Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 19 June 2021

Subject Index

Subject Index

(p. 494) Please note that page references to Figures will be followed by the letter ‘f’, to Tables by the letter ‘t’, while References to Notes will contain the letter ‘n’ following the Note number. ‘LO’ stands for ‘learning organization’.

A
ABI-Inform (database) 229, 230, 231, 418
absorptive capacity 96–97
action learning 8, 9, 88, 105–118
action learning group or team (mini LO) 106, 109, 111, 116–117
action strategies, developing 111, 113
antenarrative amendment to the learning organization 430
capturing learning 111
coach 110–111
components of model 108–111
action learning group or team 106, 109, 111, 116–117
coach 110–111
commitment to learning 110
insightful questioning, emphasizing 110
listening, reflecting 110
problem 109
taking action on the problem 110
contributions to building a learning organization 8–9, 112–116, 117
knowledge subsystem 115–116
learning subsystem 107, 112–113
organization subsystem 107–108, 113–114
people subsystem 108, 114–115
technology subsystem 108, 116
and defining the LO 106–108, 145
as “DNA” of an LO 106
face-to-face 465
formation of group 111
goals, determining 111
interventions to create an LO, example 263–264
levels of learning 112
method of operation 111
organizational learning skills 112–113
problem (project, challenge, opportunity, issue or task)
presenting to group 111
reframing 111
single or multiple problems 109
taking action on 110
structure 113–114
subsystems see subsystems, action learning
taking action on the problem 110, 111
types of learning 112
virtual 465
Weinstock (“evil capitalist”) supporting action learning 123–124 see also theories of action
action research 56, 157, 208, 267, 369, 413, 425, 508
future research suggestions 482–483 see also action learning; action science
action science 261–263
adhocracies 167–168
Advanced Management Program (AMP) 306
affordances, perception of 399–400
After-Action Review (AAR) 72, 265
agency theory 234
alliance learning organization 165, 173–174, 176
alternative perspectives of the learning organization 14–16
ambidextrous learning 165, 166, 168, 170–175
ambidextrous learning organizations 10, 163–180 (p. 495)
adhocracies 167–168
agents of ambidexterity 174
boundary spanning 165, 173, 174, 393
combining alternative models 167–168
contextual ambidexterity 171–173, 175
dual structures 170–171
either/or framework 163
exploitative and explorative learning, balancing 163–166, 170, 172, 174
flexibility 163, 167
hybrids 174
importance of ambidexterity 176
innovation 167
“Japanese type” (J-form) 167–168, 172, 175
learning synergies 166
managing 168–174
alliance LO 165, 173–174, 176
balancing and counter-balancing 168–169
contextual LO 165, 171–173, 175
partitional LO 165, 170–171, 175
mechanistic versus organic organization models 163, 164, 167
operating core 171–173, 174, 175
organizational ambidexterity 164, 165–168
overlapping structure 173–174
reciprocal ambidexterity 173
semi-structures 171–172
virtuous cycle of ambidexterity 166
workplace 171–172 see also ambidextrous learning
antenarrative approach to the learning organization 429–444
assemblage (rhizomatic antenarratives) 434
corporate responsibility 434–435
counter accounts 439
critical discourse analysis 440
cyclical antenarrative 434
defining antenarrative 430, 438–439
energy-aware 438–441
Ensemble Leadership Theory (ELT) 435, 439
hidden costs 439
narrative processes 430
and the natural world 433–437
qualimetrics 439
review of LO approaches 430–433
storytelling 429, 430, 434
systems idea 435
anthropology 184, 216, 220
APA PsychTest database 61
Apple 222, 234
Architectural Association School (AA), London 120, 121, 122
artifacts 187, 217, 397, 402
assemblage (rhizomatic antenarratives) 434
Association of Teachers of Management (ATM) 120, 122
auto-poeisis theory 184–185
B
banking, learning boards in 134
becoming a learning organization 400–402
Becoming Human (Vanier) 405
Beer Game, The 239
behavior
of employees 62, 73
human choices 400
organizational culture 187–188
and trust 275
Beyond the Stable State (Schön) 121
bibliographic databases 20, 25, 26, 28, 29
biophysical approach to the learning organization 436
biotechnology, hybrids in 174
bodies, production of 447
Boeing 116–117
brain 183–185
building blocks for the learning organization
act of learning, organizations in 286–287
antenarrative 431–432
literature review, LO practices 273–274
Building the Learning Organization (Marquardt) 140
bureaucracy 95, 113, 244, 365
critical analysis 450, 451
business schools 119–120, 127
Business Source Premier 290
business transformation, ongoing pursuit of 223–225
butterfly metaphor 140
(p. 496) C
Cadbury, A. 127–128
Cadbury family 469
Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) 249–250
capability/learning capability 95, 171, 225
and accountability 328
adapting 371
ambidextrous learning organizations 164–165
antecedents to 325
building 328
cooperation 186
dual learning 171–172
dynamic 171
effects 328
intentionally sought 51, 56
knowledge management (KM) 336
measuring of LO construct 318–321, 324–326, 328
Organizational Learning Capability (OLC) 131, 323–324
and organizational performance 325, 328
problem-solving 157
program evaluation 325–326
project teams 167
small businesses/SMEs 366, 369
social interaction 373
transforming 55, 98
and trust 275
workforce 12, 373
Carnival cruise liner 463
causal maps 263
Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) 76
Change (Watzlawick, Weakland, and Fisch) 125
Chuang Tzu 396
Cisco 173
coaching 385, 448, 452
action learning 110–111
interventions to create an LO 263, 266
and mentoring 266, 338, 340
organizational performance 338, 340
team learning 192 see also mentoring
Coca-Cola 138, 469
co-creation 189, 190, 192, 446
coevolution 189, 190, 191
cognition 184
collaboration 27, 45, 72, 159, 173, 186, 222, 446
antenarrative approach 435, 439
