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date: 05 April 2020

(p. 919) Subject Index

(p. 919) Subject Index

Note: Tables and figures are indicated by an italic ‘t’ and ‘f’, respectively, following the page number.

A
abject identity 488, 497
absenteeism 807
academic identity 89
accountability, moral 329, 334, 335–6
achievement of identity 476
actions 176, 247, 337, 341, 900
activism 127
actorhood see under institutional theory
Actor-Network Theory (ANT) 162, 702, 725
adaptation 473, 477
adaptive/instrumental ethos 270
affect 4, 162, 190–1, 194, 195, 900
affective economy 854, 857, 858
affiliation/belongingness 246
affinity and emulation 5
age identity 4, 8, 13, 109, 521–33, 897
age colonization of later life by productivism 530
agency 522, 525–6, 531, 532
at work 524–6
autonomy 531
and class 526, 528
cohort-based generational identity 523
coming-of-age 523
corporate colonization 531
cultural visibility and invisibility of identity 532
difficulties re-entering paid work 525
and disability 526
discourse and communication 160
discrimination 524–5
future beyond work 529–31
and gender 488, 492, 521, 522, 526–8
generational identity 522, 523–4, 532
incumbency-based 523
stereotypes 524
indeterminacy of generation 524
infantilized and sexualized at younger ages 527
intergenerational conflict 523–4
intersectionality 124, 526–8, 903
job loss 525
menopause 527
normative identity fluidity and temporality 522
not yet old 530
occupational and industry ideals 532
old 530
older workers 522, 524–6, 532
oldest-old 530, 532
old-old 531
over-inclusiveness 530
part-time, low-skill and casual employment 527
perpetual worker 528
physical changes 527
politics of identity 804, 809
prime age worker 527
proactive work planner 528
and race 521, 526
reflexivity 314, 321
retirement 522–3, 528–9
self-employment 528
and sexual identity 565
successful ageing 530, 532
temporality 529
unemployment 525
written off and rendered invisible 527
young-old 530–1
agency 6, 7, 61, 64
age identity 522, 525–6, 531, 532
agile identities 835
career identity 103, 110–11
creative identities 671
discourse and communication 156, 159, 161, 162–3
fabrication 175, 177, 178
global supply chains 90–2
hybrid professional identities 537, 545, 547
institutional theory 733
leadership 751
liminality 348, 481, 702
materialities 229–30, 232–40
networks 96, 97
paradox approach 425–6, 633
performed identities 201
philanthropic identity 639
positive identity 633
real, fake and crystallized identities 396, 401, 403
scope and limits of identity 39
agential cuts 162
agential realism 162
agile identities 4, 16, 833–45, 898
aesthetic labour 845n
agency/structure 835
autonomy 843
biocracy 838–9
biopower 838, 840
change and complexity 835
choice 834, 835, 838, 841
critique 843–4
demand and experience 836
discursive relations 835
disempowerment 838
diversity 841
domination 844
embodied agility 842–3
emotional labour 838, 841
empowerment 834, 838, 840
freedom 834, 838
goal-seeking 835
inventiveness 835
language and discursive practices 837
liberation management 838, 841, 844
manoeuvrability 835
master signifier 833
negative aspects 837–8
neoliberalism 835–6, 841, 842, 843
neo-managerialism 836
oppression 840
passive adaptation 835
performance appraisal 840–2
postmodernism 834, 843
power relations 835, 844
precarity 838
pro-activity 835
purposivity 835
re-activity 835
resistance 835
selection 839–40
self-determination 834
stress 838
subjugation 841
technology 836
virtuosity 838
alienation 6, 60, 396, 411, 474, 837, 844 see also self-alienation
altering identities 449
alternative identities 4, 112
ambiguity 6, 108, 246, 434, 489, 575, 723
ambivalence 411–12, 883
anger 445, 588, 595
antagonisms 6, 313
anti-identities 622
anxiety 108, 178, 218, 444, 445, 451, 505, 540, 588–9, 674
globalization and multinational enterprises (MNEs) 689
liminality 341, 354, 475
appearance 342
approaches to identity studies 18–19
ARIA framework (Antagonism, Resonance, Invention and Action) 885
arrested identity 724
artefacts and assemblages 163, 229–30, 401
aspirational identities 4, 266–7, 271, 411, 672, 675–7
at-home identity 251
attachment 802, 882–6
attire/dress 236–40
attributes 245
authenticity 6, 60, 125, 395, 400, 446
agile identity 839
digital nomads and liquid modernity 871
future research 889
identification 826
liminality: play and creativity 476–7
paradoxes and positive identity 630
stigmatized identities 576–7
authoritarianism 87–8, 429, 811, 865
autobiographical memory: temporal fluidity 12, 375–87
acting in character (honouring the past) 376
analepses (flashbacks) 380, 384
autonoesis (remembering together) 385
autonoetic consciousness 379, 380, 381–2, 383–4
coherent sense of self 376, 382–3, 384
collective identity 376, 378, 384–5
collective memory 376–7, 380, 381–2, 384, 385
competing narratives 376
co-production of individual and organizational memories 385–6
corporate history 383–4
corporate memory 382
cultural memory 381, 384
deliberate neglect and/or forgetting of memories 378
episodic memory 379
equivocality 383
fluidity of memory 380–1
historical category of time 384
implicit theory approach 380
individual identity 376, 384–5
individual memory 376–7
internal narrative of the self 378, 381
life narrative 379–82
linguistic performance 376
material memory 378
memorializing 382
mythic category of time 384
narrative category of time 384
nostalgia 377
organizational autobiographical memory 378, 381–6
past experiences constructed, deconstructed and reconstructed 377
practices of memory 382
processual turn 376
prolepses (flash-forwards) 380, 384
reflexive memory 379
revisioning 382
rhetorical history 377–8
sacralizing 382
self-narratives of identity 380–1
sensemaking 384, 386
(p. 921) sense of self 379–80, 386
sites of memory 382
social memory 381
strategic storytelling 383
temporality 377–8, 380, 384–5
autobiographical narratives 343
autonomy
age identity 531, 685, 843
creative identities 670, 671–2, 673, 675, 677, 678, 679
B
back region 202, 210–11, 395
Bannon, S. 810
behaviours 4, 56, 247, 417, 541
beliefs 337, 380, 572, 605
belonging 5, 17
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 637, 640, 647
blurred identities 70
boosting behaviours 415
boundaryless career 2, 9, 101, 102, 107, 111, 285, 827
boundary spanning 89, 92, 108, 231, 238, 898–9
Bourdieu: class, history and field structure 10, 261–74
aspirational identities and the British Parachute Regiment (Paras) 266–7
capital 262, 264–5
cultural capital 264–5, 266, 267, 268, 270, 273
doxa 262, 267, 269, 273n
