 555
South Korea 584
Spain 202, 239, 252, 296, 320, 349
staff
appraisal 416
councils 371
(p. 621)
retention 5
selection 415
stakeholder interests 6, 506–7, 509, 596
standardization 144
state
corporatism 113
intervention regulation 77
role of 15, 370
status barriers 415
Statutory Trade Union recognition 69
stewardship theory of governance 507
stock‐based remuneration 517
strategic choice 171–2
Strategic HRM see HRM
Strategic Management 30
structural adjustment programmes 555
subcontracting 6
suggestion schemes 68
supply‐chain partnering 417
supranational law 79–82
surrender of judgement 593
Sweden 17, 117, 133, 201, 202, 238, 246, 247, 300–1, 340, 346, 529, 545
Syndicalism 59, 60, 62
Taft‐Hartley 513
Taft‐Hartley Act (1947) 90, 193, 194
Tanzania 244
Taras, Daphne G. 17, 258–79
task autonomy 176–7
task‐specific training 603
Tavistock Institute 3, 170
Taylorist theory 18, 108, 111, 135, 170, 181, 409, 411, 560, 561
team briefing 68
team meetings 416
team structure, cell based 176
Teamwork for Employees and Managers Act (1995) 99
Teamwork for Employees and Managers Bill (TEAM Bill) 95
technology, advanced 39
Telstra 244
Tesco 69
Thirteenth Company Law Directive 519
360 degree appraisals 371
Timming, Andrew R. 19, 455–71
TNC (transnational corporations) 557
Tobin's q measure 420
top‐down decision making 171–2
Topham, Tony 55, 64–6, 67
Total Quality Management (TQM) 68, 123, 124, 170, 232, 415, 416, 417
Touraine, A. 135
traders' associations 63
Trades Union Congress Steel Committee 243
Trades Union Congress (TUC) 243
trade unions
benefits 137
and boards 515
closed shops 395, 397
and collective bargaining see collective bargaining
company unions 90, 222
cooperation with management 66, 119
cooperative 114–15
and decision making 117
decision to unionize 223
decline/weakness 67, 118, 231, 368–9, 373–5, 378, 383–400, 401, 402, 427, 579
density 35, 202–4, 205, 206, 262, 384, 396, 579
in developing world 560
distrust of 536
dual system representation 330
and economic policies 113
and employee voice 35
employer hostility 393
and employer participation 13, 364
employer violence 298
endorsement and employers 374
in Europe 186–208
and financial participation 343, 347
hostility to 69
hostility to participation 62
and HR practice 35
incorporation 120
independence 63, 92, 121
indirect participation 187
institutionalized power 43
and job restructuring 40
and joint consultation 4
legal recognition 497
legitimacy 231, 232, 529
and Lenin 108
and lower productivity 407–8
and macroeconomic failings 408
management relations 15, 120
and managerial agenda 120
managers of discontent 536
marginalization 373–4
membership trends 392, 396, 529
militancy 65, 114–15, 118
multidimensional capital/labour relationships 363
(p. 622)
narrowed horizons 368–9
as negotiators 76–7
New Unionism strikes 57
participation praxis 371
and partnership necessity 70
and pension funds 513
perceived necessity for 34
and PLC 391–3
power 369, 373
and power sharing 7
private sector 34
public sector 35, 397
representation gaps 44, 373
response to participation 18, 361–78
rights 16
rise of 57
roles 117, 121, 363, 367, 368–9, 370
shop stewards' movement 134
as sole representative of workers 63, 330
statutory recognition 69
supine 231
and team working 376
three principles of industrial democracy 63
two faces of unionism 134
and wage differentials 205–6
wage effects 204–7, 407–8
and works councils 293, 374 see also collective bargaining; IR; NCV; works councils
training 415, 416, 417, 418, 603
transaction cost economics 18
transition countries 584
Transport and General Workers' Union 62
TRC case 98
Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) 197, 198
Treaty of Rome 195, 196
Turgot, A.R.J. 345
two faces of unionism 134
ubuntu (collectivism) 558
UK Information and Consultation Regulations 84, 121
underinvestment effect 251
unilateralism 93–5
unions see trade unions
Union Voice 387
unitarism and pluralism 67
unitarist ideology 370
United Kingdom 16, 21, 54, 82, 106, 121, 147, 196, 200, 201
Blair Government 579, 580
boards 514
collective bargaining 186–208
cooperative banks 252
ERB 243
governance systems 529
legislation 202
as liberal market economy 544
Major Government 544, 579
representation rights 544
takeover regulation 518
Thatcher Government 67, 342, 386, 544, 579, 582
tradition 544
union/non‐union voice 383–400
and varieties of capitalism 579–83
United States 16, 36, 37, 38, 53
bankruptcy law 207
bargaining and negotiation 191–4
boards 513
collective bargaining 186–208
common law 188–9
ERB 247
formative conditions 534–5
freedom ideals 535
judicial decisions 188–94
producer cooperatives 546
railroad labour relations 189
