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date: 29 February 2020

(p. xviii) The Authors

(p. xviii) The Authors

Mengistu Amberber is Senior Lecturer in Linguistics at the University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia). His research interests include lexical semantics, the semantics-syntax interface, morphosyntactic theory, and linguistic typology. He is the co-editor of Language Universals and Variation (Praeger, 2002), Competition and Variation in Natural Languages: The Case for Case (Elsevier, 2005), and editor of The Language of Memory in a Cross-linguistic Perspective (Benjamins, 2007).

John M. Anderson is interested in the nature of syntactic and phonological categorization, and in their relationship to the structures that relate the categories. His books include Modern Grammars of Case and The Grammar of Names (OUP, 2006 and 2007).

Peter M. Arkadiev is Junior Research Fellow at the Department of Typology and Comparative Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences. His scholarly interests are linguistic typology, grammatical categories, and the semantics-syntax interface (including such topics as morphological case, event structure, and aspect). His 2006 PhD dissertation (written in Russian) was entitled ‘The typology of two-term case systems’.

Markus Bader is Lecturer in Linguistics at the University of Konstanz. He received his PhD at the University of Stuttgart in 1995 and has worked at the Universities of Jena, Konstanz, and Massachusetts at Amherst. His research interests include human language comprehension, in particular parsing and interpretation, and syntactic theory.

Matthew Baerman is Research Fellow in the University of Surrey Morphology Group. His research focuses on inflectional morphology. He has published in Language, Journal of Linguistics, Yearbook of Morphology, Linguistic Typology, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, and Russian Linguistics. He is co-author of The Syntax-Morphology Interface: A Study of Syncretism (CUP,2005), and co-editor of Deponency and Morphological Mismatches (OUP,2007).

Dik Bakker is Associate Professor of General Linguistics at the University of Amsterdam. His interests include language contact and change, functional approaches to grammar, and, in cooperation with Anna Siewierska, language typology. He has developed computational tools for the exploration of typological databases and bilingual text corpora and language sampling.

(p. xix) Jóhanna Barðdal is Senior Research Fellow in General Linguistics at the University of Bergen. She works on syntax and semantics in Germanic languages, in a cognitive-functional framework. She has published articles in Language, Cognitive Linguistics, and Journal of Linguistics, and is currently running a comparative project on non-canonical case marking in the early and archaic Indo-European languages.

Balthasar Bickel is Professor of General Linguistics at the University of Leipzig. His research interests centre on the worldwide distribution of linguistic diversity, its historical causes, and its relationships to social and cognitive processes. Since the early 1990s he has been engaged in fieldwork on typological outlier languages in the Himalayas. Together with Johanna Nichols, he is co-director of the AUTOTYP research programme for typological databasing. More information can be obtained at

Barry Blake retired in 2003, after four decades, from the position of Foundation Professor of Linguistics at La Trobe University. His publications include Relational Grammar (Routledge, 1990), Case (CUP, 1994, 2001), Playing with Words (Equinox, 2007) and All about Language (OUP, 2008) as well as several works on Australian Aboriginal languages.

James P. Blevins is Assistant Director of Research at the Research Centre for English and Applied Linguistics in the University of Cambridge. He received his PhD in Linguistics from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst in 1990 and has published on a range of grammatical topics. His research deals mainly with the analysis of morphological systems and syntactic constructions, with an emphasis on paradigm structure and discontinuous dependencies. Areal interests include Germanic, Balto-Finnic, Balto-Slavic, and Kartvelian.

Jonathan David Bobaljik is Associate Professor of Linguistics at the University of Connecticut, Storrs. His major research interests lie in the areas of morphology and syntax, and their interface. He also has interests in language documentation and preservation, especially of the indigenous languages of the arctic and sub-arctic where he has conducted fieldwork.

Miriam Butt is Professor of Theoretical and Computational Linguistics at the University of Konstanz. She works primarily on Urdu (syntax, morphology, semantics, some phonology) and is currently concentrating on the history and distribution of case. She is also working on building a computational grammar (parser/generator) and finite-state morphology for Urdu.

