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date: 24 November 2020

(p. 902) (p. 903) Index

(p. 902) (p. 903) Index

Abdulai, A. 415, 421
Abebe, G. 676n
Adal, Y. 57
Adama 4, 708, 788, 791, 798
Addis Ababa 3–4, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 459, 462, 562–3
child under-nutrition 402
Climate Resilience and Green Economy (CRGE) strategy 301
coffee sector 512
demography 369–70, 374–5
dispute resolution 105
education and economic development 434n, 436, 439
federalism 67, 72, 74
Imperial regime 35, 36
industrial policy and late industrialization 608
industrial workforce 671, 676n, 680n
infrastructure and economic transformation 198–9
land tenure and land policy 52n
manufacturing sector 637–8
mobility/migration in border regions 275
political economy under EPRDF 43
poverty and inequality 342
private sector 696
technological learning and industrialization 731
urbanization and industrial development 788, 790, 792, 795, 796, 798
Addis Ababa Chamber of Commerce and Sectoral Associations 692
Addis Ababa City Council 88
Addis Ababa-Djibouti Development Corridor 795
Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway 4, 200, 900
Addis Ababa Light Rail project 193, 198, 200
Addis Ababa–Oromia Integrated Development Plan 87–8, 92
Addis Ababa University 437, 679
Adem, B. 85n
Adere 43
Adhikari 294
Adimassu, Z. 418n
Admassie, A. 384, 392–3, 394
Administration of the Airports 880
Afar 43, 105, 372, 402, 417n, 557, 594
education and economic development 434n, 436
federalism 67, 72–3, 85
livestock production 572, 575
mobility/migration in border regions 269, 276, 277
poverty and inequality 342, 344
urbanization and industrial development 789, 790
Africa Development Bank (AfDB) 71n, 162, 183, 200–1, 223–4, 312
African Economic Outlook 355
African Center for Economic Transformation (ACET) ‘DEPTH’ framework 886–90
‘African Transformation Report’ (2014) 888, 890–1, 893
African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) 241, 245, 246
African Economic Commission 292
African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA)(United States) 121, 239, 246, 704, 856
African Mining Vision 139
African Regional Integration Index 128–9
African Transformation Report 138
African Union (AU) 139
African Union-led peacekeeping mission in Somalia (AMISOM) 115
(p. 904) Africa Regional Integration Index 129
Africa Task Force meeting of the Initiative for Policy Dialogue 846
Agaw 49
Agricultural Commercialization Clusters (ACC) initiative 895
Agricultural Development-Led Industrialization (ADLI) 11, 12–13, 450, 453–5, 465, 737
assessment and challenges 456–60
economic policy and structural transformation 144, 146–7, 148
financing development 176
industrial policy dialogue with Japan 849
industrial policy and late industrialization 611
infrastructure and economic transformation 193–4, 199, 203
political economy under EPRDF 44
rural–urban linkages 763
sectoral policies 875
smallholder crop production 472, 482
urbanization and industrial development 786, 793
Agricultural Growth Programme (AGP) 310, 496, 498, 575
agricultural marketing board 142
Agricultural Marketing Corporation 145, 610
agricultural markets 556–67
allocative efficiency 562
brokers 560
commercialization 559
contextual changes 557–8
data 557
diet change 557
drought 566
Ethio-chicken model 561
exchange rates 558
exports/imports 566, 567
income growth 557
inflation 558
infrastructure development 557
international trade 565–7
number of aid beneficiaries 566
local markets 558–65
degree of market integration of Addis Ababa with other cereal wholesale markets 562
expansion 558–9
market performance 561–5
price seasonality in cereals 565
real value of commercial agricultural surplus 559
supply chains, change of structure in 560–1
long-run growth 562
marketing margins 563
market integration 562–3
market reforms 558
meher season 564
modern system 556
policy reform 557
population growth 557, 558
price adjustments 563
price transmission 562