representation and regulation in 90–6
representation rights 534–9
takeovers 518
unilateralism 93–5
union recognition 190–1, 199, 207–8
University of West England School 120
Upper Clyde Shipbuilders 65
upward problem solving 4, 68
U.S. shop committees 90
utopian socialism 60
utopian theory 54, 55, 57, 59–61, 71, 72, 182
Varieties of Capitalism 572
varieties of capitalism see VoC
Vegelahn v. Guntner 189
Venezuela 365, 375
verbal participation 4
Vietnam 584
vocational training and education 572
VofC
analysis 21
and coordinated market economies 572, 573
and employee participation 377, 571–83
framework 20–1
and liberal market economies 572, 573
limitations of theory 21, 583, 584
theory 530, 531, 557
(p. 623) voice 224, 229, 232, 270, 272–3
capitalist 599
collective form of 399
control 598
in developing world 559–60
dual 37–8, 330, 387, 401
employee see employee voice
and employer networks 400
enforceable 386
forms of 554
as generic need 389
and HRM policy 395–7
HRM as substitute for 398
incidence 388, 390
non‐union 212–32, 398, 428
regimes 385, 388, 389
representative 559–60
shareholder 599
in solution market 389
trade union 179–80, 218, 223, 224, 231, 383–400
workplace 18, 32–45, 69, 70, 77, 136–7, 141, 171, 383–400
and works councils 308
Volkswagen 305, 577
voluntarism policy 97
Volvo 123
wage differentials 205–6
Wage Earner Funds 117, 340
wage‐effort bargain 363, 366
Wagner Act 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 190, 261, 401, 497, 498, 532, 535, 537, 538
Wailes, Nick 20–1, 570–84
Walker v. Cronin 189
Wall Street rule 602
Wall Street Walk 511
Webb, Beatrice 54, 55, 57–9, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 250–1, 606
Webb, Sidney 54, 55, 57–9, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 250–1, 606
Weber, Max 132
welfare capitalism 90, 217, 221–2, 261
Whitley Councils 62, 260
Wilkinson, Adrian 3–21, 167–82
Willman, Paul 18, 383–400
Wood, Geoffrey 20, 552–66
Wood, Stephen 18, 407–22
Work in America 133, 154
worker
commitment 5
committees 546
control (1970s) 64–6
cooperative control 56–9
cooperatives 4, 57, 237–54, 378
directors 4, 66, 237–54
empowerment 44, 125, 171
and team working 376
expertise 105–6
incorporation 119, 174
motivation 135, 138, 149
ownership 237–54
participation see employees participation
productivity 136–7, 414
self‐management 9, 43–4, 65, 177–8
workers
alienation 134–5
on boards 408
cooperation 15
and corporate governance 506
councils 366
efficiency factors in workplace 170
hearts and minds 174, 371
illegal migrant 42
non‐citizen 470–1
relationship with employers 599
small firm 36
and unions 34 see also employees
workers' capital 510, 513
Workers' Control 65, 66, 71
Workers' Statute (1970) 299
worker voice see voice
work group relations 146
work organization experiments 133
work performance measurement 220
workplace
alienation 135–6
authoritarianism 560
colonial paternalism 560
consensus 68
consultation directives 78
insecure tenure 561
multi‐employer 457–60
paternalism 561–3
representation 88, 201–2, 529
Workplace Employment Relations Survey 46, 155, 275, 386, 413, 579
Workplace Relations Act (1996) 86, 99
Workplace Relations Amendment (Work Choices) Act (2005) 86
Workplace Research Centre 87
works committees 297
Works Constitution Act (1952) 575
Works Council Act 576
(p. 624) works councils 16, 17, 36, 69, 77, 92–3, 140, 141–2, 187, 201–2, 214, 273, 286–309
Belgium 294–6, 302, 303, 307
and boards 515
Central Europe 288
councils and unions 307
Czech Republic 288
definition 286
Denmark 300
diversity of interests 305–7
Eastern Europe 288
effectiveness of 308–9, 408
ethnic minorities 306
EU directives 289, 571, 574, 580
European 286–7, 369, 491–2
European Works Councils (EWC) 69, 117, 577, 580, 583
and foreign direct investment 578
formal requirements 302–4
France 289, 296–8, 302, 303, 304, 306, 307
gender imbalance 306
Germany 289, 290–2, 302, 303, 305, 307, 308, 542, 574, 575–8
and globalization 309
Greece 296
Hungary 288
Italy 298–300, 302, 303, 307
Korea 288
as marginal phenomenon 295–6
Netherlands 292–4, 302, 303, 305, 306, 578
Norway 300
Poland 288
Portugal 296
powers of 578
problems with 408
proportionality 305–7
representation 304–5
rules and regulations 302–4, 578
self‐limiting or enabling 374
Slovenia 288
South Africa 287
Spain 296
Sweden 300–1, 302, 307, 545
Taiwan 287–8
United States 287
varieties of 287–301
works council‐free zones 308 see also trade unions
World Bank
policy 244, 557
structural adjustment programme 555
support by 584
World of Labour, The 60
World Trade Organization 584
written participation 4
Xerox 146
Yugoslavia 117, 248
Zagelmeyer, Stefan 19, 476–99
zone of acceptance 132, 142, 154