economic capital 264, 265, 266, 273
elite MBAs and portable selves 269–71
field: rules of the game 262–3, 264, 265, 267, 269, 271, 272, 273
habitus: feel for the game 263–4, 268, 270, 273n
habitus, individual 263
habitus, primary 263, 266, 267, 268
habitus, secondary 263, 267, 268
hysteresis 263, 267, 269, 271
illusio 263, 267, 268
insecurity thesis 271
macro level of economy and society 264, 269, 272–3
meso level of the field 264, 269, 271, 272–3
micro level of individual 264, 268, 269, 271, 272
power and prestige 262
provisional selves 267–8
reflexivity 265–6, 270
sexual heterodoxy and the Church 268–9
social capital 264, 265, 267, 269, 270, 273, 274n
symbolic capital 265, 267
branded identity 161, 230, 897 see also image and brand
Brexit 221–3, 224, 587, 810, 811, 882, 897
bricolage 4, 75
‘bridge and door’ metaphor 341–2, 344–5, 347–53, 355, 899
bridging self and sociality: identity construction and social context 7, 9, 51–65
agency and structure 52, 53, 54
(co)production: individual as producer and product 57
duality of social realities 52–4
dynamics of social reality construction 54–5
identity-as-politics: strategic agency and power structures 58–9
performance: symbolism of words, acts and artefacts 56–7
positioning: similarities and differences 55–6
process: long shots and close-ups 58 see also social circuits of identity construction
Broad, Edith 647
Broad, Ely 647
bullying 18, 163, 575
burnout 189
business-to-business (B2B) marketing concepts 86, 87–9
C
camaraderie/communitas 480
capital 262, 264–5
capitalism 837–8, 843
career identity 9, 101–12, 897
achievement 104
adaptability 107
assembling 103
boundaryless career 107, 111
change 102, 104–7, 109, 110, 111
competence development 107
contemporary career developments and identity implications 107–9
continuity 102, 104–7, 108, 109, 111
critical potential of taking career perspective 109–11
cultural narratives 104
employability 107
flexibility 111–12
history 103
ideal 104
involuntary exits 103
mobility 107
narratives 103, 104, 105
performing 103
personal growth 104
precarious career paths 103
protean career 107, 111
socially constructed through narrative 103–4
stability 111–12
transitions 103, 472
caste structure (hospitals) 53–5
challengers 739, 745
challenging environments 210
change 107, 489
career identity 102, 104–7, 109, 110, 111
digital nomads and liquid modernity 869
liminality: play and creativity 473
in narrative career identity 104–7
(p. 922) sensemaking 246
strategy 794
change management - unfreeze, change, refreeze 505
charismatic, inspirational visionaries 753, 760–1
class 8, 61
affiliation 63
and age identity 526, 528
agile identity 843
conflict 809
discourse and communication 160
distinctions 702, 705
and gender identity 488, 494, 497
historical methods for research 359
identity work: sociological imagination 282, 289
intersectional perspective 122, 124, 125, 129, 903
national identity and multinational corporations 613
nostalgic identity 594, 595
politics of identity 804
and race identity 655, 662, 665
sexual identity 562, 565
working class 594–5
clinical orientation 189–90
coercion 809, 811
cohabitation 494, 496
coherence 6, 70, 78, 105, 789, 889
autobiographical memory 375, 376, 382–3, 384
digital nomads and liquid modernity 866, 869–70
collaborative identity 90
collective action 813
collective endorsement 751
collective identities 3, 65n1
autobiographical memory 376, 378, 384–5
class, history and field structure (Bourdieu) 269
fabrication 177
identification 825
institutional theory 734, 743, 745
networks and identity 89, 93
noise and pre-interpretation 223
nostalgic identity 587, 594
paradox approach to identity 425
race and identity 657
sensemaking 250
stigmatization 582
strategy 378, 784, 786–7
collective memberships 245
collective purpose 111
colonialism and neo-colonialism 3, 496, 606–7, 612, 614, 655–6, 660, 661
commercial identity 547
commitment 892n3
affective 253, 883
communication 156, 426–7
communication-based interpretive repertoire 88
communicative and discursive construction of organizing (CCO) 402, 702
communitarian founders 768t, 769, 769f, 770, 771, 775
compartmentalization of identities 392, 396, 404
compassion 494, 496
compensation 411
competence 476
lock-ins 359
competing identities 110, 444, 670
conduct 342
conflict 6, 75, 155, 881, 882–6
based on differences 886
cooperation 884–6
emotions 448, 450
future research 893n5
globalization and multinational enterprises (MNEs) 691
hybrid professional identity 544
identification 883–4
intractable 884–6, 888, 891
liminality: play and creativity 475
moral 888
paradoxes and positive identity 622
resource-based 886
strategy 773
conformist identity 126, 201
confusion 217, 313, 481, 542
connected selves 17, 234
consent 717
consistency 17, 481 see also self-consistency
constitution of identities 272
construction 22n, 40, 77, 81, 85, 246, 252, 670
autobiographical memory 376
collaborative leadership 504
emotions 448–9, 451
liminal spaces of identity formation 340–3, 355
noise and pre-interpretation 215, 216, 224
construction sites 823–4
constructivist approach 247, 490, 717 see also social constructionist perspective
consultants 506
consumer culture 411
contemporary career developments and identity implications 107–9
content 824, 886, 887, 888
context-specific identity 89, 445, 515
continuity 620, 883
career identity 102, 104–7, 108, 109, 111
and institutional change 8
in narrative career identity 104–7
strategy 794 see also self-continuity
contract work 472
contradictory identity 70, 78, 435, 504, 542, 723
control 140, 201, 400, 504, 684, 809, 811, 842
Conversation Analysis (CA) 327, 328
(p. 923) conviviality 111
cooperative identity 788, 881
coping strategies 623
corporate history 383–4
corporate identity 385, 411
cosmopolitanism 606, 613–14, 659–60
counter-identity 20–1, 90
courage-based identity work 251
co-working spaces 699, 825
creative identities 8, 14, 669–79, 867, 897
agency 671
artistic fulfilment 673
aspired-to identities 672, 675–6, 677
autonomy 670, 671–2, 673, 675, 677, 678, 679
biopolitical governance of labour 677
collaborative leadership 505
complications 676–8
creative selves at work 673–4
cultural industries 670
eliteness 678
emancipation 673
emotional elements 673
enterprise 670, 678
feelings, values and behaviour 670
hierarchies 675
ideal and complete self 673
independence 675
individuality 675, 677
inside the creative organization - structured work 674–6
liminality 473–6, 478, 481
love and passion for one’s work 670, 673–4, 677, 678–9
negative experiences 674, 677, 678
