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date: 22 October 2020

(p. 594) (p. 595) Subject index

(p. 594) (p. 595) Subject index

The items highlighted in bold are the titles of the sections of the chapters of this book. Subsections and subsubsections are also included with their page ranges, but these are not highlighted in bold. The other items are subjects recommended for inclusion by the authors of the chapters.

Abell Catalogue of clusters of galaxies 227
abundances of the light elements and the baryonic density parameter ΩB 388–390
acceleration of the universe 381–382
acoustic oscillations 239, 339
acoustic peaks in the power spectrum of galaxies 405–408
adiabatic cold dark matter 395–397
adiabatic hot dark matter 397
adiabatic model (baryonic) of structure formation 237–239
advances in general relativity to 1975 261–263
advances in theory 1970–1990 319–325
age of the Earth 173, 196
age of the universe 383–385
age of the universe ix, xi, 67, 106, 107, 113–115, 126, 129, 130, 132, 138, 181, 190, 191, 194, 195, 197, 208, 211, 212, 225–227, 231, 514, 520
age of the universe T0 to 1980 225–226
αβγ paper 170, 175
Andromeda Nebula ix, 41, 42, 50–52, 54–56, 61–64, 208, 247, 361
anthropic cosmological principle 437–438
anthropic reasoning 473, 477, 479–481
anthropic reasoning 520–523
antimatter 14, 139–144, 235, 236, 434, 460
Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) 347, 365
applicability of Friedman–Lemaître (FL) models 507–509
Archipelago of Habitability 474, 475
astrium 12
astrobiology 465, 468
astrochemistry 8, 9
astrophysical and experimental limits on non-baryonic dark matter 431–432
astrophysics 47, 52
astrophysics changes the debate 46–49
astrospectroscopy 8, 10
averaging problem 509
axions 429–430
B2FH theory 197, 216
B-mode polarization 337–339
baryogenesis 459–460
baryon-asymmetry problem 235, 434
baryonic dark matter 426–429
biasing 399–401
Big Bang v, xii, 19, 107, 110, 123, 127, 132, 135, 140, 141, 149, 151, 152, 155–157, 162, 166, 167, 170, 174, 176, 177, 180, 182, 192, 197, 199, 200, 202, 204, 214, 216, 217, 220, 244, 262, 292–297, 299, 300, 304, 312, 387, 393, 433, 437, 445, 448, 449, 461, 462, 468, 483, 484, 486, 490, 491, 497, 503, 508, 514
big crunch 174, 180
Big Galaxy 58–60
big problems of cosmology 433–438
Big Rip 479, 486
black hole in the galactic centre, mass of 272
black holes and spheroid masses 272–273
black holes in binary systems and active galactic nuclei 277
black holes, formation and evolution of galaxies and 273
black holes, last stable orbit 278
Boltzmann brains 479, 480, 491, 494
Brans–Dicke cosmology 221
Brans–Dicke–Jordan theory 136–139
brightest galaxies in clusters of galaxies 209, 212, 222
broader contexts of cosmology 189–192
brown dwarfs 426–428
bubble universes 201, 470, 478, 481
Butcher–Oemler effect 223
causal past 503, 527
Cepheid variables 58, 62, 208, 210, 211
Chandra X-ray Observatory 284
chronological past 505, 528
clusters of galaxies 69–70
CMB, see cosmic microwave background (CMB) 296
CMB and the standard model of cosmology 328–342
(p. 596) CMB before 1965: early hints and missed opportunities 296–298
CMB developments up to 1990 and the COBE results 312–328
CMB 1965–1970: a background, but is it cosmic? 298–312
COBE and some precursors 325–329
cold dark matter and structure formation 393–395
Cold War xi, 192, 252, 346, 347, 353, 363, 365, 370, 371
Coma cluster of galaxies 224, 229
competition to collaboration and beyond 365–367
concordance ΛCDM world model xi, 121, 331, 332, 333, 335, 340, 412, 420, 424, 432, 433, 435, 436, 509–512
confrontation between the theory of structure formation and observation by 1980 242–243
