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date: 05 June 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter examines the events that shaped Kenya’s democratization, from the reintroduction of multi-partyism in 1992 to the popular rejection of a new Constitution in 2005. The chapter shows how, in the face of strong benefits of incumbency and a government set on staying in power, a divided opposition lost to President Moi and the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) in both the 1992 and 1997 elections. In 2002, the opposition finally united in the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) and ousted KANU and Moi’s chosen successor, but optimism soon faded as former allies in NARC turned against each other and set the country on a perilous path ahead of the 2007 elections. The chapter also draws attention to a longer—and more successful—struggle for constitutional reform that was fought throughout the same period and which laid the groundwork for post-2007 reforms, including a more transformative Constitution in 2010.

Keywords: democratization, multi-partyism, NARC, KANU, regime change, regime transition

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