new geography of work 673
organizational control 676
performed identities 200, 201
positive experiences 677
power relations 675
precarious employment and short-term contracts 670, 674, 678
projects 671–3
rarity 678
sacrifice and struggle 675
self-actualisation 673, 676
self-completion 671
self-confidence 677
self-creation 671
self-discipline 677
self-employment 674
self-esteem 679
self-exploitation 677–8
self-expression 673
self-identity 677
self-investment 678
self-positioning 674
self-realization 670, 673, 678
sense of self 673
signature style 672
socio-cultural dimensions 676
socio-political context 674, 676
soft capitalism 676
struggle, experiences of 672–3
subjectivities 670, 674–9
symbol-making 670
valorisation process 677
value production 676–7
Warhol economy 669, 672
well-being 677, 679
worker alignment 670
worker commitment 670
credibility 786
critical approach 152, 159–61, 157t, 163, 178, 393, 733, 794, 802
critical leadership studies 751–2, 753–5
critical management studies 190
critical orientation 4, 190
critical potential of taking career perspective 109–11
critical realist perspective 720
criticism of identity 20–1
cross-cultural interactions with ‘the Other’ 603, 611, 615
cross-cultural leadership 126
cross-cutting identities 541, 573–4
cross-sector collaboration 90
crystallized identities see real, fake and crystallized identities
culture/cultural
background 541
capital 264–5, 266, 267, 268, 270, 273, 646
change 476, 477
conditioning 63
contexts 285
differences 603, 606, 608, 610, 611, 614
identity 88, 93, 426
image and brand 417
industries 103, 200
intersectional perspective 129
narratives 110
norms 247
politics of identity 804
positioning 5
race/ethnicity 655, 660
stereotypes 610–11, 613t
turn 804
values 686
current identity 254
cyberethnography and netnography 794
cynicism 588, 719
D
dangerous identity 267
Darwinian founders 768t, 769, 769f, 770, 771, 775
death resulting from overwork (Karōshi) 808, 812, 898
defamiliarization 786
(p. 924) defending identities 449
depersonalization 155
desired identity 17, 268, 378, 416, 444, 496, 504, 673
difficult situations 434
digital nomads and liquid modernity 16, 864–76, 898
Bauman on liquid modernity 867–9
blurring of work and leisure 874
coherence strategies 869–70
ethical, political, identity, and organizational consequences of liquidity 868
fragmentation strategies 870–1
networked homeworkers 874
nomadic model of identity 872
precarious, open-ended contracts 868
tension strategies 871–3
virtual spaces, temporary projects and self-managed practices 872–3
digitized careers 2
dilemmas 417, 559
‘dirty work’ 546, 576, 577, 580, 581, 595, 620, 623
disability 581
and age identity 526
discrimination 109
and gender identity 488
intellectual 581
intersectionality 903
politics of identity 809
and race identity 662, 665
and sexual identity 560, 562, 565 see also stigmatized identities/stigmatization
discomfort 589
disconnection to the self 208
discourse and communication 10, 151–64
communication 153–4, 157t
critical and poststructural theory 159–61, 157t, 163
discourse 152–3, 157t
discourse and communication distinction 154
discourse/Discourse (d/D distinctions) 152–4, 159–60
grand Discourse approach 152
linguistic turn 163
macro-discourses 158, 159
mega-Discourse approach 152
meso-discourse approach (later called text-focused studies) 152
micro-discourse approach 152, 158
multi-level discourse analysis 153
narrative theory 156, 158–9, 157t, 163
relationality 157t, 161–3
self-narratives 159
Social Identity Theory (SIT) 154–6, 157t, 163
discrimination 613, 752, 809–11
disability 109
gender 193, 809
sexual identity 557, 558, 559, 562, 564 see also race/ethnicity
discursive approach 4, 56, 65n1, 93–4, 96, 416, 426, 487, 541, 577
dis-identification 90, 155, 883, 902
age identity 532
emotions 447, 450
image and brand 410, 411–12
Membership Categorization Analysis (MCA) 333, 337
mutual 885–6
nostalgic identity 593
out-group 337
sense of self 855
strategy 788
dis-integration 399
displayed identity 446
disruptive identity 215, 218, 343, 428, 542
dissension 788
distinctiveness 5, 87, 620, 631, 789
distress 589
divergent identity 793–4
diversity 655, 657–9, 661, 664–5, 788, 840, 884
divided identities 70
domains-interaction model 78, 81
domination 57, 758–9, 762, 809, 811, 844, 868
doubt 217, 313
dramaturgical identity 4, 126, 201, 393, 487
drive theory 171, 172
dual identities 426, 563, 886
duality of social realities 52–4
dynamic identity 78, 246–7
dynamic process model 105
dynamics of social reality construction 54–5
dynamism 39, 179–80
E
economic capital 264, 265, 266, 273
economized identity 4
elite identity 106, 670
elite MBAs and portable selves 269–71, 613, 716, 722–6
emergent identity work 251
emerging themes 897–904
action, embodiment and affect 900
authentic, fake and real selves 902–3
changing times 897–8
intersectionality 903–4
metaphors, new and reworked 899–900
reflexivity 904
social identity 900–1
temporality and spatiality 901–2
uncertainty, increasing 898–9
emotions and identity 12, 61, 137–8, 180, 442–51
anger 445
angst 451
anxiety 444, 445, 451
attachment and detachment 449
(p. 925) cognitive, emotional and behavioural elements of identification 443–8
connecting individual to social collectives 448
control 446
control systems 446
coping strategies 445
depletion 445
detachment/distancing 64, 445, 446
emotions as discursive resources in processes of identification 445–6
empathy and care 444
engagement 318–19, 321, 445
euphoria 451
excitement 444, 451
exhaustion 445
feeling, meaning and performance of emotions 445
future research 448–51
guilt 445
humour 447–8
identity negotiation strategies 450
identity verification/non-verification 444–5
identity work: sociological imagination 284
insecurity 444, 451
instrumental compliance 450
joy 451
labour, emotional 393, 409–10, 446–7
liminality 342
management strategies 449–50
negative emotions 444–5, 450
neutrality 445
norms 449
organizational members’ responses to social influences 449–50
pleasure 444
positive emotions 444–5, 450
potentialities and impossibilities (Lacan) 191
profiles 444
real and fake emotions 447
rhetoric 607
role of emotion 740–1
Role Identity Theory 443, 444, 448
selective perception 445
Self Categorization Theory (SCT) 443, 448
sense of self 850
shame 445
Social Identity Theory (SIT) 443, 448
strains 446
surface acting 450
vulnerability 451
well-being 447
worry 451
employment relations 865
empowerment 91, 110, 301, 639, 840
endings-neutral-zone-beginnings model 473
enhanced identity 250 see also self-enhancement