retail and food distribution 561
road networks 557–8
rural areas/rural population 558, 559
seasonality 563–5
telecommunications 558
traders 560
traditional system 556
transaction costs 563
transitional system 556
urban population/urbanization 557, 558, 559
value chains 556
wholesale market prices 563 see also specific crops
agricultural sector 4, 6, 8, 10, 29, 449–65, 900
adverse shocks 145, 147
African Center for Economic Transformation (ACET) ‘DEPTH’ framework 889
areas cultivated 452
between-sector productivity 453
capital accumulation 449
Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) strategy 294
consumption patterns 461
credit constraints 145
demography 369, 370
developmental state 829
disaster prevention 146
distribution networks 463
domestic markets 454
drought 145–6
(p. 905)
dual-economy models 449–50, 451, 459
early warning 146
economic diplomacy and regional integration 119, 120, 121
economic policy and structural transformation 138–9, 141, 142, 144–8, 155–6
education and economic development 442
Ethiopian Investment Commission (EIC) 868–9
extension coverage 458
farm size 146
federalism 71, 81
fertilizer use 452, 453, 456n, 458
financial balances 215, 222, 227
financing development 185, 186
food imports 462
food inflation 146
food price rises 146, 454
food security and economic policy 386–7, 390–1, 396
forced resettlement 145
forward and backward linkages 455, 460
gas and oil 148
growth, poverty and distribution 357
growth in retrospective 451–3
industrialization 460
industrial policy and late industrialization 605, 610–11, 613, 624
industrial workforce 672–3
infrastructure and economic transformation 145–6, 193, 207, 209–10
investments, large-scale 89–90
job creation 459
labour productivity 51, 450
land productivity 51
macro models 455
manufacturing sector: productivity, export and competitiveness 655, 657–8
manufacturing sector: structure and performance 632, 637, 643
modern inputs 458
non-metal sector 148
operationalized investment projects 697
pastoralism 456n
pesticides 453
population size 147
poverty and inequality 330, 331, 333, 335, 451–2, 458, 459
private sector 691, 696, 698, 699, 701
productivity growth/trends 145, 450
road networks 456
rural areas 450–1
rural incomes 454, 458
rural transformation 11
rural–urban linkages 763, 766, 767, 769, 771, 772, 779, 783
rural–urban migration 453
savings 454
sectoral policies and structural transformation 878–9
seeds, improved 453, 458
smallholders 145
special economic zones 809, 810
structural change 450
structural transformation 452, 454, 809–10
subsidized credit 463
subsistence sector 449–50
technological learning and industrialization 737
trade policy 231, 235, 237, 238, 240
trade protection 463
transformation, lessons in 892, 895
urban areas 450–1
urban demand 460–5
urbanization and industrial development 453, 459, 791, 796, 797
value added 450, 452
value chains 463, 464n
villagization programmes 145
within-sector productivity 453
women’s empowerment in rural areas 588
Agricultural Transformation Agency (ATA) 894–5
agro-pastoralism 276
(p. 906) agro-processing sector 120, 451, 463, 772, 796, 887
Ethiopian Investment Commission (EIC) 860, 868–9
infrastructure and economic transformation 192
private sector 691
rural–urban linkages 766–7, 768, 771, 779, 783
sectoral policies and structural transformation 877
technological learning and industrialization 726
urbanization and industrial development 793, 795
Ahma, W. 491
Ahmed, A. 78
Akyuz, Y. 735
Al-Amoudi, Sheik 544, 711
Alderman, H. 415
Alemu, G. 653n
Allison, S. 309n
Almeda Textile 831
Alsop, R. 600
Alwero dam (Gambella) 192
Amaro 530
Ambachew, A. 636n
Ambrasäl 57
Amede, T. 471n
American System of Political Economy 430
Amhara 14, 41, 43, 105, 276, 496, 575, 676n
child under-nutrition 401, 402
developmental state 834, 837, 839
federalism and development 67, 69, 72, 73–4, 78, 83, 85
land tenure and land policy 49, 51
manufacturing sector 637–8
poverty and inequality 342, 344
social protection 416, 422–3