constraining dark matter candidates 426–429
continual creation of matter 133, 150, 180, 186, 187, 189
conventionalist philosophy 124, 127
Copernican principle 506, 508
Copernican principle, evidence for 508–509
coronium 12, 36
cosmic concordance and some tensions 340–342
cosmic evolution of active galaxies 279–287
cosmic microwave background (CMB) x, xi, 292–293
cosmic microwave background (CMB) 127, 133, 138, 144, 151, 173, 194, 198–200, 207, 217, 220, 222, 227, 232, 233, 236, 241–243, 350, 353, 354, 357, 358, 426, 432, 433, 436, 449, 456, 458, 481, 503, 507–510, 515, 516, 528
cosmic rays 248–250
cosmological constant x, xii, 21, 76, 83, 85, 91, 101, 103, 105, 109, 111–113, 115, 116, 121, 124, 129, 130, 132, 155, 173, 174, 180, 194, 211, 212, 226, 227, 332–334, 377, 382, 392, 403, 404, 407, 432, 435, 443, 449, 463, 469, 474, 487–489, 508, 512, 515, 526
cosmological controversy 163, 186, 189–193, 196–198
cosmological decade 486, 487
cosmological eras at z > 1010 235–236
cosmological horizons 117
cosmological models in the 1920s and 1930s 68–69
cosmological natural selection 482
cosmological parameters from 1940 to 1980 222–227
cosmological principle 32, 77, 82, 83, 104, 105, 110, 111, 124, 180, 304, 343, 437, 466, 478, 504, 506–509
cosmology and testing the theory of relativity in the USSR 350–352
counts of extragalactic X-ray sources and the X-ray background 283–285
counts of galaxies, excess of faint blue galaxies 285
counts of radio sources 217–219, 279–281
creation and controversy 184–189
critical density 111, 113, 181, 211, 222–224, 231, 240, 331, 333, 386, 421, 487, 516
criticism of contemporary cosmology 482, 491
Crossley Reflector 53, 69
Cryogenic Dark Matter Search 431
curvature of space 24–26, 66, 81, 83, 98, 99, 104, 105, 115, 171, 211, 324, 331, 454
curvature radius of the universe 81, 83, 85, 90, 93, 95–98, 103, 104, 107, 108, 112, 114, 117
cyclic models of the universe 149–152
Cygnus A 217
dark energy v, xi, xii, 123, 156, 332, 333, 340, 392, 407, 424, 432–433, 435, 442, 443, 452, 465, 466, 473, 480, 487–489, 504, 508, 511–513
dark matter xi, 123, 144, 156, 207, 224, 236, 252, 295, 322, 325, 331, 344, 425–426, 504, 511–513, 528
dark matter and dark energy 425–433
dark matter and galaxy formation 392–401
decaying dark energy 488
deceleration parameter x, 130, 193, 198, 211, 223, 506
deceleration parameter to 1980 222–223
Deep-Space Communication Centre (Yevpatoria) 364
density parameter Ω0 and the dark matter problem to 1980 223–225
determination of cosmological parameters from 1980 378–392
deuterium 213, 216, 221, 222, 235
dipole anisotropy of the CMB 307–309
discovery of a microwave background: the story as it is usually told 293–296
discovery of the CMB radiation 219–220
dissipation, role of in galaxy formation 413–415
Doppler effect 10, 11
Doppler shift 56, 64, 66–69, 147
duration of the inflationary phase 449
dynamical estimates of the masses of galactic nuclei 271–272
E-mode polarization 335–337
Eddington luminosity 270–271
Eddington–Lemaître model 108, 112, 114
(p. 597) Ehlers–Geren–Sachs (EGS) theorem 508–509
Einstein’s cosmological considerations in general relativity 78–84
Einstein–de Sitter model 113, 114, 130, 131, 181, 242, 390, 391
electric cosmology 184
element abundances, cosmic 168, 197
empty universe of de Sitter 84–89
energy conservation 182, 184
entropic creation 17
entropy 15–18
environments of black holes 277–279
epoch of recombination 230, 235–241, 239, 241, 242
epoch of recombination and the last scattering surface 232–233
epoch of reionization 235, 408
equation of state for dark energy 449
EROS project 428, 429
eternally cyclic universe 150, 151
evolution of galaxies 415–416