enrichment 250
entrepreneurship 4, 8, 15, 109, 393, 398, 766–76, 787, 897
artist entrepreneurs 773
behavioural variation 770
causal behaviour 770
challenges and tensions 775
communitarian founders 768t, 769, 769f, 770, 771, 775
compartmentalization, integration and meta-identity 773
current role identity 771
Darwinian founders 768t, 769, 769f, 770, 771, 775
developer role identity 769, 769f
development of entrepreneurial identity 775
effectual behaviour 770
failure 773
female entrepreneurs 91, 771, 773
for-profit ventures 770
founder role identity 767, 769, 769f
friends and parents 771
future research 774–5
identity capital assets 772
identity content 774f
identity formation 770–3, 774f
identity management 773–4, 774f
identity refinement, rehearsal and reflection 774
identity verification episodes 774
identity work 772–3
impersonal others (society-at-large) 768t
inventor role identity 769, 769f
mentors 771
missionary founders 768t, 769, 769f, 770, 771, 775
necessity entrepreneurs 775
part-time founders 775
personal others (community) 768t
philanthropic identity 638–41
potentialities and impossibilities (Lacan) 191
prior identities 770–1
Role Identity Theory (RIT) 766, 767–70, 771
self 768t
significant others 771
Social Identity Theory (SIT) 766, 767–71, 775
social ventures 770
strategic responses to adversity 770
strategic use of identity 773–4
stressful events 775
success 773
transition process 771–2
voluntary (opportunity) entrepreneurs 775
work peers 771
envy 588
ephemeral identity 514
epistemological stance 282–3, 295, 302, 306, 331, 333
equality 111
social 802
establishing identities 449
ethical issues 90, 346, 354
gender identity 8, 10, 13, 494–5
image and brand 411
(p. 926) networks 90
philanthropic identity 640
politics of identity 811
real, fake and crystallized identities 403
ethics of difference 493
ethnicity see race/ethnicity
ethnographic methodology 284, 296, 328, 330, 337, 755
evolving identity 246, 401
excitement 588
existing identity 250
exits 158, 411
expectation 504
experiential learning 477, 478
experimentation 506
expert independent professional identities 537
exploitation 477, 677–8, 813
ex-prisoners 573
external aspects of human identity 286
externalization 54
F
fantasy 187, 188–9, 191
feared selves 4, 588
feeling identity see under sense(s) of self
feelings 4, 176, 284, 337
feminism 193, 752, 755
fictional self-narratives 187, 296
film projects/movie sets 821, 823–4, 825
fixed identity 70, 78
flexibilization of labour 102, 109, 898
fluid identity 6, 76, 603
focus groups 123, 306
follower identity/followership 118–19, 121–9, 210, 751, 753–8, 760–2
foreclosure 18, 476
formation of identity 477, 504, 588
career identity 108
cycles of 89
grounded theory and phenomenology 304
liminal spaces of identity formation 340–3, 355
managers: fictional portrayals 456
founder role identity 767, 769, 769f
fragile identity 75
fragmented identity 6, 20, 70, 76, 78
age identity 528, 530
career identity 105, 108
collaborative leadership 504
digital nomads and liquid modernity 869, 870–1
future research 889
paradox approach to identity 435, 628, 632
strategy 788–9
front region 202, 210–11, 334, 395
frustration 313
functionalist orientation 4
future identity
aspired-to 60
desired and feared 60, 254
ideal 408
liminal spaces of identity formation 341, 343, 346–51, 353
sensemaking 254
future research 16–20, 881–93
attachment and conflict 882–7
moving from identity as ‘star’ to identity as ‘ensemble member’ 890–2
moving from parts to wholes 888–9, 892
viewing identity as fuller (less empty) 887–8, 892
G
game changers (philanthropy) 642, 643f, 644, 646, 647, 649
gender issues/gender identity 4, 8, 12–13, 17, 61, 486–98, 897
abject identity 488, 497
and age identity 521, 522, 526–8
agile identity 842–3
constructivist approach 490
corporeal gender dynamics 496
cultural assumptions 492
deconstructing and refusing 490–5
discourse and communication 160, 163
discrimination/sexism 193, 809
empowerment 487
equality 109
feminist theories and feminists 486–7, 490
generative potential of identity scholarship (writerly texts) 139, 140, 144t
heteronormativity 491
historical methods for research 359
hostility 488
hybrid professional identity 541
ideology 497
illiberal populism 488
image and brand 416
inequality 103, 609
intersectional perspective 122, 125, 126, 129, 488, 492, 494, 495, 903
Lacan 192–3
leadership 751
LGBT 487
liminality 701, 705
mainstreaming 487
managers: fictional portrayals 468
materialities 239
matrixial transsubjectivity 487, 493, 494
minoritarian subjectivities 492
national identity and multinational corporations 613
nomadic subjectivity 492, 494–6
nostalgic identity 594
performed identities 203, 204, 487
politics 487
politics of identity 804, 809
post-colonial feminism 494, 495
poststructuralist theory 487, 488
potentialities and impossibilities (Lacan) 195
power differences 490, 496
practical implications 496–8
psychoanalytic feminist ideas 488, 490, 496
race and identity 655, 657, 658, 660, 662, 663–4
reflexivity 314, 321
relationality 487–8, 492–6
restrictive gender identity 495
sexual harassment 487, 497–8
sexual identity 560
social phenomena and organizational work 489–90
sociological imagination 288, 289
subjectivity 491, 495, 496
transnational perspectives 488, 492, 494, 495, 496
transsubjectivity 487
General Theory of Strategic Action Fields 739
generational identity 594
generative potential of identity scholarship (writerly texts) 9, 134–47
comparative analysis: identity work and space and place 135, 139–42
comparative analysis: identity work and struggles 136–9
conceptual position 143t
methods position 144t
readerly texts 135, 142
readerly and writerly distinction 142–6, 143–4t
thematic position 144t
theoretical position 143t
generative selves 640
generativity 639, 903
scripts 639–41
‘gig economy’ 17, 137–8, 342, 472–3, 581, 808, 812, 821, 898
glass slipper model see under sense(s) of self
globalization and multinational enterprises (MNEs) 15, 159, 494, 603, 614, 683–93, 897
ambivalence 690–1
assimilation 689
autonomy 685
business schools, universities and international students 692
contestation 691
control 684
co-opted indigenous managers 689
country-of-origin effects 686
cultural values 686
decentralization 685
de-globalization 693n
developing world 688–9
emerging markets 693n
exploitation 691
home-country institutions 685
host-country contexts 686
international division of labour 688
international organizations 683, 688, 692
loyalty and commitment 689
mimicry 691