Denis Creissels is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Lyon. His main interests are descriptive linguistics and syntactic typology. His recent publications include ‘Suffixes casuels et postpositions en hongrois’ (Bulletin de la Société de Linguistique de Paris, 2000), and ‘Encoding the distinction between location, source (p. xx) and destination: a typological study’ (Space in Languages, edited by Hickman and Robert, 2006). He is currently writing a grammar of the Nakh-Daghestanian language Akhvakh.

Michael Daniel is a Researcher in Linguistics at the Institute for World Culture Linguistic Ecology Department, Moscow State University. His interests include Armenian corpus linguistics and the typology of nominal morphology.

Alan Dench's principal expertise lies in the primary documentation and grammatical description of Australian Aboriginal languages, especially those of Western Australia. He has written grammatical descriptions of three languages of the Pilbara – Panyjima, Martuthunira, and Yingkarta – and is working on a description of Nyamal. He has also made contributions to the historical and comparative analysis of Australian languages, to studies of language contact, and has written in the general area of ethno-linguistics.

Mark Donohue researches the languages and linguistic prehistory of Indonesia and New Guinea. He has published a descriptive grammar of Tukang Besi and is currently working on a formal semantic account of its major syntactic phenomena. In addition to work in synchronic and diachronic Austronesian linguistics, he works on Papuan languages and the interaction between Austronesian, Australian, Papuan, and mainland. He is co-editor of The Typology of Semantic Alignment (OUP, 2008).

Sonja Eisenbeiss is Lecturer in Psycholinguistics at the University of Essex. She has published on morphological processing, impaired and unimpaired first language acquisition, and the relationship between language and cognition. She has conducted experimental studies with children and adults and has developed games for the elicitation of various grammatical markers and constructions. Currently, she is analysing her extensive video-based corpus of German child language, funded by the Max-Planck-Society, with respect to children1's morphosyntactic development.

Nicholas J. Enfield is at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen. He conducts fieldwork-based research in mainland Southeast Asia on micro and macro dimensions of language and other modes of signifying. Books (edited and authored) include Ethnosyntax (OUP, 2002), Linguistic Epidemiology (Routledge, 2003), Roots of Human Sociality (Berg, 2006, co-edited with S. C. Levinson), Person Reference in Interaction (CUP, 2007, co-edited with T. Stivers), and A Grammar of Lao (Mouton, 2007).

Dmitry Ganenkov is a researcher in the Department of Caucasian Languages, Institute of Linguistics, Moscow. His published work includes ‘Experiencer coding in Nakh-Daghestanian’ in Case, Valency and Transitivity edited by Leonid Kulikov, Andrej Malchukov, and Peter de Swart (Benjamins, 2006).

(p. xxi) Martin Haspelmath is a senior staff member at the Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie in Leipzig. He received degrees at the Universität zu Köln, University at Buffalo, and the Freie Universität Berlin. He taught at the FU Berlin, the Universität Bamberg, the Università di Pavia, the Universität Leipzig, and at various summer schools. His research interests are primarily in the area of broadly comparative and diachronic morphosyntax. He is one of the editors of The World Atlas of Language Structures (OUP, 2005).

Bernd Heine is Emeritus Professor at the Institute of African Studies (Institut für Afrikanistik), University of Cologne. His 33 books include Cognitive Foundations of Grammar (OUP USA, 1997); with Derek Nurse, African Languages: An Introduction (CUP, 2000), A Linguistic Geography of Africa (CUP, 2007); with Tania Kuteva, World Lexicon of Grammaticalization (CUP, 2002), Language Contact and Grammatical Change (CUP, 2005), The Changing Languages of Europe (OUP, 2006), and The Genesis of Grammar (OUP, 2007); and, edited with Heiko Narrog, The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis (in prep.).