urbanization and industrial development 789, 790, 798
Amhara Credit and Savings Institute (ACSI) 495
Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM) 77, 711
Amhara National Regional State 208
Amiti, M. 816
Amsden, A.H. 177, 538, 607–8, 670, 675, 680–1, 688, 718, 825, 827, 836
Andersson, C. 147, 419
Ang, J.B. 163, 164
animal hides and skins see leather and leather goods sector
Anker, R. 552
apparel and textiles industry 8, 704–19, 899
assembly or cut-make-trim (CMT) manufacture 706, 714–15, 717
Climate Resilience and Green Economy (CRGE) strategy 302
developmental state 829–30, 835, 837
Development Bank of Ethiopia (DBE) loans 707, 711, 712–13, 714, 716–18
economic diplomacy and regional integration 121, 142
Ethiopian Investment Commission (EIC) 716, 860, 868–9
exports 707–11
full package (FOB) supplier 706, 714, 717
global sourcing and merchandising networks 706
import substitution 718
industrial parks 704, 707–8, 709, 715–16, 718–19
industrial policy and late industrialization 608–9, 610, 614, 618, 625
industrial workforce 680
intra-firm capabilities 706
Japanese perspective of Ethiopia’s transformation 852
labour productivity/turnover 719
linkages 719
manufacturing and economic transformation 150, 151, 152
manufacturing sector: structure and performance 632, 634–6, 637–40
opportunities and challenges 705–7
original brand manufacturing (OBM) 706
original design manufacturer (ODM) 706, 715
overview of firms 710
phase 1 industrial policy 711–13
phase 2 industrial policy 713–15
(p. 907)
phase 3 industrial policy 715–17
preferential trade agreements 706
private sector 699–700
privatization 709
reciprocal control mechanisms 718
rural–urban linkages 767, 774–6, 778, 780–1
single-transformation rules of origin 704n
special economic zones and structural transformation 809, 811–12
tacit knowledge 706
tariffs 718n
technological learning and industrialization 730
trade policy 231–2, 235, 237, 238
urbanization and industrial development 793, 795
women-based industry 705
working capital 717
Arada 22
Arega, F. 859–60, 862, 871
Arsi 476, 530
Arvid 811, 813
Asfaw, W. 276
Asmara 26, 608
Assab 35, 39, 127, 130
Assefa, T. 561
Assosa 788, 791
Atje, R. 164
Aviation Academy 880
aviation sector 126–7, 143, 192, 227 see also Ethiopian Airlines (EAL)
Awash 58, 207, 609
Awash–Woldia–Mekele railway 197
Awassa 275, 280, 530
Ayalew, L. 82n
Bachewe, F. 148, 462, 482, 560, 564
Bahir Dar 708, 709, 788, 791, 795
Bahir Dar Urban Cluster 796
baking sector 560
balance of payments crisis 5
‘Balance of Payments Highway’ 4
Bale 36, 476
Balema, A. 609n
bamboo 300
Banerjee, A. 491
Bank of Ethiopia 27
barley 294, 457, 477, 483, 565, 779, 780–1
Barrett, C. 415, 421
Baulch, B. 279
Baykedagn, G. 430
Becker, G. 429
Bedi, A.S. 653n
beef sector see cattle sector
Bekele 53n
Belete, K.M. 255n
Bench Maji 530–1
Benfica, R. 560
Benishangul 69, 72, 789, 790
Benishangul-Gumuz 43, 67, 72, 105, 342, 344, 402, 575
Berhane, G. 416n, 417, 419, 420–1
Berthelemy, J. 354
beverages sector 235, 560, 608, 610, 614, 625
manufacturing and economic transformation 150, 152
manufacturing sector: structure and performance 634–5, 636, 637, 638–9
rural-urban linkages 767, 772–3, 774–5, 776, 778, 779, 780–1
Bigsten, A. 653n
bilateral development agencies 899
biodiesel and bioethanol 301
Bishoftu 4
Blattman, C.J. 551
Bole Lemi 808, 810, 813, 821
Bole Lemi Industrial Park 708, 715, 716, 851, 876
Borena 269, 275, 276, 277, 280, 530
Boudreau, T. 278–9
brewery industry 640
British Mitchell Cotts 35
Broussar, N.H. 442n
Brummund, P. 421
Bureau of Education 433
Case, A. 320n
cassava 392
Castilla, C. 395
Cately, A. 276
cattle sector 461n, 483, 780–1 see also livestock production; meat sector
Cement Corporation 29
(p. 908) cement industry 152, 302, 634, 640, 730
industrial policy and late industrialization 610, 614, 616, 620–1
Central Personnel Agency 29
Central Statistical Agency (CSA) 29
agricultural sector 452n, 458
coffee sector 251, 509–10, 530
demography 367, 369