Collaborative Conceptual Modelling 200
collaborative learning see team learning
versus competition 467
employees 282, 285
evolution 190
gender inclusive learning organizations 245, 250
interventions to create an LO 259, 261, 263, 265, 268, 270
and learning company 92, 94
and motivation 261
organizational culture 186
partnerships 173–174
positive interdependence 275–276
problem solving 173
processes 199, 200, 205, 453
reflection 158
with stakeholders 470
subsystems, action learning 108
systems 200, 204, 205, 208
and teams 53, 55, 155, 159, 192, 249
Collaborative Conceptual Modelling 200
collective learning see team learning
collective mind 183
communities of practice/community groups 91, 108, 222
competitive advantage 24, 80, 151, 326, 406
and learning company 84, 95, 98, 101
compromise 411–412
conceptualizing a learning organization (Watkins and Marsick) 51–66
comparison of Watkins’ and Marsick’s conception with others 57–58, 59t
critiques 61–63
databases 60–61
definitions 52–55
disciplinary and cross-disciplinary variations 57, 59t
early conceptions 51–52
human resource development (HRD) 62, 63, 64, 266
learning culture, focus on 56–57
measuring an LO 58, 60–61
(p. 497) “power with” versus “power over” 62, 203, 410 see also definitions and concepts
confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) 60, 61, 306, 340
measurement of the LO construct 321, 323, 324
content analysis see qualitative research
context
ambidexterity 171
antenarrative approach 430, 436, 437
cultural/socio-cultural 160, 274
defining an LO 142
disciplinary 154
environmental 175
free choice 261
generalized 379, 383, 384, 386, 387, 388, 480, 481
global 36, 40
higher education institutions (HEIs) 40, 246, 247
historical 101
interpretation 21, 74
and interventions 329
and learning 156
learning companies 152, 153
organizational 144, 154, 166, 218, 260, 320, 356, 357
ambidextrous LOs 170, 172, 174
organizational performance 335, 341
particular/specific 387, 388
and Senge’s conception of LO 37
small businesses/SMEs 363, 365, 367
social/societal 220, 274
status quo 436
wider or larger 37, 74, 94, 184, 192, 440
contextual learning organization 165, 171–173, 175 see also context
continuous learning and training, on-the-job 385
Cooper, B. 122
cooperatives 295
coordination 202, 268, 410, 411
CopierCareer.com 37
Corporate Amnesia (Kransdorff) 128
corporate governance 127–128
Corporate Governance (Tricker) 132, 133
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 463
Strategic CSR 469
correlation analysis 307, 308, 335, 338
Creating the Learning Organization (Watkins and Marsick) 53
critical feminist analysis 11, 203, 243, 251–252, 484 see also gender inclusive learning organizations; women
Critical Systemic Thinking (CST) 144, 198, 199–200, 204–208
boundary judgment 204–206 see also systems idea
critical theory 62, 237, 408
critique of the learning organization/critical analysis 5, 405, 417–428, 445–457
1st generation LO 446, 449–451
2nd generation LO 446, 451–452
3rd generation LO 17, 446, 452–453
moving towards reflexive dialogical practices in 453–454
cognitive versus behavioral dichotomy 420
conducting the review 418–419
databases 418, 419
findings 419–420
LO as an emancipatory space 452–453
literature analysis 419
matrix (2x2) 419
metaphors
Emperor’s New Clothes 420
Mirage 420, 422
Psychic Prison 420, 421–422, 465
Treadmill 420, 421
methodology 418–422
political perspectives 446–449
practices of the self 447–448
processes versus outcomes dichotomy 420
production of learning 447
recommendations 422, 423t, 424–425
reflective and reflexive practice 448–449
reporting the review 419–420
setting up the review 418
subjectification 447–448
summary of critiques and suggested solutions 422, 423t see also critical feminist analysis; Critical Systemic Thinking (CST)
cultural relativism 216
culture
defining 217
difficulty in recognizing one’s own 186
learning see learning culture
in management literature 216
masculine 247
organizational see organizational culture
primitive societies, versus industrialized economies 216–217
purpose 186
shared 186–187
sub-cultures 221
superorganic 219–220
Cuthburt, St 121
cybernetics research 157–158
D
Dance of Change, The (Senge) 219
data 322, 335
acquisition of 74, 182, 189
amount of 84
analyzing 70, 72, 83, 115, 284, 306, 309, 328
big 62, 224
collecting/gathering 191, 284, 294, 348
Learning Organization Survey (LOS) 306–309, 315
measurement of the LO construct 320, 327
organizational performance 340–341
process perspective 70, 76
confirming 193
cross-sectional analysis 328
directly observable 262
discriminant validity 324
employees 73
field 295, 298
Google Trends 26
hard 70
intelligence gathering 75
interpreting 260–261
lack of 295
ladder of inference 262
legitimate 221
limited 294
longitudinal 341
mental models 40
new 69, 75, 91
past 183
performance 191, 312, 340–341
private 224
published 327
qualitative 21, 37, 268, 328, 329
quality of/questionable 294, 298, 353
quantitative 329, 340
shared 266
sources 290, 327
structural equation modeling (SEM) 61
superficial 297
triangulation of source 290
trustworthy 291, 292, 298
validity 320, 324
data mining 108, 115
data sets 290, 321
data-based interventions 265–266
databases
ABI-Inform 229, 230, 231, 418
APA PsychTest 61
bibliographic 20, 25, 26, 28, 29
conceptualizing an LO 60–61
EBSCO 25, 418, 419
electronic 418
Scopus 22, 25
Web of Science 25, 419
decentralized learning structure 386
definitions and concepts of the learning organization 5, 7–9, 137–147
abstract nature 380
and action learning 106–108, 145
alternative 140–142
ambiguity 380
being an LO versus becoming one 218–219
characteristics of members 141
conceptual inflation 480
contexts 383
controversy as to 6, 318
corporate entity 141
critical analysis 445
“fluffiness” 380, 381
and gender inclusive organizations 248
general model 384–386
imprecise nature 380
integration of four perspectives of organizational learning 141