Helen de Hoop is Associate Professor in Linguistics at the Radboud University Nijmegen. Her theoretical and applied work in syntax and semantics focuses on case and interpretation. Her PhD dissertation Case Configuration and Noun Phrase Interpretation (Groningen, 1992) was published in 1996 in the Garland series Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics. In 2002 she was awarded a PIONIER-grant by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) for the research programme ‘Case Cross-linguistically’ to investigate the relation between morphological case and meaning.

Oliver Iggesen has been a Research Fellow at the Research Centre for Linguistic Typology since 2005. His current project is a descriptive grammar of Chacobo, a Panoan language spoken in the Amazonian lowlands of Bolivia. He received his PhD in 2005 from the University of Bremen with a dissertation on case-asymmetry, based on a large-scale cross-linguistic study involving a sample of 260 languages. His main interests are language typology, language contact, grammaticalization, and historical linguistics.

Lars Johanson is Professor of Turcology at the Oriental Institute of the University of Mainz, Germany. He has published extensively on synchronic and diachronic linguistics, especially in the domains of aspect-mood-tense, language contact, and language typology. Most of his publications focus on the Turkic language family. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Turkic Languages and the book series Turcologica.

Seppo Kittilä is a University Lecturer in General Linguistics at The University of Helsinki. His main interests in linguistics include linguistic typology, syntax, argument marking, and transitivity. Recently he has been working on ditransitive (p. xxii) constructions, beneficiaries, and animacy effects on grammar. He has published articles on these topics, for example in Linguistic Typology, Studies in Language, and Linguistics.

Christa König is Professor of African Languages at the University of Frankfurt. Her research interests include verbal aspect and case systems. She has carried out extensive field research on Maa (Kenya, Tanzania), Ik (Northeastern Uganda), and !Xun (Namibia), and is presently engaged on a grammar of the Khoisan language !Xun. Her main book publications are Aspekt im Maa (AMO, 3, Cologne, 1994), Kasus im Ik (Nilo-Saharan Studies,16, Köppe, 2002), and Case in Africa (OUP, 2008). She is the editor of Afrikanistische Monographien.

Leonid Kulikov is a postdoctoral researcher at the Leiden University Centre for Linguistics, currently working on a diachronic syntactic dictionary of the Old Indo-Aryan verb, as well as on a grammar of early Vedic (the language of the Rgveda). His research interests include synchronic and diachronic typology, in particular, typology of voices and valency-changing categories, as well as Sanskrit (Vedic) verb and syntax. He is co-editor of Tense-aspect, Transitivity and Causativity (1999) and Case, Valency and Transitivity (2006).

Monique Lamers is a postdoctoral researcher in Linguistics, Radboud University Nijmegen. She studied Speech and Language Pathology in Nijmegen and Neurolinguistics in Brussels (Vrije Universitiet, Belgium). She carried out her PhD research in Groningen where she defended her thesis ‘Sentence processing: using syntactic, semantic and thematic information’ in 2001. From 2000 to 2003 she was a postdoctoral researcher in Magdeburg, Germany. She is currently a co-director of the ‘Animacy’ project at Radboud University in which her research focuses on the role of animacy in language comprehension and production, including differences between the intact and impaired language system.

Yury A. Lander is Research Fellow in Asian and African languages, Institute of Oriental Studies RAS, Moscow. He specializes in North Caucasian languages, but also works on the Austronesian family. His interests include possessive, quantificational, and relative constructions, and the issues related to the description of polysynthetic languages. He is a co-editor (with Ji-yung Kim and Barbara H. Partee) of Possessives and Beyond: Semantics and Syntax (2004).

Silvia Luraghi teaches General and Indo-European Linguistics at the University of Pavia. She has an MA in Classics from the University of Turin and a PhD in Linguistics from the University of Pavia. Her research interests include historical and Indo-European linguistics, with a focus on Latin, ancient Greek, and Hittite, linguistic typology and cognitive linguistics. She has worked at the University of Chicago and at the University of Rome 3.