economic policy and structural transformation 149, 152, 851
financial balances 221n
floriculture 550
growth, poverty and distribution 357
livestock production 571, 574, 578, 582
manufacturing sector 634, 656–7
poverty trends 308, 311
rural finance and smallholder farming 488–9, 491, 496
smallholder crop production 474n
urbanization and industrial development 789
women’s empowerment in rural areas 590
Central Statistical Agency (CSA) Annual Agricultural Sample Survey (AgSS) 310, 469n, 471, 557, 558, 571–2, 591
Central Statistical Agency (CSA) Household Income and Consumption Expenditure Surveys (HICES) 766, 771
Central Statistical Agency (CSA) Labour Force Survey (LFS) 584, 672n, 691–2
Central Statistical Agency (CSA) LMSM survey report 699–700
Central Statistical Agency (CSA) Pastoralist Survey 572
cereals sector 145, 146, 452, 457, 458, 557, 558, 561, 562, 564, 565
Climate Resilience and Green Economy (CRGE) strategy 294
economic policy and structural transformation 156
food security and economic policy 388, 392, 393
injera 461–2
mobility/migration in border regions 277
rural–urban linkages 766, 767, 768
smallholder crop production 470, 477 see also specific crop entries
CGCOC (China) 814
Chang, H.-J. 162, 826
chat/khat 122, 277, 477, 559, 566, 699
Chefneux 21–2
chemical industry 150, 152, 610, 636, 638–9
Ethiopian Investment Commission (EIC) 860, 868–9
trade policy 235, 237
Chenery, H. 140
Cheru, F. 183, 610–11
child under-nutrition 399–410
breastfeeding practices 400, 404, 406, 407–8, 410
complementary feeding practices 400, 404, 406, 407, 408, 410
data 400
dietary outcomes 408
growth collapse 403
height-for-age Z-scores 400
illnesses/infections 400, 406, 408–10
maternal body mass index (BMI) 404–5, 410
maternal malnutrition/underweight 400, 405
maternal overweight or obesity 399n, 404, 406
minimum meal frequency 408
National Nutrition Program 399
postnatal health conditions 404
poverty rates 399
rural areas 401–6, 408, 410
stunting/stunting reduction 400, 401–2, 404–10
age dynamics 402–4
breastfeeding practices 406, 407–8
infection risks 408–10
maternal health 404–5
rural areas 403–4
urban areas 403–4
urban areas 401, 402, 403–6, 408
wealth 401
Chinese Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) 813
Chole, E. 609n, 610
Christiansen, L. 415, 458n
Civil Code 30
(p. 909) civil litigation 105–9
administrative justice 108–9
human capital 106
Clapham, C. 824, 828, 834
Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) Facility Fund 188
Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) strategy 196, 288–304
assumptions, rationale and targets 290–1
bioethanol/biogas 303
biomass 302–3
business as usual (BAU) scenario 288, 295, 302
carbon pricing 304
climate change, impacts of 294–5
coordination, vertical and horizontal 304
deforestation and forest degradation 302–3
drought 294, 298
early warning tools 298
emission reduction targets 292, 295–7
energy sector 297, 304
flooding 294, 301
foreign exchange earnings 303
GDP growth and emission targets and sectoral composition 296
GHG emissions 288, 296–7
global carbon taxation scheme 293
green development path 293–4
green electricity 296
hotspots assessments 298
implementation: challenges and progress 295–303
indoor air pollution 302–3
institutional coordination 304
irrigation 299
landslides 294
land-user rights registration and certification 298
local impacts 289
mortality, infant and child 301
natural capital 294
new development paradigm necessity in Anthropocene 293–4
pastoralism 294
payment for ecosystem services 304
pollution and environmental impacts minimization 292
poverty reduction 294
rail networks 301
rainfall variability 289
resource planning 304
sectoral adaptation/resilience strategies 289
soil erosion and soil nutrient depletion 294, 298
sustainable agricultural water management 299
sustainable energy transition, acceleration of 302–3
sustainable forest management 299–300
sustainable industrialization 301–2