(p. 499) learning mindsets 144, 145
learning system, LO as 141
main characteristics in 143t
mainstream 9, 15, 138–140
and measurement 318–320
new 142, 143t, 144
non-learning LO versus LO 481
non-universal concept 382–384
normative 141
organic structure 382
research/possible future research 144–145, 351–353, 478–480
scrutiny of 393–394
and small businesses/SMEs 367–369
social systems, LOs as 141
views of Bui 144
views of Marquardt 138, 140
views of Watkins and Marsick 52–55, 138, 139, 140, 384
demarcation criteria 138, 477, 480–482
stakeholder theory 232–233
description and learning/learning culture 217, 219–220
descriptive stakeholder theory 233
Designing Freedom (Beer) 207
designing the learning organization
aids to developing LO concept 128–129
basic model of the LO 126f
blocking of learning 131–132
“Business Brain” 125, 126, 140, 393
corporate governance and Sir Adrian Cadbury 127–128
directors, knowledge of roles 124–125, 132
double-loop learning 12, 112, 125–127, 129, 153, 157
Effective Intelligence 128–129
figure-of-eight graphic (vertical lemniscate) 126–127
first and second order change (double loop learning) 125
four-by-four matrix 129–130, 133
good or bad learning 128
history, learning from 128
Hong Kong 132–133
learning boards 9, 119, 132, 133f, 134
learning capacity of organizations and communities 121–123
method of appearance 119–120
organizational capabilities 129–131
paradoxes 119–135
turning into dilemmas 133–134
puzzles versus problems 121
“Reg-centricity” and the LO 120–121
strategy 132
System Alpha, Beta and Gamma 122, 125
thinking intentions profile 128
visual learning map 130
Weinstock (“evil capitalist”) supporting action learning 123–124
deutero-learning (learning to learn) 153, 157, 348n1, 352
Developing Senior Managers Programme (DSMP), General Electric Company (GEC) 123–124
Developing Strategic Thought (Garrett) 133
development of the learning organization model 35–49
dialogical learning 373–374
moving towards reflexive dialogical practices 453–454
differentiated standards see standards, differentiated
Dimensions of a Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) 8, 11, 13, 322
and articles referring to LOs 291–292
and creation of the LO 356
and interventions to create an LO 259, 260, 266, 268, 269f, 270
learning in the LO, defining 155, 159
and Learning Organization Survey (LOS) 303n1
measuring an LO 58, 60, 61, 63–64
non-financial performance 338
organizational performance 338, 341
possible LOs 295
topicality of the LO 20, 22
validation studies 60
directors, knowledge of roles 124–125, 132
disciplines of the learning organization 153–155
(p. 500) discriminant validity data 324
discriminative attunement 399
double-loop learning 12, 153
ambidextrous learning organizations 166
critical analysis 451
designing the learning organization 112, 125–127, 129
and Model O-II 158–159
versus single-loop 157, 158
systems idea 200, 207
dual learning 171–172
dual structures 170–171
Dymaxion World (Fuller) 121
dynamic capabilities 97
E
EBSCO (database) 25, 418, 419
ecological awareness 452–453
efficiency programs 429
11 Characteristics of the learning company, The (learning company Project) 91
emotional competencies, high-level 374
employees
changes in behaviors 73, 281–282
decision-making, sharing with 417
people subsystem 108
self-actualization 157
work-based learning 80, 88, 97, 385
younger people, hiring 283
enactment concept 201
Energy Flow (E-Flow), learning company 89–92
challenges 91–92
learning company (11Cs) 91
Policy, Operations, Ideas and Actions 90 see also learning company (LO of Pedler, Burgoyne and Boydell)
Ensemble Leadership Theory (ELT) 435, 439, 441
Ensemble Storytelling 430, 435, 440, 441
environmental jolts, adapting to 53, 56
error correction 158, 446, 451
ethics 206
evolutionary biology 401–402
exaptation 401
“Excellent” companies 95
experiental knowledge 185
exploitative and explorative learning, balancing 163–166, 170, 174 see also ambidextrous learning organizations
exploratory factor analysis (EFA) 60, 61, 323, 340
extended mind 183–184
extended thing (Res Extensa) 182
external environment, appreciation of 4, 45
F
Facilitating Learning Organizations (Marsick and Watkins) 54, 58
False Necessity (Unger) 408
fantasy theme analysis 37, 45
fashionable management ideas (FMIs) 239
features of a learning organization 304–305
Fifth Discipline, The (Senge) 5, 234–235
and action learning 105
compared with Garvin’s work 82
Critical Systemic Thinking (CST) 204–206
defining the LO 138–139
designing the LO 127
and learning cultures 215
paradox of the LO 347
researching the LO 354
and Senge’s conception of LO 36, 37, 38
and stakeholder theory 229, 230, 234–235, 236
success in popularizing LOs 354, 394, 431
systems idea 201
and topicality of the LO 19, 25
triple-loop learning 206–208
fire service, women in 247–248
Fish Rots from the Head, The (Garratt) 128, 133
flat learning structure 386
Ford 138
Ford, H. 95, 234
Ford Motor Corporation 222
formalization 325
founders of learning organization concept 5
Frankfurt School 237, 408
fraud, openness for 381
freedom to act 275
(p. 501) future of the learning organization 16, 461–475
doing better things together 99, 462, 466–469
doing things better 99, 462, 464–466
doing things that matter to the world 99, 462, 470–471
doing things well 98, 462–464
future research suggestions see suggestions for future research
future-back learning 192
G
Gaia hypothesis 121
Garvin’s perspective on learning organization
and ambidextrous learning organizations 166
antenarrative 431–432
assessment of learning 73
concrete, accessible prescriptions for action 82
definitions 138, 139
formal 68–69
impact 82–83
process 69
revised 74, 75f
similarities with other conceptions 79–81
differentiated standards 384
distinctive contributions 81–82
evolution of thinking 73–79
experimentation 70
focus on local leaders 82
future of 83–84
impact 82–83