evolution of galaxies and the global star formation rate 415–420
evolution of the primordial perturbation spectrum – transfer functions 395–399
expanding universe vii, ix, 30, 31, 34, 37, 38, 66, 67, 69, 70, 74, 76, 77, 90, 91, 95, 107, 108, 110, 111, 113, 115, 117, 125, 126, 128, 145–147, 160, 188, 208, 215, 230, 299, 300, 401, 409, 440, 485, 502, 506, 509, 528
Faber–Jackson relation 210
false vacuum 445, 471
falsificationism 186
fine structure constant, variation of 134, 135
fine-tuning 473, 474, 481, 490, 493
fine-tuning and the initial state 516–518
finite or infinite universe? 28–34
first Soviet gravitation conference 350–351
first Texas symposium on relativistic astrophysics 260–261
flatness problem 433–435, 444, 518
formation of structure in the Universe 230–232
formation of supermassive black holes 286–287
French collaboration with the USSR in space science 367–370
Friedman–Lemaître equations 77, 103, 105, 107, 110, 111, 134
Friedman–Lemaîre models and the expanding universe 99–106
Friedman–Lemaître models 213, 219, 222, 230, 231, 237
from primeval atom to nuclear archaeology 163–170
galactic centre, black hole in 272
galaxy evolution in the ‘thermal’ wavebands 285
galaxy formation 175, 194, 204, 240, 242, 287, 412, 416, 430, 458, 476
γ-ray astronomy 268–269
γ-ray sources and γ-ray bursts 275–276
Gamow and primordial nucleosynthesis 212–217
Gamow approach to cosmology 175–179
general relativity and active galactic nuclei 260–263
general relativity, cosmology, and the space race 346–348
global star formation rate 418–419
Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex 364
gravitation paradox 20–23, 29
gravitational collapse 19–23
gravitational collapse and the formation of structure in the expanding universe 230–232
gravitational constant, variation of 125, 128, 130, 132, 134, 136–138
gravitational redshift 90, 261, 278, 348, 349, 371
gravitational waves 287–290
gravitational waves, discovery of 288–290
Great Debate ix, 60
Gunn–Peterson test 235
GUT era 445, 462
habitability 473–482, 476, 482, 490
Harrison–Zeldovich initial power spectrum 239, 395, 396, 456
heat–death 15
helium 9, 12, 214–217, 232, 235
helium abundance 197, 199
helium problem revisited: 1960s and 1970s 220–222
Herschels and nebulae 40–42
Hertzsprung–Russell diagram 223
hierarchic universe 6
hierarchical clustering 241, 242
Higgs fields and Higgs particles 462
Hilbert’s hotel 32, 38
Hooker 100-inch telescope 53, 61, 63, 69
horizon and flatness problems 516
horizon problem 433–434, 444, 449, 451, 483, 518, 528
horizon scale 231, 237
horizons 503–506
hot big bang 170–175
hot big-bang model 162, 170, 177
hot dark matter—neutrinos with finite rest mass 392–393
how CMB discovery changed cosmology in USSR 353–360
Hubble and the Cepheids 61–64
Hubble Space Telescope (HST) 211, 362, 363
Hubble sphere 438, 440, 443, 450–452, 455
(p. 598) Hubble time 173, 181, 195, 196
Hubble Ultra Deep Field 415, 416
Hubble’s constant 380–381
Hubble’s constant 125, 155
Hubble’s constant and the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project 380
Hubble’s constant determined by other routes 380–381
Hubble’s constant: the 1940s to 1980 208–211
hydrogen–helium ratio 163, 177
improved measurements of the spectrum of the CMB 316–318
inconsistent measurements of the CMB 311–312
indifference principle 522, 523, 530
infinite space 5, 31, 180
inflationary universe—historical background 443–445
inflaton field 454, 464, 469, 470, 493, 513, 519, 524
inhomogeneous world models 226
initial state, apparent fine-tuning 516–518
internal motions 56–61
internal motions 61
interstellar absorption 6, 7, 26, 35
inverse Compton catastrophe 273