sustainable urbanization, mobility and living conditions 300–1
temperature increase 289, 294
waste gas management 301
water and sanitation 304
weather index insurance 299
climate-smart agricultural policies (CSA) 298
Coalition for Unity and Democracy (CUD) 81n
Coffee Marketing Corporation (CMC) 512
coffee plantations (private) 521–35
agronomic knowledge/techniques 523
akrabe (coffee processors) 528–9
Arabica coffee 525–6
auction (Addis Ababa) 529
auctions 525
capital accumulation 532, 534
cooperatives/cooperative unions 525–6, 528
direct export 531–2
dynamic exporters 531–3
education 532
Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) 525, 528–9, 532, 534
exporters 528–9
high-quality coffee 522, 525
imperial state 521, 523–4
intensive planting 523
labour costs 533
land grabbing 531
land holdings 529–31
large and medium-scale commercial farms 530
liberalization 525, 534
migration/migrant wage labour 523, 533
(p. 910)
nationalization 524
peasant associations (kebeles) 524
personal networks 531
privatization 524
quality 532–3
smallholders 527, 530
specialty coffee 525, 531, 533
state farms 533
taxation 524
traceability of specialty coffee 525, 529
yields 524
coffee sector: policy, political economy and performance 249–66
annual rate of growth of export quantities 253
Arabica beans 252–3
area cultivated 251–2
balance of payments 249
capitalist class 249–50
climate change 250, 257n, 263
cooperatives 258–61
corruption 255, 256
crises 250
domestic/export split 251
electricity grid 263
Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) 255–6, 257, 259, 266
export earnings 249
extension services 260–2
failures 252–7
export performance, poor 252–3
false trade-off between domestic consumption and exports 253–4
high quality coffee, too low a share of in total output 255
institutional and policy framework, failing 255–7
research and development, weak 257
yields, low 254–5
fertilizer 262, 264
foreign exchange 249, 252, 256
identity-preserved (IP) coffee 256
improvements: recent proposals 257–60
increasing export revenues 260–1
inefficiency 256
International Coffee Agreement, collapse of 250
larger farms 262
living standards 249
malpractice 257
marketing, warehousing and trading 255
micro farmers 263
price trends 252
production 252
public-sector investment 261
quality 255–6
revenue increases 261–5
Priority 1: public investment programme in restocking 262–3
priority 2: infrastructure investment 263
priority 3: targeted incentives 264
priority 4: data and R&D capabilities investment 264–5
priority 5: institutional reforms 265
road networks 263
smallholder producers, contribution of 257–60
smallholders 261, 262
specialty coffee market 255
strategic significance 251
structural change 250
subsidies 264
traceability 255–6, 266
wet processing 264
world coffee consumption 251
yield 252, 260, 262
coffee sector 5, 11, 29, 147, 148, 462–3, 505–17, 556, 559, 566
Arabica coffee 506, 507, 516
certification schemes 517
climate change 516–17
Climate Resilience and Green Economy (CRGE) strategy 300
cooperatives/cooperative unions 514–15
deforestation 516
domestic consumption 506
dry processing 511
Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) 513–14, 517
expansion of production area 509–10
exports to EU and USA 506
financial balances 225
(p. 911)
food security and economic policy 391
forest 508
garden 508
geographic origin 511
governance issues and prospects for transformation 516–17
high-quality coffee 511
Imperial regime 36
infrastructure 263
institutions 512–14
land degradation 516
liberalization 513
licencing system 512–13
location of coffee production 508
manufacturing sector: structure and performance 632
minimum export prices 513
nationalization 512
new forms of production and marketing 514–16
‘outcry’ auction (Addis Ababa) 513
peasant associations (kebeles) 512
plantations 508, 514
political economy 34
private sector 699
privatization 508
production, consumption and export 509–11
quality 511
rural service cooperatives 512
