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date: 11 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

During the global financial crisis, governments bailed out banks when their failures threatened to undermine economic and financial stability. After the crisis, governments tried to end bailouts by raising capital requirements, increasing supervisory rules and oversight, and introducing bail-in provisions that require creditors and/or equity holders to assume losses and help recapitalize distressed banks. Some important policy questions are whether bailouts have been effective in meeting their primary goals and whether bail-ins as alternatives can be effective in reducing the need for bailouts and resolving financial institutions facing distress and failure going forward. This chapter surveys the recent literature and other evidence from the US and EU on bailouts and bail-ins to better understand their economic and social costs and benefits. We also discuss briefly other methods to deal with the resolution of distressed large financial institutions.

Keywords: bail-ins, bailouts, banks, BRRD, financial crises, OLA, TARP

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