- Copyright Page
- Preface and Acknowledgements
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Contributors
- The Description and Comparison of Societal Systems of Higher Education and University Management
- Criticality, Academic Autonomy, and Societal Progress
- Socializing Human Capital for Twenty-First Century Educational Goals: Suggestive Empirical Findings from Multinational Research
- Changing the Nature and Role of Universities: The Effects of Funding and Governance Reforms on Universities as Accountable Organizational Actors
- Recent Trends in East and West University Governance: Two Kinds of Hollowness
- Cycles of Evolution of Ideal Types of Universities: Causes and Consequences for the University Mission—The Case of Poland
- The Implications of a Diversifying Workforce for Institutional Governance and Management in Higher Education
- The Collegial Tradition in English Higher Education: What Is It, What Sustains It, and How Viable Is Its Future?
- Managing a University in Turbulent Times
- Critical Factors and Forces Influencing Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century
- A New World of Communications in Higher Education and Its Implications
- Leading in Higher Education
- Policy and Practice in University–Business Relations
- Macro Changes and the Implications for Equality and Social and Gender Justice in Higher Education
- Macro Changes and the Implications for Higher Education Research: A Case Study in the Health Sector and Graduate Practice
- Canada in a Global System of Higher Education: The Role of Community Engagement
- Developing and Maintaining Transnational Research Collaborations: A Case Study of Australian Universities
- Scholarship in the University: An Ecological Perspective
- Higher Education Finance: Global Realities, Policy Options, and Common Misunderstandings
- Educating for the Cooperative Society: The Role of Government in Building Human and Social Capital
- Educating for the Cooperative Society: The Role of Industry in Building Human and Social Capital
- Educating for the Cooperative Society: The Role of Universities, Research, and the Academic Professions in Fostering Good Citizenship
- Governments Need To, and Do, Trust Universities
- Education and Technological Unemployment in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
- Educating for the Innovative Society: The Role of Indian Institutes of Technology in India
- Policy Implications for Equity, Gender, and Widening Participation in Higher Education
- Reactions, Reflections, and Renewal: The Significance of Higher Education for Intellectual, Societal, and Personal Advancement
- Maintaining the Contribution of Higher Education to Societal Progress
Abstract and Keywords
HE costs are driven upwards beginning at the institutional level with rising per-student costs. Rising unit costs are then magnified at the national or system level in most countries by surging enrolments. The result is the global reality of HE costs and revenue needs—especially in low and middle income countries with surging youth populations, ineffective taxation, and politically compelling alternative revenue needs—increasing annually at rates far exceeding the increase of costs generally or the ability of government revenue to increase commensurately. Governments typically seek solutions by increasing revenues from tuition and other fees and alternative forms of cost-sharing, which can raise intense political opposition, or by cutting costs which raises opposition from faculty, staff, and university leaders opposed to the loss of employment or radical changes in the traditional paradigms of instruction. The chapter then explores eight common misunderstandings about these cost dilemmas and discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and cultural bases of some of the conventional policy responses.
D. Bruce Johnstone is SUNY Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus at the University of Buffalo, Graduate School of Education. He has served previously as Chancellor of the State Universities of New York System, Vice-President for Administration at the University of Pennsylvania, and President of the State University College of Buffalo. His areas of research interest are higher education finance, higher education governance, and international comparative higher education. Bruce also teaches in Higher Education & Comparative Education. Bruce’s recent publications include: Higher Education Systems 3.0: Harnessing Systemness, Delivering Performance (edited with Jason E. Lane, 2013); Colleges and Universities as Economic Drivers (edited with Jason E. Lane, 2012); Financing Higher Education Worldwide: Who Pays? Who Should Pay? (with Pamela Marcucci,2010); and Higher Education in a Global Society (edited with Madeleine d’Ambrosio and Paul Yakoboski, 2010).
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