sectoral policies and structural transformation 877, 878, 880
selective harvesting 511
semi-forest 508
smallholder farmers 477, 508–9
specialty coffee 507n, 511, 514, 517
state-owned plantations 508
strip harvesting 511
taxation 512–13
technological learning and industrialization 724
traceability 511, 514, 517
trade policy 237
voluntary sustainability standards (VSSs) and certification 514–16
wet processing 511
world market and global coffee production 506
Coffee Sector Advisory Council 266
Coffee and Tea Development Authority 266
Coll-Black, S. 416n
Collier, P. 655
Commercial Bank of Ethiopia (CBE) 29, 169, 180, 186, 199, 259, 615, 833
Commercial Code 30
Commercial Nominees 29
Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA) 128, 245, 246
Preferential Trade Agreement 241
Compagnie Commerciale Franco-Africaine 18
Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modelling 295, 423–4, 455
Comtrade data 561
Constitution 24, 43, 67, 75, 113, 590–3, 792
federalism 81, 82, 83–5, 87, 88–91
foreign direct investment (FDI) legal framework 744, 745, 746n
constitutional framework and legal institutions for development 95–111
adjudication 109–10
administrative justice 108–9
authentication and registration of documents 98
centralized and decentralized models 109
Chief Justice 109
civil laws enactment 97–8
civil litigation 105–9
Civil Procedure Code (CPC) 105–6
commercial law 97
common law 105–6
common property 99
complaints procedure 110
constitutional interpretation 109–11
deregulation 102
dispose the property (abusus) 99, 101
dispute resolution 104–5
economic performance 108, 111
economic, social and development policy 97
enjoy the fruits (fructus) 99, 101
(p. 912)
federal courts 105, 107
Federal High Court 108
Federal House of Representatives (HPPR) 98
Federal Supreme Court 104–5, 110
First Instance Court 104
framework powers 100
High Court 104
House of the Federation (HoF) 96, 98, 105, 109–11
House of Peoples Representatives 105
human rights 96, 109
incentive packages 102
industrial parks 101
investment law developments 102–4
investment laws 102–3
judicial adventurism and activism 109
judicial decisions 110
judiciary independence 96
justice reforms 106
labour law 97
land ownership and administration 98–101
land use by investors 100
land use rights 110
legal institutions 101–2
minimum capital requirements 102
optimum duration for cases 108
peasants and pastoralists 100
policymaking and civil laws enactment 97–8
powers, division of 96–8
private property ownership 110
procedural justice 106
processing time for cases 108
property rights 110
right to use (usus) 99, 101
rural land 101
self-determination 98
separation of powers 96
social and economic development 106
substantive and procedural concepts 106
Supreme Court 104, 110
taxation powers 97–8
transportation 97
tribunals 108–9
two-thirds majority vote 105
urban planning 101
construction industry 29, 199, 697, 698, 793, 837
economic diplomacy and regional integration 119, 120
infrastructure and economic transformation 199
manufacturing sector: structure and performance 632, 634, 636, 641
consultancy services 120
Consumer Price Index (CPI) 336, 557
Continental Free Trade Area 877
cookies and biscuits sector 462
cooking oil sector 874
Cooperative Unions 256, 259
cotton sector 35, 276, 464n, 608–9
Council of Constitutional Inquiry (CCI) 109–11
Cramer, C. 207, 318n, 392n, 516, 548n, 683
Credit Suisse 188
criminal code (1930) 24
crops
bamboo 300
barley 294, 457, 477, 483, 565, 779, 780–1
cassava 392
cotton 35, 276, 464n, 608–9
enjera (staple pancake) 561
enset 392
fruit and vegetables 148, 208, 278, 461, 477, 561, 768, 780–1
grains 471, 474, 556, 560–1, 566n
injera (cereal) 461–2
mace 237
palm oil 388
pulses 470, 477, 480, 699, 766, 768, 780–1
rice 388, 462, 463
sesame 276, 559
spices 237, 556
staple crops 208, 384, 391, 450, 460–4, 564
taro and sweet potato 310
tea 237, 469
Current Investment Law 746, 748–50, 752, 753
Customs Authority 867
Customs Ministry 864, 871