national identity 687, 691
nation-based hierarchies 687
(neo)colonial power relations 687–91, 692
offshore outsourcing 688, 690, 691, 693n
oppression 691
‘Other’ 689–90
post-colonial era 690
racial subordination 690
regulation of identities across national borders 685–7
resistance 691
shared norms and values 685
socialization and Westernization of employees 690
stereotyping 687
subjective interpretations 693n
tension and anxiety 689
transnational governance 688
West-centrism 688–9
Westernization 691
Western managerial elites 688–90
‘golden couples’ (philanthropy) 647–8, 649
graffiti metaphor 94
grieving of identity 251
grounded theory and phenomenology as methodological approaches to identity work 11, 210, 295–308
comparison of methodologies 297t, 299
delimiting the theory 299
epistemological assumptions 295, 306
focus groups 306
future research 307
grounded theory 298–302, 307
analytical process 301
constant comparative method 299–300, 306–7
constructivist theory 297t, 298, 300–2, 306
epistemologically subjectivist assumptions 298
evolved theory 298
formal theory 299
grand theory 298–9
interpretive theory 300
objectivist theory 301
ontologically relativist assumptions 295, 298, 306
substantive theory 299
theoretical sampling 299–301, 306
theoretical saturation 299–301, 306
traditional theory 297t, 298–300, 301, 306
integrating categories and their properties 299
key analytical steps 306–7
lived experiences 305
mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative studies) 307
(p. 928) phenomenology 302–5, 307
Dasein 302
descriptive phenomenology 297t, 302, 303–4, 306–7
epistemology 302
hermeneutics 302
imaginative variation 303
inductive analysis 304, 305
interpretive phenomenology 297t, 302–3, 304–5, 306–7
interrogative phenomenology 305
iterative analytical processes 307
meaning units 303
sampling 303, 306
scientific practices 303
semi-structured interviews 304
single-case studies 304
research 296–306
writing the theory 299
group identity 36, 331
classifications 39
cohesion 447
emotions 447
group-level relations 603
in-group support 204
membership 209
nostalgic identity 597
performed identities 209
scope and limits of identity 42 see also collective identity
guilt 218
H
harassment 575
hate 588
hate crime 810–11
healthcare sector (doctors and nurses) 537, 539, 541–2, 543–4, 545, 546–7
hembigs (hegemonic, ambiguous and big) 35, 36–7, 38, 44–7
methodological antidotes 46–7
theoretical scrutiny 45–6
heroic identity 91
hierarchy 59, 343, 751–3
higher self (sociality) 60
him-too campaign 809
historical methods for research 11, 358–67
clerical workers 363–5, 367
conceptual or analytically structured history 360
corporate history 360, 361, 363
cultural aspects 359
diaries 364
dual integrity 367
ethnographic history 360, 361–3
historic turn in organization studies 358–9
imagined community 362
invented tradition 362
life history method 363–4
narrative or literary sources 362, 364, 367
novels 364
oral history interviews 364
organization studies 359–61
remnants 362
replication logic 367
rites and rituals 364
serial history 360–1
silence of the archives 363, 365–6
structural aspects 359
verification logic 367
historicization 270–1
holding environments 173, 177, 473, 827–8
holistic integration 476
honour 265
hope 5
humour 610–11, 613t, 719
hybrid professional identities 4, 6, 13, 17, 536–47, 898
agency 537, 545, 547
coercive institutional pressure 537
cognitive comparisons 538
commercial identity 547
controlled professionalism 540
critical management perspective 538
definition 538–9
digital nomads and liquid modernity 867
educational programmes 544
expert independent professional identities 537
future research pathways 545–7
globalization and multinational enterprises (MNEs) 691
healthcare sector (doctors and nurses) 537, 539, 541–2, 543–4, 545, 546–7
hybrid role modelling 544
identity-based leader development 544
identity salience 540–1
institutional challenge of enactment 542–4
job profile 545–6
liminality 544–7
macro-level impacting micro-level professional identity 542
managerial identity 537, 540, 543, 547
micro-level identities 546
organizing professionalism 540
politics of identity 804
professional/commercial hybrids 538–9
professional credibility and collegiality 543
professional leadership 540
professional logic 543
professional/managerial hybrids 538–9
professional networks 544
progressive or regressive professionalism 539–40, 547
sensemaking 254
traditional identity 537
transitional support 544–5
variation in enactment of 540–2
(p. 929) hyphenated identity 804
hypocritical identity 4, 6
I
ideal identity/idealized identity 4, 158–9, 188, 397, 504, 630, 644
identification 4, 5, 7, 15–16, 817–28
alternative work arrangements 820–3
artefacts and practices 819–20, 828n
by others 57
conditional identification 576
deep structure identification 824
dynamism 818
external foci 823–6, 828
networks 824–5, 828
projects/gigs 824, 828
roles 823–4, 828
third places 825–6, 828
future research 881, 887
holding environments 827–8
image and brand 410, 411
in-group 337
institutional theory 734
internal foci 823, 826–7, 828
personal branding 826, 828
protean self 827, 828
location of 155
personal identification 342, 426
pluralistic employment environments: challenge of authenticity 822–3, 824, 825, 826, 827, 828
politics of identity 805
positive identification 412
process, internal 40
projective identification 172–3, 175–6, 343
proximal targets 818–19
reconciled 251, 269, 576, 870
schizo-identification 155, 412, 788
selective identification 576
sensemaking 248, 250
short-term tenure or self-employment 818, 823, 824, 825, 826
temporary/project-based environments: challenge of stability 821–2, 823, 824, 825, 826, 828
virtual environments: challenge of salience 820–1, 823, 824, 826, 828 see also dis-identification
identity-as-(co)production: individual as producer and product 57
identity-as-equilibrium 75
identity-as-performance: symbolism of words, acts and artefacts 56–7
identity-as-politics: strategic agency and power structures 58–9
identity-as-positioning: similarities and differences 55–6
identity-as-process: long shots and close-ups 58
identity-based (inward-facing) challenges 571, 575–6
Identity Theory (IT) 39, 625t, 627, 882
identity work - sociological imagination 11, 279–93
agile identities 834
class, history and field structure (Bourdieu) 268
discourse and communication 158
doing and researching 281–2
emergent-relational view 284
epistemological stance 282–3
ethnographic and participant-observation research 284