Andrej Malchukov is a Senior Researcher at the Institute of Linguistic Studies at the Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg, and is currently affiliated to (p. xxiii) Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig. He specializes in Tungusic languages and has written a habilitation thesis on aspects of the morphosyntax of Even. His main interest is in morphosyntactic and semantic typology. Recent publications include Nominalization/Verbalization: Constraining Typology of Transcategorial Operations (2004). He is currently working on the typology ofditransitive constructions with Bernard Comrie and Martin Haspelmath.

Joan Maling is Professor of Linguistics at Brandeis University in Massachusetts, USA. Her doctoral dissertation in Linguistics at MIT reformulated al-Xaliil's metrical system of classical Arabic poetry in modern generative terms. She has published on many aspects of the syntax of modern Icelandic, especially case, word order, passive, preposition-stranding, and long distance reflexives, and on case alternations in Icelandic, Finnish, Korean, and German. She is currently investigating the development of a new impersonal passive construction in modern Icelandic. She was a founding editor of the journal Natural Language and Linguistic Theory and served as its managing editor for twenty-five years.

Elena Maslova is the author of A Grammar of Kolyma Yukaghir (2003) and Tundra Yukaghir (2003) and the editor of a linguistically analysed collection of Yukaghir texts (2001). She has worked on the typology of information-structure phenomena, reciprocal constructions, and case systems. Her current research interests focus on the methodological foundations of empirical typology, especially on analysis and interpretation of cross-linguistic and intra-genetic distributions of linguistic phenomena.

Alissa Melinger is Lecturer in Psychology at the University of Dundee. She previously worked at the MPI for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen and in Computational Psycholinguistics at Saarland University. She is primarily interested in language production, focusing on the interface between lexical and syntactic processes during sentence production.

Edith Moravcsik teaches Linguistics at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (USA). Her main interests are syntax, language typology, cognitive linguistics, and Hungarian grammar. Her books include An Introduction to Syntax: Fundamentals of Syntactic Analysis and An Introduction to Syntactic Theory (both Continuum, 2006).

Åshild Næss is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Oslo. Her main research interests are language typology and descriptive linguistics. She has worked on the Äiwoo and Vaeakau-Taumako languages of the Reef Islands, Solomon Islands, and has studied transitivity and case-marking from a typological perspective. Her published work includes Prototypical Transitivity (2007), descriptive and typological papers in scholarly books and journals, and collections of narrative texts in Äiwoo and Vaeakau-Taumako.

Bhuvana Narasimhan is Assistant Professor of Linguistics at the University of Colorado, Boulder. She conducts research on verb meaning, argument structure, (p. xxiv) and information structure from a cross-linguistic and developmental perspective. Current research is based on videotaped corpus and elicited production data from children and adults speaking a variety of languages including Hindi, Tamil, Dutch, and German.

Heiko Narrog is an Associate Professor at Tohoku University, Japan. He has published on diachronic and semantic issues in verbal categories, especially modality, and on issues in language typology. His recent work includes papers in Cognitive Linguistics, Diachronica, Language Sciences, and Sprachtypologie und Unversalien-forschung. He is co-editor with Bernd Heine of The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis (in prep.).

Ad Neeleman is Professor of Linguistics at UCL. He has worked on a range of topics, including case theory, information structure, the encoding of grammatical dependencies, and the syntax-morphology interface. He is a co-author of Flexible Syntax (1999; with Fred Weerman) and Beyond Morphology (OUP, 2004; with PeterAckema). His published work includes articles in Linguistic Inquiry, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, Linguistic Review, and The Yearbook of Morphology.

Johanna Nichols is Professor of Slavic linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley. Her research interests centre on the worldwide distribution of linguistic diversity and complexity and their implications for prehistoric migrations and language spreads. She works on Slavic and other language families of the western Eurasian steppe periphery and on the Ingush and Chechen languages of the Caucasus. Together with Balthasar Bickel, she is co-director of the AUTOTYP research programme for typological databasing (

Akio Ogawa is Professor of German Linguistics at the Kwansei Gakuin University, Nishinomiya. His main interests are language typology with special reference to contrastive studies on Japanese and German. He works on case-marking systems, especially dative constructions, as well as voice mechanism including passive, reflexive, and causative constructions, and impersonal constructions in their (dis)continuum to personal ones.