(p. 913) dairy sector 147, 461n, 463, 483, 560, 571, 575, 578
mobility/migration in border regions 279, 283
rural–urban linkages 780–1
Danish International Development Agency 813
Däsé Zuriya Awrajas 57
Davis, A.P. 252n
DBL (Bangladesh) 708–9
De Aghion, B.A. 163
Deaton, A. 320n
Debela, B.L. 420
debt sustainability analysis (DSA) 560
Dedebit Credit and Savings Institution (DECSI) 495
Degufeė, T. 208n
Dejene, A. 471n
Demetriades, P.O. 164
Demile, A. 700
Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) 316, 387, 400
demography 366–81
age structure 376–9, 381
altitude 369
area 366
children under age 15 376–7, 381
climate 369
data and methods 367
demographic dividend 366
demographic windows of opportunity 379–81
education/maternal education 374–5, 376, 381
elderly population 376–8, 381
epidemics, decline of 368
famine 368
fertility trends/rates 366, 374–6, 378, 379, 380, 381
financial inclusion 381
health and health services 368, 374, 376, 381
income 366
industrial-led development 371
job opportunities 380–1
life expectancy 366, 373–4, 379, 381
lifestyle improvements 374
living standards 368
marriage trends, changes in 372
mortality 366, 367–8, 372–4, 376, 378, 379, 381
national population policy 368
old-age dependency ratio 379
political repression 368
population age pyramids 377–8
population distribution 369, 370–1
population size and growth 366, 367–9, 370, 371, 372, 380
regional planning commissions 369
religious and cultural norms and values 372
reproductive behaviour/family planning 372, 375–6
rural areas 371, 374–5
rural–urban migration 370
social security plans 381
socio-economic development 381
soil conditions 369
state-led industrial development 369
total fertility rate (TFR) 374–5
urban areas/urbanization 369–71, 374–5, 376
water and sanitation 374
working-age population 376–7, 380, 381
youth dependency ratio 379
Deng Xiaoping 750n
Deprivation Index (SDI) 313–15, 317–18, 320–1
Dercon, S. 452, 454–5, 458n, 459, 551
Dereje, M. 391, 480n
Derg regime (1974–91) 6, 7, 39, 41, 42, 44
agricultural sector 39
apparel and textiles sector 709n
coffee sector 508, 512, 521, 524, 533
economic policy and structural transformation 138, 145
education and economic development 431
famine 39, 40
federalism 69, 70
floriculture 542
infrastructure and economic transformation 192
land tenure and land policy 54
manufacturing sector 642
migration 37
political economy 36–40
slow growth and static economic structure 142
smallholder crop production 472–3
(p. 914) Derg regime (1974–91), trade policy 233
Dervis, K. 455
Dessalegn, H. 37, 846, 851–2, 895
Dessie 25, 26, 27
Dessie-Kombolcha-Woldya Urban Cluster 796
developmental state 824–39
authoritarianism 827
bureaucracy, independence and power 827, 833, 835–6, 839
corruption 834
credit allocation 833
democracy 827
domestic private sector in manufacturing industry 839
East Asia developmental state model 825–7, 828–32, 835–6, 839
developmental orientation achieved through industrialization 831–2
intellectual channels and collaborations 828–9
neoliberalism, rejection of and state involvement 829–31
economic development 836–8
embedded autonomy 827
ethnic federalism 834, 837, 839
export-oriented manufacturing 829–30
export promotion 833
fertilizer factories 829
financial incentives 836
financial sector liberalization 829
five-year development plans 831, 838
foundations 825–8
health services 837
import substitution 829, 833
indirect subsidies 836
industrial parks 833
industrial policy 833, 834, 835, 837, 838
industrial sector/industrialization 829, 832, 838
infrastructure development and investment 829, 833, 837
intellectual influence 838
legitimization and economic development 832–4
life expectancy 837
mega-projects 829
neoliberalism, rejection of 838
performance legitimacy 834
political system 827
power/energy sector 837
private sector, state’s relationship with 835–6
railway system 829
reciprocal control mechanisms (RCMs) 827, 836
sectoral targeting 833
skills development 829