external aspects of human identity 286
internal aspects of human identity 286
nature of organizations and human beings 283–5
noise and pre-interpretation: phenomenological perspective 218–20, 223
ontology 283
personas 285–7, 286f, 288–90, 291
Philosophical (or American) Pragmatism 283–5
rationalism 284
scope and limits of identity 45
self-identity 285–7, 286f, 288–90, 291
sensemaking 246, 248, 250, 251–2, 253
social identities 285–7, 286f, 288–90, 291
cultural-stereotype 290, 291
embracing and resisting 287–9
formal-role 290
gender 290
historical, literary and media 289
local-organizational 290–1
local-personal 291
official 290
social-category 289–90
societal and cultural contexts 285
sociological perspective 285
truth claims 283
Identity Work Theory (IWT) 734, 735t, 736, 743, 746n
identity work and use of metaphor 9, 68–81
ambiguity 80
cognitive integration 78
complexity 80
concepts and metaphors 69–75
conceptual blending 78–9, 81
conceptual imposition 79, 81
correspondence-based identity metaphors 78–9
counter-metaphor 78
dead metaphors 76, 77, 81
deductive approach 79–81
denotative role 77
(p. 930) deployment 76
development and elaboration of the blend 78–9
disseminating knowledge 76
domains-interaction approach 79
dormant metaphors 76, 77–8, 81
drawing pictures 80
educational devices 76
emergent meaning 78–9
empirical imposition 79
figurative dichotomization 77
generative devices 76
generic structure 78
identification of metaphors and metaphorization of identification 76–8
imposing and exposing identity metaphors 79–80
indeterminacy 80
inductive approach 79–81
knowledge constraining devices 77
literal and figurative language 80–1
literal and metaphorical identity terms categorization 73–4t
literal and metaphorical terms, prevalence of in identity discourse 71–2t
literal target domain 68
live metaphors 76, 81
metaphor consumer 76
metaphorical source domain 68
metaphor producer 76
obvious and less obvious metaphors 76–8
poetic embellishment 76
quantity 76
source domain 79
target domain 79
toy construction models 80
identity writing 578
ideology 109, 159, 189, 497, 853
image and brand 12, 408–17, 868
activation points 409
brand ambassadors or brand citizens 413
brand-centred control 416–17
brand equity 412–13
brand meanings 416
brands and branding 412–14
contemporary empirical studies 415–17
corporate branding 413, 417
employee branding 413
future directions 417
identity 411–12
identity-incentive branding 416
image 414–15
internal branding 413
internal marketing 413
marketization of self 417
on-brand behaviour 413
organizational image 410
personal brands 417
self-categorizations 408
self-narrative 408
slogans 414
imaginary character of identity work 343
imperialism 655–6, 661–3
imposters 5, 271
impression management 334, 504
impulse 171
inclusion 58, 631
incumbents 739, 745
independent workers 480–1, 675
individual identity 64, 69–70, 88
autobiographical memory 376, 384–5
class, history and field structure (Bourdieu) 269, 272
creative identities 675, 677
digital nomads and liquid modernity 871–2
fabrication 177
image and brand 409
intersectional perspective 117, 121, 123, 124, 129
leadership 750–1
liminality: play and creativity 477
networks 85, 92
noise and pre-interpretation 216
paradox approach to identity 425, 619
performed identities 209
real, fake and crystallized identities 398
sensemaking 247
stigmatization 581, 582
strategy 378
inertia 359
inner conversations 60–1, 64
innovations 473, 478, 481, 819
insecurity 18, 313, 417, 540, 822
thesis 271
insider status 211, 313, 316–17, 321
instability 670
institutional dynamics 63–4, 65
institutional environments 177
institutionalization 54
institutionalized termination 97
institutional theory 15, 732–46
actorhood 736–41
actor as institutional bricoleur 740, 742, 743, 744t, 745
actor as mythicized, rationalized subject 737–8, 742, 744t, 745
actor as strategic political activist 739, 742, 743, 744t, 745, 746n
actor as structurally constrained responder 738–9, 742, 743, 744t, 745, 746n
actor as value rational, affected practitioner 740–1, 742, 744t, 745
‘cultural dope’ conceptualization 741
agency/structure dualism 733, 741–2
causal ambiguity of identity 735–6
class, history and field structure (Bourdieu) 268–9
(p. 931) conceptual complexity and lack of definitional clarity 736
cultural conditioning 742
cumulative theoretical progress myth 741–3
contingency fallacy 742–3
structure/agency fallacy 741–2
different identity-constructs 734
emotions, role of 740–1
external pressures 746n
fragmentation 745–6
habit and imitation 738
Identity Work Theory (IWT) 734, 735t, 736, 743, 746n
‘I’ in institutional theory 732–3
incompatible source theories 736
increased theoretical integration, implications for promise of 736–7
institutional complexity 740
institutional entrepreneurship 742–3
institutional legitimacy 738
isomorphism 742
new or neo-institutional theory 732, 741, 746n
personhood 745
political power 738
practice theory 742
rationalization and normalization of selfhood 745
rationalization of society 742
resource accumulation 738–9
role conflict 743
role expectations 745, 746n
Role Identity Theory (RIT) 734, 735t, 743, 746n
role structure and role expectations 743
Social Identity Theory (SIT) 734, 735t, 736, 746n
social movement theory 739
structural institutional processes 745
substitutions or displacements of alternative institutional theories 743
tensions 740
theoretical complexity and conceptual confusion 733–7
value claims 745
value rational identification with substance 745
work and building blocks metaphors 740
intangible concepts 75
integrative solutions 886, 888, 890, 893n5
interactions of identities 272, 790, 793
social 865
interdependence 111, 762
intermediaries 92
Internal-Combustion Monster (fictional tale of noise) 219–21, 224
internalization 54, 262, 286, 751, 892n2
international partnerships 89
inter-organizational relationships (IORs) 86–8, 89–90, 92, 94, 96–7
interpellation theory 235
interpersonal relationships 174, 177, 245, 752
interpretivist orientation 4, 178, 228
intersectional perspective 9, 117–29, 613, 903–4
being and becoming yourself at work 123–8
evolving content of identity targets 119f, 125–6
evolving context of identity targets 119f, 127–8
stable content of identity targets 119f, 124–5
stable context of identity targets 119f, 126–7
content 119f, 123–6
context 119f, 123–5, 126–8
definition of intersectionality 120–3
follower identity 118–19, 121, 122, 123, 124–9
future research 889
gender issues/gender identity 122, 125, 126, 129, 488, 492, 494, 495, 903