IRAS infrared observatory 285
is cosmology a science? 152–157
island universe 3
isocurvature cold dark matter 397
isothermal model of structure formation 241
isotropy and homogeneity of the universe 378–380
isotropy, explanations of 507–508
Jeans’ instability in the presence of cold dark matter 401–402
Jeans’ length 231
Jeans’ mass 237, 238
jets in active galactic nuclei, origin of 275
John Herschel and nebulae 42–44
kinematic cosmology 123–128
ΛCDM model of galaxy and structure formation 420–423
Large Bright Quasar Survey 281
large numbers hypothesis (LNH) 129, 130, 132, 133
large-scale distribution of galaxies 227–230
laws in cosmology 498–502
leaping the hurdles in observations of the CMB 315–316
Lemaître model 112
Leviathan of Parsonstown 45
Lick Observatory 53, 56, 60, 69
limits of observation 436–437
limits on spectral distortions of the CMB 330
Lowell Observatory 53–55
lunar laser ranging (LLR) 368–370
Lunar Laser Ranging Project 133
lunar laser ranging, USSR investment in for testing relativity theory 365, 366, 368–370
M-theory 471, 475
M87 (NGC 4486) supermassive black hole in 271
M106 (NGC 4258), supermassive black hole in 271
Mach’s principle 79, 89
MACHOs and the MACHO project 427–429
Magellanic Clouds 43, 51
Malmquist bias 210
many universes of relativistic cosmology 110–115
mass density of the universe 385–387
mass gap problem 177
mathematical universe hypothesis 472, 478, 479
MCG-6-30-15 277, 278
mean density of matter in the Universe 211, 429
metagalaxy 141–144
mid- and far-infrared number counts of galaxies 417
military technology and testing general relativity 362–365
Milne’s kinematic cosmology 123–128
modal realism 472
motion without matter: redshift in the universe of de Sitter 89–98
Mount Wilson Observatory 60
multiverse 478–482, 523
nebular hypothesis 11, 35, 42, 44, 45, 50, 52, 54, 70, 71
nebular hypothesis, star systems and spirals 44–46
nebulium 12, 36
negative pressure 150–152, 183, 184
neutrinos with finite rest mass 430
neutron stars, discovery of 258–260
new inflation and the Nuffield workshop 445–448
new inflationary models 468–472
new steady-state theory 128, 153
no external galaxies 49–52
Nobel Prize 139, 141, 161, 167, 185, 199
non-baryonic dark matter 429–430
non-Euclidean astronomy 23–28
non-Euclidean geometry viii, 24–26, 37
non-linear collapse of density perturbations 409–410
(p. 599) non-linear development of the density perturbations 399
novae 60, 61
nuclear archaeology 168, 196
nuclear astrophysics 163, 167, 203
nuclear synthesis 168, 197
nucleocosmochronology 225
observation selection effects 473–477
observational advances before COBE (1970–1990) 316–319
observational and astrophysical cosmology: legacy of the 1930s 207–208
observational astronomy remade 52–53
observational cosmology from 1980: from acts of faith to precision cosmology 376–378
observational cosmology program 504, 508–509
observational hurdles and the means to overcome them 313–316
Olbers’ paradox viii, 4–7, 22, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 35
Olbers’ so-called paradox 3–7
old red galaxies 419–420
ΩΛ and the statistics of gravitational lenses 390–392
opening up of the electromagnetic spectrum 250–253
origin of the spectrum of primordial perturbations 448–456
origin of the testing of relativistic theories of gravity in the USA 348–350
origin of the universe and Lemaître’s primeval-atom hypothesis 106–110
origins of the universe 513–520
orthodoxy and heterodoxy in cosmology 121–123
overdetermination of constants 509–511
Palomar 200-inch telescope 206
Palomar 48-inch Schmidt Sky Survey 227
papal cosmology address 191, 205
pause in the 1970s 312–313