Enrique L. Palancar is Professor of Philology and Linguistics at the Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro. His major research interests include language typology, historical linguistics, syntax, and language description. He has a special interest in indigenous languages of Mesoamerica as well as old Indo-European languages, and is currently involved in the documentation of Otomi languages. Publications include The Origin of Agent Markers (2002) and journal articles on Otomi grammar and other topics.

Sandra Pappert is Lecturer in Linguistics at the University of Leipzig. Her research focuses on sentence processing in German, covering comprehension and production as well as cross-modal processes.

(p. xxv) Thomas Pechmann is Professor of Psycholinguistics at the University of Leipzig. He previously worked at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen and at the Universities of Saarbruecken and Marburg. He is mainly interested in language production, in particular the activation of grammatical features during lexical access, and in the cognitive psychology of music.

Beatrice Primus is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Cologne and President of the Scientific Board of the Institute of German Language, Mannheim. She is co-editor of the monograph series Linguistische Arbeiten (Niemeyer). Her major areas of research are semantic roles, case marking, word order, and writing systems.

Esther Ruigendijk is Assistant Professor of Dutch Linguistics at the University of Oldenburg. Her research interests include language impairment, language processing, and language acquisition with a cross-linguistic approach. She is currently focused on the comprehension and production of pronouns and determiners. Her dissertion, Case assignment in agrammatism: a cross-linguistic study, was awarded a PhD by the University of Groningen in 2002.

Masayoshi Shibatani is Deedee McMurtry Professor of Humanities at Rice University and Emeritus Professor of Linguistics at Kolb University. He has conducted research on voice systems for many years and is currently investigating Austronesian voice systems in Eastern Indonesian. His wide interests in language include language typology, language universals, syntax and semantics, Japanese linguistics, and English grammar.

Anna Siewierska has been Professor of Linguistics and Human Communication in the Department of Linguistics and English Language at Lancaster University since 1994. Her major research interests are language typology, the comparison of different theoretical frameworks, diachronic change, discourse pragmatics, and most recently the morphosyntax of English dialects. She is working on impersonal constructions and (with Willem Hollmann) developing a project on morphosyntactic saliency in the context of their investigation of Lancashire dialect.

Andrej Sobolev is Professor of Balkan Linguistics at the State University of St. Petersburg, Russia, and ausserplanmässiger Professor of Slavic and Balkan Linguistics at the Phillipps University in Marburg, Germany. He was worked extensively on languages such as Old Church Slavonic, Russian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Czech, Albanian, Aromanian, and Greek.

Andrew Spencer is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Essex. He is the editor, with Arnold Zwicky, of The Handbook of Morphology (Blackwell, 1998) and the author of Phonology: Description and Analysis (Blackwell, 1996) and Morphological Theory (Blackwell, 1991).

(p. xxvi) Donald Stilo is a Visiting Scholar in Linguistics at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, where he was a full-time Scholar 2001–6. He was also a Fellow at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in Uppsala in 2005–6. He has a BSc from Georgetown University, and an MA and PhD from University of Michigan. He taught Persian language and Iranian linguistics for twenty years.

Thomas Stolz is Chair of Linguistics at the University of Bremen PhD (Bochum, 1985). His research activities include morphology, language change, language contact, areal linguistics, typology, and universals. He has worked and published on Icelandic, Welsh, Latvian, Classical Aztec, Chamorro, and Maltese. He is editor-in-chief of the journal Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung (STUF) and of the series Diversitas Linguarum.