learning
assessment 73
climate for 80
from experience 70
leadership supporting 77, 78t
organizational 79–80
from others 72
as a process 69
structures 80–81
supportive environment 76–77, 77t
at work 80
learning curve 432
management 70–73
environment/climate and leadership 76–77, 78t
intelligence gathering 75–76
key practices 71t, 72–73
key practices of a LO 70
measurement
assessing learning 73
changes in employee behaviors 73
changes in results 73
informal and formal measures 78–79
revised definition 74, 75f
prescriptions for action, concrete and accessible 82
process perspective 8, 67–86
defining processes 69
learning as a process 69
organizational learning process 69
revised organizational learning process 75
reflection-action-evaluation-reflection model 432
systematic problem solving 70
transferring knowledge 72
gender inclusive learning organizations 4, 243–255
critical feminist analysis 251–252
feasibility of 250–251
five disciplines 244–245
ideal types 244
male-dominated workplaces 246, 248
masculine culture 247
and mental models 245, 246, 249
and personal mastery 245, 246
and power 436
and shared vision 247, 249, 250–251
and team learning 245, 246, 249 see also women
General Electric Company (GEC) 138
Developing Senior Managers Programme (DSMP) 123–124
Gerstner, L. 219
globalization 95, 366, 417, 447
antenarrative 429, 435, 436
‘downsizing’ 438, 470, 472
Goodrich 117
Google Scholar 8, 36, 82, 137, 230, 354
(p. 502) Google Trends 19, 25–27
grand theoretical models 252
Grounded Theory (GT) 438
groupthink 409
H
Hard Times (Dickens) 185
Harvard Business Review 68
Harvard Business School 306n3
Harvard case-study learning methods 120
Hawthorne effect 407
healthcare 222–223
Heraclitus 396
hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) 340–341
hierarchy of needs 407
high reliability organizations (HROs) 221
higher education institutions (HEIs) 237
holistic learning structure 386
Holland, G. 87
Hospitals Internal Communication (Revans) 122
human, becoming 4, 15, 405–415
background 406–409
difficulty of attention to 412–413
future research 409–412
human use of human beings 120
human relations school 157
human resource development (HRD) 52, 62–64, 266
Human Use of Human Beings, The (Weiner) 120
Humana 117
I
I Ching (Book of Change) 396
ideal types
abstract models 252
artificial simplicity 244, 251
defining a LO 319
leadership 338
incident management teams (IMTs) 306n3
induction, on-the-job 385
Industrial Age Bubble 142
industrialized economies, versus primitive societies 216–217
Influence Diagrams 200
Informal and Incidental Learning in the Workplace (Marsick and Watkins) 51
informal learning structure 386
innovation 167, 176, 265, 436, 463
ambidextrous learning organizations 167
capacity 22, 25, 29, 78, 80, 155
experimentation 70
impediments to 95
incremental 168
innovative organization 97
and knowledge 97, 115
pioneers 138
product 325
radical 168, 175
research contexts and instruments 335
70-20-10 rule 285
stakeholder theory 232–233
and sustainability 46, 142, 144
systems idea 247
inquiry, theory of 157
Institute for Healthcare Improvement, US 223
Institute of Medicine, US 222
Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) 222, 223
institutional theft 93, 94, 137
instrumental stakeholder theory 233
intelligence gathering 75–76
interdependence, positive 275–276
Interpretive Systemic Thinking 198, 199, 202
interventions to create a learning organization 259–271
action learning example 263–264
action science example 261–263
action-research-based 260–261
building a Learning Culture with school district leaders 267–268
collaboration 259, 261, 263, 265, 268, 270
comprehensive framework for system dynamics 264–265
data-based 265–266
Dimensions of a Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) 259, 260, 266, 268, 269f, 270
framing the intervention approach 259–261
Learning Labs case example 268, 270
problem framing 267
sculpting metaphor 260
iPhone 222
item response theory (IRT) 340
J
Japan, success of 67
Journal of Management Inquiry 400
K
Kessels & Smith (K&S), Netherlands-based consulting firm 273, 276–281, 286
“apple trees” (meetings) 278–279
changeable structure 279
confidence and trust in each other 279–280
founding of 276
glimpses of an LO in 277–279
K&S days 277–278
as a learning company 276
personal relationships 280
roundtables 278
summary of LO practices 280–281
working days 278
knowledge
acquiring 115
analysis 115
application 116
creating 115
of directors 132
directors, of their roles 124–125
disseminating 115–116
experiential 185
extended mind 183–184
forms of knowing 185
knowledge intensive firm 93
knowledge work 93
knowledgeable actors 175
local 408
new 69
perceptions, changes in 183–185
practical 185
presentational 185
as a process 184–185
propositional 185
pure 69
scientific 151, 156–157
storing 115, 183–184
subsystem 108, 115–116
tacit 93, 185, 275, 431
technology for managing 108
topicality of the LO 25
knowledge firms 174
knowledge management (KM) 72, 108, 182, 336, 431
and learning company 91, 96
Kolb learning cycle 183
KRIVET (Korean government research agency) 265
L
ladder of inference 262
Lao Tzu 396, 468
leadership
building a Learning Culture with school district leaders 267–268
collective 468–469
Ensemble Leadership Theory (ELT) 435, 439, 441
ideal types 338
leader-follower binary 450
learning, supporting 77, 78t
local leaders 82
and organizational performance 337–338
people subsystem 108
senior leaders 170–171
strategic 171
learning 181–195
absence of, in organizations 3–4
act of, organizations in 273–288
action learning see action learning
adaptive 154
assessing 73
blocking of 131–132
climate for 80
collaborative see collaboration; team learning
(p. 504) commitment to 110
complex 366–367
confusion as to 4
continuous 56, 275, 385
defining 151–162
as description 217
deutero-learning (learning to learn) 153, 157, 348n1, 352
dialogical 373–374, 453–454