pedagogical interlude—distances and times in cosmology 438–443
perfect cosmological principle 32, 180, 500–501, 507
period–luminosity relation for Cepheid variables 5862, 69, 208
Perrin, argument for atomism 510, 511
phantom energy 488, 489, 491
philosophical issues 163, 180, 182, 184–187, 190, 192, 193, 205
phoenix universe 3
physical eschatology 15
physical eschatology 485–489
physics horizon 511–513
physics of the development of small perturbations with cosmic epoch 236–242
Planck constraints on assumptions underlying the standard model and other physical quantities 333–335
Planck era 460–462
Planck project 432, 436
Planck values of the six cosmological parameters 332–333
plasma cosmology 34, 38, 120, 122, 141–145, 160
plasma models, antimatter, and the metagalaxy 139–145
pocket universes 519, 523–525, 530
polarization and degeneracies 339–340
polarization of the CMB radiation 432, 436
poor man’s accelerator 512
popular cosmology books 166, 167
post-recombination era 408–413
power spectrum of CMB anisotropies and what it tells us 330–332
power spectrum of CMB fluctuations 322–325
pre-Big Bang physics 484
precision cosmology xi, 156, 328, 329, 340, 424, 508
precursor observations of the CMB 297–299
predictions and cosmological tests 192–198
predictions in general relativity 503–504
Press–Schechter formalism revisited 411–413
Press–Schechter model of hierarchical clustering 241–242
primaeval-atom hypothesis 213
primary (intrinsic) fluctuations in the CMB 320–322
primeval-atom hypothesis 162, 205
primordial fluctuation problem 434–435
primordial gravitational waves 436, 444, 448, 456
principle of sufficient reason 500
proton decay 486, 487
pulsars, averaged pulse profiles at different frequencies 362
QSSC theory 201, 202
quadrupole and related signals in the CMB 309
quantised harmonic oscillator 453–454
quasars 194, 200
quasars and their close relatives, discovery of 255–258
radar detection of intercontinental ballistic missiles 363
radar images of target surfaces 363
(p. 600) radar measurements of planetary rotational and orbital motions 363
radar, application of, to investigate the cosmos 355, 363–365, 368
radiation-dominated era 233–235
radio astronomy and cosmology 217–220
radio astronomy and the birth of high energy astrophysics 253–255
radio astronomy facilities in the USSR 352–353
radio astronomy, extragalactic radio sources, quasars, and pulsars 253–260
radio cosmology 198, 199, 205
radio jets and radio hot-spots 273–274
radio pulsars and tests of general relativity 287
radio quiet quasars 281–282
radioactivity 18, 19
Rand Corporation report, led by Lyman Spitzer 362
Raychaudhuri equation 514
redshift 77, 90–93, 95
redshift–diameter test 198
redshift–distance relation 64–74, 77, 89, 92, 93, 95, 74, 77, 89, 92, 93, 95, 96
redshift–distance relationships 64–68
redshift–magnitude relation 208, 210
redshift–magnitude test 198
redshifts without expansion 145–149
redshifts, non-cosmological 161, 261
relativistic astrophysics to 1945 245–250
relativistic astrophysics, cosmology becomes part of 371
relativistic phenomena in galactic and extragalactic astrophysics 273–276
religious issues 190
remaining tensions in determining cosmological constants 341–342
rise of astrophysics 7–14
Robertson–Walker metric 77, 111
robotics, for USSR Lunar modules 365
rocky road ahead: cosmology’s transition into a ‘postmodern’ epoch 490–492
Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), massive black hole in 271, 272
Sakharov’s rules 459
Sandage’s assessment of the route to the determination of cosmological parameters (1961) 211–212
scalar fields 452–453
scalar-tensor (ST) theories 120, 136
selected supporting observations for cosmological parameters 340–341