identities and identification in organizations 117–20
individual-level identity 117, 121, 123, 124, 129
leader identity 118–19, 121, 122–3, 124–9
manager identity 118, 122–3, 124–5, 127, 129
politics of identity 804
reflexivity 128–9
strong intersectionality 123
team identity 118–19, 121, 122–3, 124–9
weak intersectionality 123
intersubjectivity 216, 752, 758–9, 762, 849
intolerance 809–11
intra-actions 231, 232, 235–7, 239–40
intuition 478
inventor role identity 769, 769f
inward facing identity work 118, 710–11
J
job loss 158, 525
job mobility 109, 342
job performance 155
job profile 545–6
journey metaphor 639
joy 588
‘jujitsu’ (identity) 4, 75, 76, 629, 634
K
kinship 496
knowledge
discourse and communication 160
economy 414
potentialities and impossibilities (Lacan) 186, 195 see also self-knowledge
L
labelling 62, 788
Lacan: potentialities and impossibilities 10, 185–95
affect 190–1, 194, 195
discourses of work and organization 189–90
gender 192–3
impossibilities and future directions 194–5
(p. 932) language, power of 186
macro level studies 188, 190, 191, 192, 195
methods 193–4
micro-level studies 188, 190, 191, 194–5
organizational identification 186, 190–4
poststructuralism 186
psychodynamic approach 186, 190
Real 187, 191–2
signification 192–4
subjectification 188, 190
subjection 191–2, 195
subjectivity 187–9, 192
symbolic order 187, 191, 192–4
language 56, 124, 426–7, 497, 719–22, 865
linguistic performance 376
linguistic turn 230
leadership 13, 15, 39–40, 75, 502–16, 750–62
analysis 760–1
charismatic, inspirational visionaries 753, 760–1
class, history and field structure (Bourdieu) 266, 270
community justice centre (CJC) as site of perpetual liminality 508–14
innovating and incubating 510–12, 513
learning and resilience 512–13
reading the movements of identity work 513–14
risk-taking and rule-breaking 509–10, 513
competency and behavioural frameworks 753–4
critical leadership studies 751–2, 753–5
cross-cultural 126
discourse and communication 156
domination 758–9, 762
emotions 444
ethnographic and/or in-depth interview approaches 755
feminist psychosocial theorizing 752, 755
followership 751, 753, 754, 755–7, 758, 760–2
hierarchy and discriminatory practices 752–3
identity construction theory 125
implicit theory of leadership identity 752
impression management 504
inequality 762
interdependencies 762
interpersonal relationships 752
intersectionality 118–19, 121, 122–3, 124–9
intersubjectivity 752, 758–9, 762
leadership development 503–5
leadership studio (Scottish Health and Social Care Partnership (HSCP) 507–8, 509
lessons log 513–14
liminality 503, 505–7, 515
macho, distant and uncaring leader 760–1
magnetic and inspirational leader 760
managers: fictional portrayals 465–6
membership categorization analysis (MCA) 330–1, 335, 336
mobility turn 515
Object Relations Theory 757–8
omnipotent and individual leader 752
performed identities 210, 503
permissible leadership identities 754
perpetual liminality 507
plurality, ambiguity, complexity and heterogeneity 754
post-liminal phase 503, 507
power relations 751, 755, 762
pre-liminal phase 503, 507
process ontology 507
processual theory 515
professional leadership 540
psychosocial theories 757–62
radical-follower-centred approach 756
recognition paradox 758–9, 762
reflexive approaches 755, 758
relational leadership 752, 755–62
role 42
self-monitoring 753
self-regulation 753
sensemaking 247
stigmatization 581
structure/agency 751
subordination 758, 761, 762
travelling concepts 509, 513, 515
values-based and shared model 756
leavers 252–3
legitimacy 87–8, 504, 646–8
Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust 648
lifestyles 411
choices 158
life themes/life narratives 102, 106–7, 112, 158, 379–82
liminality 4, 898
competence 108–9
hybrid professional identities 544–7
identification 822
perpetual 108, 507, 899
liminality - play and creativity 15, 471–81, 898–9
adaptive instability 475
ambiguity, solitude and alienation 474
anticipation, confusion and fear 475
artificial intelligence, machine learning and robotics 472
away days 481
business consultancy dinners 481
career identity 109
change and adaptation 473
chaos, loss or doubt 475
confusion 481
co-working spaces 699
creative potential 473–6, 478, 481
cultural change 476, 477
delayed commitment 477, 478–9
(p. 933) divergent exploration 477–8, 479
endings-neutral-zone-beginnings model 473
experiential learning 477, 478
exploration and commitment 475–6, 478
growth 473, 475–6, 478, 481
holding environment 473
hybrid professional identities 544–7
ideational flexibility/fluency 478
identity redefinition 478
individual and collective identity play 476–9
innovation 473, 478, 481
learning 478
liminal experience 474–5
liminar 474
neutral zone 474–5
off-sites and strategy retreats 481
organizational innovation 476
play 473
psychic pain, discomfort, anxiety, conflicts and self-esteem 475
reincorporation (post-liminal) 474
role confusion 475
separation rites 474
special camaraderie/communitas 480
time, space and relationships 473
transition 472, 474, 475–6, 479–81
uncertainty 481
unfreeze-change-refreeze theory 473
liminal spaces of identity formation 11, 340–55
anxiety, danger and darkness 341, 354
‘bridge and door’ 341–2, 344–5, 347–53, 355
formation/construction 340–3, 355
meanings, symbols and rituals 341
new thresholds 240–2
past, present and future identities 341, 343, 346–51, 353
pathways 351
relational dynamics 351
rites of passage 341, 343, 345, 352–3
separation 341
shifting identity 354
Simmel: life as transcendence 344
transition 341, 342–3, 345–6, 351–3
transmission station 352–3
video diaries 341, 351–4
liquid identity 4, 108
local heroes (philanthropy) 642–3, 643f, 646, 647, 649
M
macho, distant and uncaring leader 760–1
magnetic and inspirational leader 760
maintained identity 246, 250, 449, 477, 504, 588
managerial identity/managerialism 60, 159, 393, 506, 541
age identity 529
class, history and field structure (Bourdieu) 266, 269–71, 272
digital nomads and liquid modernity 866
hybrid professional identities 537, 547
identity work: sociological imagination 284
image and brand 411
management strategies 576
real, fake and crystallized identities 397
self-management 530, 873
sexual identity 562–5
managers: fictional portrayals 12, 455–68
academic and common-sense ideas 45–8
caricature 455
cultural portrayals 456, 458–64, 468
negative portrayals 459–61, 462
positive portrayals 461–2
tragic or nihilistic portrayals 462–4
fictional portrayals 464–5
historical dimension 467–8
hyperbole 455