double-loop see double-loop learning
from each other 4
equation L ≥ E.C. 181
future-back 192
Garvin on 69, 73, 77, 80–81
generative 154
helping organizations learn systematically 192–193
how organizations learn 189–191
individual 10, 37, 139, 193
induction, on-the-job 385
inter-functional relationship 193
on-the-job 385
leadership supporting 77
by level and dimension 53, 54t, 55
levels of 9, 112, 189, 191
in the LO
common antecedents 156–159, 160
dimensions 155–156
disciplines 153–155
Marsick and Watkins 155–156
Senge on 153–155
in the LO, defining 151–162
Model I learning system 153, 262
Model II learning system 153
Model O-I learning system 158
Model O-II learning system 158–159, 160, 352
nature of 182–183
occasional questioning 385
organizational culture 186–189
organizational learning skills 112–113
outside-in 192–193
Pedler on 152–153
perceptual 398–400
portfolios 221
as prescription 217–218
as a process 69, 184–185
production of 447
reflection, time for 385
scientific 151, 156–157
second-order 348n1
simple 367
single-loop see single-loop learning
situated 430
small businesses/SMEs 369–371
storing knowledge outside single individuals 385
structures 80–81
subsystem 107, 112–113
systemic, of teams 191–192
team see team learning
technology for enhancing 108
trial-and-error, encouraged 385
triple-loop see triple-loop learning
types 112
unlearning 193
at work 80, 88, 97, 385 see also knowledge
learning boards 9, 119, 132, 133f
process 133, 134
learning capability see capability/learning capability
learning climate 385
learning company (LO of Pedler, Burgoyne and Boydell) 8, 87–103
and ambidextrous learning organizations 166
case example (K&S) 276
changes since the 1990s 94–96
company versus organization 89, 139
and competitive advantage 84, 95, 98, 101
criticisms and responses to 91–94
conflict between stakeholders 93
institutional theft 93, 94
naïveté about power and politics 92–93
naïveté about tacit knowledge 93
Organization Development, recycled and “soft” 93
organizations cannot learn 92
problematic nature of learning 94
unlearning, need for 94
(p. 505) used in illegitimate appropriation of intellectual property 93–94
used to cover up manipulative change strategies 93
current relevance of research 96–97
defining 88–89, 139, 152
and ecological developments 95–96
eleven dimensions /characteristics (11Cs) 89, 90t, 91, 100t, 101
Energy Flow (E-Flow) model 89–92
evolution of idea 88–89, 461
future steps 97–101
ideal type 89
integration of ideas with other developments 91
and learning 152–153
learning company Questionnaire 152
Research Report 88
stage model (surviving, adapting and sustaining) 97–98
Stances 98–99, 100t, 101
doing better things together 99, 462, 466–469
doing things better 99, 462, 464–466
doing things that matter to the world 99, 462, 470–471
doing things well 98, 462–464
transfer of training problem 88–89
Learning Company, The (Pedler et al) 139
Learning Company Toolkit, The (Pedler) 91
learning culture
business transformation, ongoing pursuit of 223–225
and defining the LO 142
as description 219–220
focus on 56–57
future research 224
versus learning organization 10
morality 224–225
and organizing reliability 221–223
as prescription 220 see also culture
Learning in Action (Garvin) 74, 83
learning organization ideal, living up to 11, 105–118, 289–299
articles referring to real LOs
approaches taken 291–292, 293t
locating 290–291
criterion standards 297
and critiques 417
differentiating criteria 296–297
difficulties 421–422
eight possible LOs 294–296
LO as modus operandi 297–298
organizations claiming to be LOs 293t
Pegasus analogy 289
questioning the need for 20
trustworthiness 289–290
Learning Organization Profile (LOP) 303n1
Learning Organization Survey (LOS) 5
constructs 304–305, 312t
enabling organizational learning 313–314t
everyday working units (EWUs), study of 306n3
and features of an LO 304–305
findings 311
and Garvin’s perspective on LOs 78–79
implications and further directions 312
LO clusters 304, 305
possible LOs 294
research limitations 312
state of the LO concept 20
testing the validity of the LOs 305–310
ANOVA 309, 311t
coding 305–306
confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) 306
correlation coefficients 307, 308
Cronbach’s alpha, analyzing 305–306, 307, 309
data analysis 306, 309
descriptive statistics and convergent validity 307
descriptive statistics and instrument reliability 309, 310t
examining instrument reliability 307
initial validation 306–307
internal validation 308t
large healthcare system sample 308–309, 310t
psychometric properties 305
reliability 308t
standard deviation 307
subscales 307
Veterans Health Administration (VHA) example 308–309
topicality of the learning organization 22
usefulness of 79
validation of instrument to augment research 12–13, 303–316
Wildlife Fire Community (WLF), study of 306n3, 307 see also Organizational Learning Survey (OLS)
Learning Organization, The (Garratt) 126, 138
Learning Organization, The (journal) 231, 236, 237, 317, 318, 347, 356
Learning Orientation Measure (LOM) 322–323
learning structure 79, 80–81, 141, 385, 386, 445, 483
learning systems and industries 141, 153, 222–223
literature review, learning organization practices 273–276
Logic (Dewey) 157
London Business School (LBS) 119, 120
Low Profit Limited Liability Company (L3C) 471
M
macro and micro systems 201
Malaise of Modernity (Taylor) 409
Management Learning (journal) 317–318, 393
management of learning organizations
ambidextrous LOs 168–174
balancing and counter-balancing 168–169
types 170–174
Garvin’s perspective 70–73
environment/climate and leadership 76–77, 78t
intelligence gathering 75–76
key practices 70, 71t, 72–73
people subsystem 108
Management Teacher Development Programme, Central London Polytechnic 119
Managing Change in a Turbulent Environment (MBS conference) 127
Manchester Business School (MBS) 119, 120, 127
Manhattan project, US 225