semi-analytic models of galaxy formation 420–423
Shapiro time-delay 364, 368
shrinking Hubble sphere 449–452
singularities 514–515
singularity theorems 507, 515
singularity theorems of Penrose and Hawking 462
Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 282, 284, 406–408
small amplitude anisotropies of the CMB 306–307
smaller scale anisotropies caused by interaction with intervening matter 309–311
solar luminosity 131
Solvay conference 167, 188
space-time diagrams for the critical world model Ω0 = 1, ΩΛ = 0 440
space-time diagrams for the reference world model Ω0 = 0.3, ΩΛ = 0.7 442–443
special and general relativity—their significance for astrophysics and cosmology 245–246
spectrograph 54, 55
spectroscope 8, 9, 10, 11, 9, 10, 11, 47–49
spectrum of fluctuations in the scalar field 454–456
speed of light, varying (VSL) 134, 147
spiral nebulae 53–56
spiral nebulae 46, 51, 54, 57, 59–61, 74
Spitzer Space Telescope 285
static models of the universe 66, 69
status of the ΛCDM model 509–513
status of the cosmological constant Λ to 1980 226–227
steady-state alternative 179–184
steady-state model of the universe 207, 212
steady-state theory 163, 170, 179–194, 196, 198–205, 497, 500–504, 507, 513, 526
Stebbins–Whitford effect 194, 196
stellar energy production 164, 167
string cosmology 482–485
string cosmology xii, 468, 471, 483
structure and galaxy formation 392–423
submillimetre number counts of galaxies 417
Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect 341, 357
superhorizon scales 397
superluminal radio sources 274–275
supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei 270–273
swan songs of the steady-state universe 198–203
‘Swiss cheese’ models 509
term big bang 182
testing the isotropy of the CMB 304–306
testing the spectrum of the CMB 299–304
(p. 601) theories of initial conditions 518–520
thermal history of the Universe 232–236
thermalization hypothesis 200
thermodynamics 3, 9, 14–19, 36
thermodynamics and the universe 14–19
tighter upper limits on anisotropy of the CMB 318–319
timescale problem 126, 147
timescales, two 127
‘tired-light’ hypotheses 145, 148
topological defects 457–459
triple-alpha process 176, 196
triple-alpha resonance 216
Tully–Fisher relation 210
20-foot reflector 40, 42
2dF Quasar Redshift survey 282
2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey 387, 401, 405–407
two-point correlation functions 225, 228
underdetermination in cosmology 502–513
unification, particle physics and cosmology 513
unified models for active galaxies 278–279
uniqueness of cosmology 498–502
universe finite or infinite 28
USSR firsts, some examples of 360–362
V/Vmax or luminosity–volume test 281
values of the cosmological parameters 435
variations on a theme of cold dark matter 403–405
varying constants of nature 128–135
velocity–distance relation 66
Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) 352, 353, 366–368
Virgo cluster of galaxies 210, 211
VSL cosmology 134, 159
way ahead in solving the big problems 435–436
Weyl’s principle 93, 110, 118
what a precise value of T0 brings to cosmology 329–330
what the power spectrum of polarized anisotropies tells us 335–340
white dwarfs, supernovae, and neutron stars 246–248
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 227, 328
WIMPs 430–432
X- and γ-ray astronomy 263–269
X-ray astronomy, birth of 263–265
X-ray binaries, neutron stars, and black holes 265–268
X-ray fluorescence lines in active galactic nuclei 277–278
XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory 278, 284
Yerkes Observatory 52, 53
Zeldovich approximation 239–240, 410–411
zone of avoidance 51, 56
zone of dispersion 51