Cornelia Stroh works at the Linguistics department of the University of Bremen. She has collaborated in a variety of typological projects and is currently editorial assistant for the journal Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung (STUF) and of the series Diversitas Linguarum. She has published on issues of language awareness on the German-French border (PhD, Bremen), and various topics related to the comitative and other categories.

Peter de Swart has written a doctoral dissertation on cross-linguistic variation in direct object marking. His main research interests include animacy, case alternations, and transitivity both from a typological and a formal linguistic point of view. Currently he teaches and is working on the influence of animacy on morphosyntactic patterns in the languages of the world within the NOW-financed research project ‘Animacy’ at the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Aina Urdze has collaborated in several typological projects (on comitatives and alienability) at the University of Bremen. She has a degree in Finno-Ugric Philology from the University of Hamburg. She is currently finishing her PhD thesis on a class of verbs in her native Latvian. She has co-authored a variety of publications on dependent-marking in Latvian, comitatives and abessives, etc.

Robert D. Van Valin, Jr is Humboldt Professor of Linguistics at the Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf, before which he was for many years Professor and Chair of Linguistics at the University at Buffalo. He is the principal architect of Role and Reference Grammar. His research focuses on syntactic theory, language acquisition, and American Indian languages. His books include Syntax: Structure, Meaning, and Function (CUP,1998); Advances in Role and Reference Grammar (Benjamins, 1993); and An Introduction to Syntax (CUP, 2001). He is the general editor of Oxford Surveys of Syntax and Morphology.

Maria D. Voeikova is the Head of the Department of Grammar Theory at the Institute of Linguistic Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg. She teaches Russian morphology and psycholinguistics courses at the Faculty of Philology and (p. xxvii) Fine Arts in St Petersburg State University. Her research interests and publications concern the functional description of Russian (Be-sentences, expression of quality, performatives, comparative studies) and the acquisition of Russian (quality and quantity, early vocabulary, diminutives, pre- and protomorphology, typological differences).

Fred Weerman is Professor of Dutch Linguistics at the University of Amsterdam. In his research he combines theoretical linguistics with work on language change and language acquisition. His books have been published by Foris, Kluwer, and OUP. His articles include work published in Folia Linguistica Historica, Language Ac-quisition, Lingua, Linguistics, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, Nederlandse Taalkunde, Morphology and Second Language Research.

Søren Wichmann is a Postdoctoral Fellow at Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and Leiden University. He has published on aspects of historical linguistics (grammaticalization, borrowing patterns, ancient scripts, quantitative methods, computational modelling) and has contributed to documenting Tlapanec and Texistepec Popoluca. Recent papers have appeared in journals such as Linguistic Typology, Diachronica, Annual Review of Anthropology, and Studies in Language. Heis co-editor of The Typology of Semantic Alignment (OUP, 2008).

Anna Wierzbicka is Professor of Linguistics at the Australian National University. Her work spans a number of disciplines, including anthropology, psychology, cognitive science, philosophy, and religious studies as well as linguistics. She is the author of numerous books, most recently, English: Meaning and Culture (2006). Earlier publications include Cross-Cultural Pragmatics (de Gruyter, 1991, 2nd edition 2003), Semantics: Primes and Universals (OUP, 1996), Understanding Cultures through their Keywords (OUP, 1997), and Emotions across Languages and Cultures: Diversity and Universals (CUP, 1999).

Susanne Wurmbrand is Assistant Professor of Linguistics at the University of Connecticut, Storrs. Her major theoretical research interests are syntax and the syntax-semantics interface and recent publications include Infinitives: Restructuring and Clause Structure (Mouton de Gruyter, 2003). She is interested in all aspects of Germanic linguistics, and is the executive editor-in-chief of the Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics.

Joost Zwarts worked as a researcher in the PIONIER project ‘Case Cross-linguistically’ at Radboud University Nijmegen. He now teaches at the department of Linguistics at Utrecht University. His main interests are in (formal and lexical) semantics and syntax, especially in the behaviour of prepositions and articles. He has done fieldwork in Kenya and published The Phonology of Endo (Lincom, 2004). (p. xxviii)