Manpower Services Commission (MSC) 87, 88
Marks & Spencer 295–296
Marlar, J. 260
Marxism 252, 447
masculine culture 247
Mayo, E. 407
measurement of learning organization construct 12–13, 317–332
critical perspective 326–329
defining an LO 318–320
Dimensions of a Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) 322
early literature 318
future research 326–329
Garvin’s perspective
assessing learning 73
informal and formal measures 78–79
revised definition 74, 75f
informal and formal measures 78–79
Learning Organization Survey (LOS) 78–79
Learning Orientation Measure (LOM) 322–323
litmus tests 78
Organizational Learning Capability (OLC) 131, 323–324
Organizational Learning Survey (OLS) 303n1, 321–323
program evaluation 325–326
summary 324
use of measures in empirical research 324–326
Watkins’ and Mersick’s perspective 58, 60–61
mechanistic versus organic organization models 163, 164, 167
Media is the Message, The (McLuhan) 121
mental models 142, 154, 197
1st generation LO 449, 450t
and gender inclusive organizations 245, 246, 249
(p. 507) Senge’s LO philosophy 37, 40, 41f
university context 246
mentoring 263, 266, 338, 340, 385 see also coaching
Microsoft 116–117
military service, women in 248–250
mind, the
Bateson on 184
collective mind 183
extended mind 183–184 see also brain
mind-body dualism 182, 454
mindsets/learning mindsets 144, 145, 188
Parmenidean-inspired 396
mixed-effect modeling 340–341
Model I 153, 262
Model II 153
Model O-I 158
Model O-II 158–159, 160, 352
morality, of learning organizations and learning cultures 224–225
motivation
and collaboration 261
intrinsic 42, 46, 142, 172
motivational roots, organizational culture 188–189
Motorola 138
multi-level modeling 340–341
multiple voices 4
mutual attractiveness principle 280
N
National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), US 223, 225
needs-discourse 452
neoliberalism/free market neoliberal capitalism 436, 438, 472
NGOs (non-governmental organizations) 238
normative stakeholder theory 233, 235
nuclear power 222, 225
O
on-the-job continuous learning and training 385
on-the-job induction 385
open dialogue 55, 417, 420
organic structure of the learning organization 382
organic versus mechanistic organization models 163, 164, 167
Organization Learning Mechanisms 260
organization subsystem 107–108
action learning building 113–114
culture 107, 113
vision 107, 113
organizational ambidexterity 164, 165–168
organizational culture 10, 186–189, 408, 450
artifacts 187
behaviour 187–188
emotional ground 188
how organizations learn 189–191
mindset 188
motivational roots 188–189
organization subsystem 107, 113
organizational learning 385
continuous transformation 157
defining 51–52
developmental 56
either/or framework 163
error correction 158
and inquiry 158
integration of four perspectives 141
intentionally sought capability 56
versus learning organization 6, 96, 127
normative 56
radical paradigm of 203
skills 112–113
typologies 57, 58t
Organizational Learning Capability (OLC) 131, 323–324
Organizational Learning Survey (OLS) 303n1, 321–323
Organizational Learning Tool (OLT) 353
organizational networks and mutual reliability 222–223
organizational performance 333–345
analytic methods and empirical findings 335–337
and capability 325, 328
connectivity to the environment and leadership 337–338
improvement as rationale for the LO 22–23
(p. 508) intangible 339
literature review 334–337
non-financial 338–340
non-financial performance 338–340
quantitative analytic methods 340–341
regression analysis 335–336, 338–339
research contexts and instruments 334–335
topicality of the LO 22–23
organizational size 4
outside-in learning 192–193
P
paradox thinking
ambidextrous LOs 164, 176
designing the learning organization 119–135
paradox of the LO 21, 347–348
paradoxes turning into dilemmas 133–134
partitional learning organization 165, 170–171, 175
Pearson’s correlation coefficients 335, 338
Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire) 408
Pegasus (mythical ideal figure) 289, 296, 298 see also learning organization ideal, living up to
perceptual learning 398–400
permanent organization development 157
Personal Construct Theory (PCT) 363, 365, 366
personal mastery
1st generation LO 449, 450t
definitions of the LO 144–145
and gender inclusive organizations 245, 246
Senge’s philosophy 37, 38–39, 44
systems idea 197
university context 246
pharmaceutical industry 174
physical quality of Life (PQLI) index 216n1
Pitman, B. 134
political perspective on learning organizations 446–449
positivist epistemology 318
posthumanism 440
power
differentials, ignoring in research 62
domination tactics 411
gender and minority studies 203, 436
hierarchical distribution of 462
and learning company 92–93
“power with” versus “power over” 62, 203, 410
processes 205
and social media 203
voluntary submission 411
practical knowledge 185
practices of a learning organization 11–12, 70
Garvin on 70–73, 71t
prescription
learning as 217–218
learning culture as 220
presentational knowledge 185
primitive societies, versus industrialized economies 216–217
Principles of Scientific Management (Taylor) 407
process-philosophical perspective 396–404
becoming a LO 400–402
nature of reality 396–397
perceptual learning, actions and practices 398–400
profit-seeking 438
propositional knowledge 185
psychological safety 274
Q
qualimetrics 439
qualitative research 117, 130, 198, 236, 318, 363, 439
case studies 238
content analysis 19, 21, 236
data 37, 268, 328, 329
quantitative research 117, 130, 356, 357
analytic methods 337, 340–341
cross-sectional analysis 328, 329
empirical focus 238, 318, 320
statistical analysis 130
surveys 206–207, 329
(p. 509) R
Real Systems Thinking 197, 198–199
reciprocal ambidexterity 173
reductionism, critique of 198
redundancy, learning structure 386
reflective and reflexive practice 274, 448–449, 453–454
learning in the LO, defining 155, 157
“Reg-centricity” 120–121