leadership, rise of 465–6
negative portrayals 459–61, 462, 465
positive portrayals 461–2, 467
scientific accounts 457
sexual assault and harassment and #MeToo movement 467
sexual identity and authority 465, 466–7
subjectivity 456
theoretical background 456–8
mangle of practice 234, 725
marginalization 109, 398, 663, 822
materialities 10, 228–41
artefacts and assemblages 229–30
attire/dress 236–40
boundary-making practices 231, 238
generative potential of identity scholarship (writerly texts) 139
inter-action 232
interpretivist approach 228
intra-actions 231, 232, 235–7, 239–40
Marxist materialism 228, 230–1
material-identities perspective 234–5
matter 232
new materialist theories 230–6
ontology 229
phenomena, cultural and natural 231–2, 236–7
poststructuralist approach 228–9, 230
power 719–22
real, fake and crystallized identities 402–3, 404
reductive materiality 236
steps towards material-identities theory 236–41
meaning(s) of identity 36, 272
membership categorization analysis (MCA) 11, 326–38
ascribed, avowed and displayed membership 328
blame, guilt or responsibility 329
category entitlement 331
category predicates 329, 335
(p. 934) Conversation Analysis (CA) 327, 328
culture-in-action 330
discursive practice 327, 337
ethnomethodological approach 328, 330, 337
fact production in flight 328
identity categories in talk and texts 327
inference rich categories 327
leadership 330–1, 335, 336
membership categorization device (MCD) 329, 334
moral accountability 329, 334, 335–6
New York Times Op-Ed piece on Trump Administration 330–5
author identity 331, 333–4
Trump’s identity 334–5
normative expectations 337
organizations 329–30
origins 328–9
phenomenological approach 337
practical actions 327
reasoning and inference 327
routine ordinary common-sense knowledge 327
social identities 327, 328, 331, 337
Trump, D. 327–8, 329
mental health issues, stress, depression and anxiety 18, 305, 555, 560, 573, 579, 581, 807, 812
meritocracy 110, 806–7, 810
methods for identity studies 19–20
MeToo Movement 467, 887, 898
micro-level identities 546
minimal group paradigm 884, 887, 893n
minimalism of identity 45
missionary founders 768t, 769, 769f, 770, 771, 775
moral accountability 329, 334, 335–6
moral codes 63
moral or ethical imperative 538
moral judgements 61
moral reasoning 335
motivation 581, 865, 884
motive 75, 245–6, 248, 333
multiple identities 17, 179, 888–9
autobiographical memory 376
career identity 108
conflict cooperation 886
conflicting 60
digital nomads and liquid modernity 871
entrepreneurship 773
fabrication 180
future research 893n7
gender identity 489–90
identification 823
identity work: sociological imagination 287
intersectional perspective 122, 124, 125–6, 127–8
liminality 342, 343, 346
networks and identity 90, 95
politics of identity 804
race and identity 657
real, fake and crystallized identities 401
sensemaking 245, 254–5
targets 88, 123 see also plurality
multiple positionality 118, 120–1, 123–4, 125, 126, 128–9
multi-stage identity work 251
mutable identity 246
mutational identity 400–1
N
narcissism 18
narrative approach 96, 247, 249, 268, 272, 786 see also self-narratives
narrative-as-identity 624t, 625t, 627
narrative-based identity 247, 624t, 625t, 627, 734
narrative convergence or divergence 789
narrative inquiry 194
narrative methodology 296, 790
narrative structures 772
narrative theory 152, 156, 158–9, 157t, 163, 343
nascent identity 478, 480
national identity and multinational corporations (MNCs) 14, 602–15
antenarratives and national symbols 609, 613t
colonialism and neo-colonialism 606–7, 612, 614
constructions at different levels 604–12
cosmopolitanism 606, 613–14
cross-cultural interactions with ‘the Other’ 603, 611, 615
cultures and cultural differences 603, 606, 608, 610–11, 613t, 614
discursive resources 610
distancing 610
dynamic perspective 604
elitism 613
globalization 603, 614
historical relations between nations 606
humour 610–11, 613t
ideologies and worldviews 603, 613t, 615
inequality and exploitation 613
interactional perspective 604
international relations 614
language choice 608–9
looking forward 612–14
macro-level (transnational): ideologies and world views as overarching structures 605–8, 610, 612, 613t, 614–15
media (mass media and social media) 607–8, 613, 614–15
meso-level (organizational): specific organizational purposes 605, 608–10, 612, 613t
metaphors 611–12, 613t
(p. 935) micro-level (individual): daily interactions 605, 610–12, 613t, 614
narratives and corporate language 604, 610
nationhood 615
new understandings 604
oppression 613
political factors 608
power relations 603, 605, 606–9, 614–15
reactive talk 611
(re)construction of national identity 603, 604–5
relational perspective 604
self-reflexive talk 611
stereotypical talk 611
storytelling 610, 613t, 614
superiority and inferiority 613
universalistic norms 606
negative identity 189, 202, 622, 633
negotiation 70, 426, 449
neighbourhood work centres 821
neo-colonialism 8, 687–91, 692
neo-fascism 811
neoliberalism 159, 497, 806–7, 835–6, 841, 842, 843, 866
neo-managerialism 836
nested identity 504, 541, 573–4
networks and identity 4, 9, 17, 84–97, 825, 897, 898
agency in global supply chains 90–2
analysing identities 93–5
business-to-business (B2B) marketing concepts 86, 87–9
extant work 95–6
homeworkers 874
inter-organizational collaborations 89–90
liminality and boundary-spanning 85, 86–7, 88, 90, 95–6, 97
research agenda 96–7
supply chains and industrial networks 86
neutral identification 412, 788
new identity 250, 253, 450
new or neo-institutional theory 732, 741, 746n
new organizations 793
New York Times Op-Ed piece on Trump Administration 330–5
nexus concept 7
noise and pre-interpretation: phenomenological perspective 10, 214–25
acting self (holistic I) 218–20, 222
Brexit (confessional tale of noise) 221–3, 224
construction of identity 215, 216, 224
following noise in the field 224
identity work 218–20, 223
Internal-Combustion Monster (fictional tale of noise) 219–21, 224
repair 215, 218f, 219–20, 222
self-identity 217, 218, 223, 224
sensemaking 215, 220, 223
sense of self 217, 222–3
silence 215, 221, 223, 224
situational me 218–20, 222
studying identity through noise 223–4
theorizing noise 224
threats 215, 218, 218f, 220
understanding what noise stands for 224
normative identity 522, 753
nostalgic identity 3, 13–14, 586–98
aggressive nostalgia 589–90, 595, 597
collective identities 587, 593, 594
and conspiracy theories 598
cultural and social contexts 590
and cynicism 598
defensive nostalgia 592
generational identity 594