regression analysis 335–336, 338–339
Reith Lectures (1970) 153, 157
reliability
high reliability organizations (HROs) 221
instrument 307, 309, 310t
and learning cultures 221–223
mutual 222–223
and organizational networks 222–223
organizing 221–223
research 12–13, 347–359
action research 482–483
creation of an LO 356–357
critiques of the LO 417–428
cross-sectional studies 328, 329
current relevance of the LO 3–4, 19–32, 349–350
cybernetics 157–158
data see data; databases
defining and operationalizing the LO 351–353
differentiated standards 386–388
empirical 369–371
fundamental questions about the LO 348–349
longitudinal 341
mixed-methods 328
paradox of the LO 21, 347–348
power differentials, ignoring in 62
qualitative see qualitative research
quantitative see quantitative research
on small businesses/SMEs 369–371
whether need for a concept of the LO 349–350
whether organizations should aspire to become LOs 354–356
Rogers, R. 260
Rover (British car producer) 20, 28
Royal Dutch Shell 138
S
S&P 500 Index 83
Samsung 117
Santiago Theory 184–185
scientific knowledge 151, 156–157
Scopus (database) 22, 25
Scotland
learning boards in 134
Sculpting the Learning Organization (Watkins and Marsick) 51, 52, 139
Second Coming, The (Yeats and Watts) 466
second-order learning 348n1
security 223
self-actualization 155, 157, 407
self-care 448, 449, 451
self-development 114, 152, 394
management 87
opportunities for 89, 152, 393
programs/research 465
self-formation 448
semi-structures 171, 172
Senge’s learning organization philosophy 35–49
applications 36–38
appreciation of the external environment 45
comparison of Senge’s LO with other approaches 198
component technologies of LOs 431
definitions 36–38, 138–139, 142, 431
development of model 38–39
differentiated standards 384
disciplines 153–155
holistic thinking 45
mental models 37, 40, 41f
personal experience 39, 40
personal mastery 37, 38–39, 44
rhetorical vision 37
self-perception of Senge as an idealistic pragmatic 36
Senge named “Strategist of the Century” 35
shared vision 42–43
spiritual growth 39
(p. 510) systems idea 43–45, 201
team learning 41–42
as a “whispering game model” 36 see also Fifth Discipline, The (Senge)
shared vision of the learning organization 42–43, 197
1st generation LO 449, 450t
and gender inclusive organizations 247, 249, 250–251
Siemens (German conglomerate) 21, 28
single-loop learning 112, 153
ambidextrous learning organizations 166
critical analysis 451
versus double-loop 157, 158
systems idea 200
Sisters-in-Crime (SinC, not-for-profit organization) 243, 250, 251
situated learning 430
Sloan, A. P. 437
small businesses/SMEs
and capability 366, 369
complex learning task 366–367
complexity of small business learning 365–367
concept of the LO 367–369
empirical research 369–371
limited utility in small business context 368–369
working definition 367–368
discovery 370, 371
distinctiveness 364–365
interventions to create an LO 265
learning
complex learning task 366–367
definitions and concepts 367–369
delegation facilitating learning and control 373
dialogical 373–374
openness to learn from diverse sources 374
owner manager as pivotal learning node 372
subsumed in the day-to-day 373
learning, empirical insight 369–371
as LOs 371–374
delegation facilitating learning and control 373
dialogical learning 373–374
high-level emotional competencies 374
interlinking relationships and learning nodes 373
learning subsumed in the day-to-day 373
open system 372
openness to learn from diverse sources 374
owner manager as pivotal learning node 372
proficiency as “man the scientist” 372
potential to nurture 363–377
strategic management, rational long-term planning modes 369–370
unpredictable operating environment 366
Small is Beautiful (Schumacher) 121
Social Construction of Reality, The (Berger and Luckman) 409
Social Enterprise UK 471
social network analysis (SNA) 340
social theory, practice turn in 14–15, 395–396
Society for Organizational Learning (SLI) 35
spirituality movement 39
stakeholders/stakeholder theory (ST) 232–233
conceptual ambiguity of ST 233
conflict between stakeholders 93
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 233
definitions/demarcating ST 232–233
descriptive ST 233
Fifth Discipline and ST 229, 230, 234–235, 236
instrumental ST 233
and LOs 11, 229–242
recommendations 238–239
subsequent use of stakeholder concept in the LO literature 236–238
non-business articles 237
normative ST 233
normative stakeholder theory 235
organizations seen as a nexus of contracts 235
(p. 511) primary versus secondary stakeholders 233
surveys 206–207
and systems thinking 235
Standard & Poor, index of major listed companies 181
standards, differentiated 378–390
“complete” set 388–389
difficulties to putting into practice 380–381
fraud, openness for 381
general model of LO concept 384–386
justification of 380–382
learning at work 385
LO as a non-universal concept 382–384
relevance testing 386, 387
as a solution 381–382
Stichtse Vecht city government, Netherlands 273, 281–286
autonomy, increasing 283
change in organization structure 283–284
citizen involvement 284–285
employees, change initiated by 281–282
hoteling style office space 283
internal development program 282–283
summary of LO practices 285–286
younger people, hiring 283
storytelling 429, 434
American Indian 433, 434
antenarrative as a multi-modality turn in 440
authorship 440
economics 440
elicitation 440
Ensemble Storytelling 430, 435, 440, 441
materiality 440
theatrical performances 440
together-telling 440
worker-to-worker processes 440 see also antenarrative approach to the learning organization
Strategic Leverage Through Learning (SLL) 264, 265
Strategic Management (Freeman) 232
strategy
designing the learning organization 132–133
organization subsystem 107, 113
partial alignment with learning company requirements 296
strategic apex 170–171
strategic leadership 171
structural equation modeling (SEM) 61, 336, 340
structuration theory (Giddens) 164, 169, 170, 201
structures
learning 80–81
organization subsystem (action learning) 107–108, 113–114
studying the learning organization see research
subjectification 447–448
subsystems, action learning
contributions of action learning to building LOs 8–9, 112–116
interrelationship between 106–107
knowledge 108, 115–116
learning 107, 112–113
organization 107–108, 113–114
people 108, 114–115
technology 108, 116
suggestions for future research 9, 12, 14, 16, 20, 82, 138, 387, 477, 486
character 485
comparability approach 479, 480, 483
concretizing the LO through action research 482–483
definitions of the LO 144–145, 478–480, 485
demarcating the LO 480–482
exclusivity approach 479, 480, 482
human, becoming 409–412
inclusivity approach 479
learning culture 224
measurement of LO construct 326–329
name 485
paradigm shift 10, 483–484
relevance 485
resources/features 486
timeliness 485
topicality of the LO 28–29
(p. 512) symbolic convergence theory 37
systemic learning 191–192
helping organizations learn systemically 192–193
problem solving 70 see also systems idea
systems idea 4, 10, 44, 140, 197
1st generation LO 449, 450t
antecedents for 44
antenarrative 435
Collaborative Conceptual Modelling 200
core concepts 198
Critical Systemic Thinking (CST) 144, 198, 199–200
defining 197
double-loop learning 200, 207
and gender inclusive organizations 245, 247
health systems 202
Influence Diagrams 200
interpretive 199
Interpretive Systemic Thinking 198, 199, 202
lack of certainty in 20–21
learning as a systems problem 201
macro and micro systems 201
mental models 197
methods 207–208
mis/use of, in the LO 200–203
network system, LO as 201
origins 198
Real Systems Thinking 197, 198–199
schools 202
Senge’s LO philosophy 43–45, 201
shared vision of the LO 197
social systems 198–199
stakeholder surveys 206–207
and stakeholder theory 235
system change 201
System Dynamics (SD) 197, 200, 201, 264–265
systemic methods 207–208
systems idea 197
versus systems thinking 197
three interpretations 198–200
triple-loop learning 4, 207
university context 247
voluntary youth sector organization 203 see also Critical Systemic Thinking (CST)
Systems Leadership Institute (SLI) 35
Systems Model for Learning Organizations (SMLO) 105
T
tacit knowledge 93, 185, 275, 431
Taylor, F. 95
team learning
1st generation LO 449, 450t
action learning team 106, 109, 111, 116–117
coaching 192
and collaboration 53, 55, 155, 159, 192, 249
and gender inclusive organizations 245, 246, 249, 250
learning in the LO, defining 154, 159, 160
organizational culture 193
Senge’s conception of the LO 41–42
systemic 191–192, 193
team of teams learning 193
team-based learning structure 386
university context 246
technology
enhancing learning 108
importance in creating an LO 140
intrusiveness 413
knowledge management (KM) 108
subsystem 108, 116
theory of action 157–158
theory U 39
theory-of-change 263
thermodynamics, laws of 436, 437
thermostat analogy 157
thinking thing (Res Cogitans) 182
Three Ecologies, The (Guattari) 452
topicality of the learning organization, research as to
articles 22, 23–24t, 25
bibliographic databases 20, 25, 26, 28, 29
comparative analysis of countries 25, 27
(p. 513) current level of interest 25–26
current relevance 3–4, 19–32, 349–350
discussion 27–28
documents 22, 26
future research 28–29
grouping of sample 24
innovation capacity, developing 22
keyword searches 22, 25, 28
limitations 28–29
need for an LO 21, 22–23t, 24–25
performance improvement 22–23
print media indicators 25
and qualitative content analysis 21
state of the LO concept 20–21
Total Quality Management (TQM) 95, 153
toxic assets 436
Toyota 175
“Trans Pennine Group” 120
transportation 223
Triple Bottom Line (TBL) 435
triple-loop learning 4, 207
Trump, D. 45
trustworthiness
and capability 275
case example 279–280
concept 289–290
defining trust 274–275
evidence 292
gradual trust 275
initial trust 275
learning culture 229
LO ideal, living up to 298
Twelve Organizational Capabilities, The (Garratt) 132
U
United Nations Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro (1992) 181
universality of the learning organization 13–14
universities
considering to be LOs 295
women in 246–247
unlearning 4, 94, 137, 203
organizational culture 185, 193
unthought known, concept of 185
US Army 72, 76
V
validity of learning organizations, testing 305–310
ANOVA 309, 311t
coding 305–306
confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) 306
and convergent validity 307
correlation coefficients 307, 308
Cronbach’s alpha, analyzing 305–306, 307, 309
data analysis 306, 309
descriptive statistics 307, 309, 310t
examining instrument reliability 307
initial validation 306–307
instrument reliability 307, 309, 310t
internal validation 308t
large healthcare system sample 308–309, 310t
LOs with a large healthcare system sample 308–309, 310t, 311t
data analysis 309
descriptive statistics and instrument reliability 309
sample details 309
psychometric properties 305
reliability 308t, 309, 310t
samples 306, 309
standard deviation 307
subscales 307
Veterans Health Administration (VHA) example 308–309
variance models 357
vision
organization subsystem 107, 113
rhetorical 37
shared vision of the LO 42–43, 197, 247
VUCA (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous) problems 466, 470
W
Web of Science (database) 25, 419
Weinstock, A. 123–124
welfare capitalism, American 409
Wells Fargo 116–117
Whole Earth Catalogue 121
Wildlife Fire Lessons Learned Center 83
women
in the fire service 247–248
in the military 248–250
in universities 246–247
work-based learning 80, 88, 97, 385
versus course-based learning 383
male-dominated workplaces 246, 248
women in the workforce 245–246
World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) 222
World Bank Group 306
X
Xerox 37
Y
Yorkshire Water plc, Fit for Purpose Programme 134
Yunus, M. 471
Z
ZCOR coefficient 338