state-owned enterprises 838, 839
structural reforms 829
Development Assistance Group (DAG) 183
Development Bank of Ethiopia (DBE) 26, 29, 160–1, 169n, 170, 186
apparel and textiles industry 707, 711, 712–13, 714, 716–18
developmental state 830, 833
floriculture 540
industrial policy and late industrialization 608, 615, 620
Devereux, S. 417, 419
De Waal, A. 14, 829
DFID (UK aid agency) 714
Didier, T. 165
Di John, J. 207
Dillon, B. 421
Dinh Vu Trang Ngan 318n
Dire Dawa 21–4, 27, 43
agricultural sector 459
apparel and textiles sector 708
child under-nutrition 401, 402
coffee sector 512
demography 375
dispute resolution 105
education and economic development 434n
federalism 67, 69, 72, 86n
industrial policy and late industrialization 608
industrial workforce 677
infrastructure and economic transformation 198
mobility/migration in border regions 275, 280
(p. 915)
poverty and inequality 342
urbanization and industrial development 790, 795, 796
Dire Dawa-Jijiga Economic Cluster 798
Dire Dawa Special Economic Zone 798
Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Commission 389
distilled spirits sector 388
Djibouti 4, 21, 23, 126
Dolislager, M.D. 559
Dolo Ado 273
Dorosh, P. 455, 471n
DP World 277
Dufera, B. 92n
Duflo, E. 490–1
Dukem 677
Durevall, D. 146, 392
Dutch HVA 35
East Asian development model 8, 13, 45
Easterly, W. 209
Eastern Industrial Park 708, 808, 810, 812n, 814, 819, 821
Eastern Urban Cluster 796
ECGPEA 531n
eco-industrial parks/villages 302
Economic Council 29
economic diplomacy and regional integration 113–31
bilateral and multilateral cooperation 118
business process re-engineering (BPR) study 118
business-to-business meetings 119, 121
constitution 113
development assistance 118
EPRDF: foreign and economic policy 114–15
exports 121, 122, 130–1
external aid inflows 113
financial and macroeconomic integration 129
foreign and security policy 113, 115
free movement of people and productive integration 128–9
housing 116
imports 122, 123
infrastructure 114–17, 120, 123, 125, 129
integration as economic and political imperative 116–17
investment 118, 120, 124
irrigation projects 116
living standards 114
logistics 120
macroeconomic policy 130
merchandise trade 123
number of companies recruited by diplomatic missions 119–20
physical capital 116
policy misalignment 130
political stability 114
poverty 113, 115
primary commodities 121–2
productive integration 129
productivity 116
regional infrastructure 129
results and performance 118–21
road and rail networks 116, 125, 126–7
sectoral composition of companies recruited and conducted pre-investment 120
security challenges of terrorism and armed militias 115
self-determination 113
trade integration 129
undemocratic rule 113, 115
underdevelopment 115
economic policy and structural transformation 137–56
big push hypothesis 139–40
commodity prices 887
consumption expenditure 141
coordination 140
demand-driven structural change 140
deregulation 140
Derg regime (1974–91): slow growth and static economic structure 142
direct state intervention 140
diversification 155, 888
(p. 916)
employment 887
EPRDF: faster growth and slow structural transformation 143–4
exports 141, 888
forward and backward linkages 140, 141
global economic surges 887
household surveys 141
human capital 143, 155
human well-being 889–90
import penetration rate 141
income 140, 142
industry sector/industrialization 138–9, 141
inflation 890
infrastructure 142, 143, 155, 887, 890
investment 143
macroeconomic reforms 140, 143
market mechanisms 140
microeconomic reforms 143
micro- and meso-level data 141
path dependence 140–1
population growth 887
poverty/poverty reduction 138, 141, 144, 146, 887, 888, 890
productivity measures 888
pro-poor programmes 890
risk-taking 140
road and rail networks 143, 155
sector development programmes 143
‘shallow’ growth 887
skilled labour 140
specialization patterns 140
spillover effects 138
stabilization 140
structural change, conceptualizing 139–41
technology upgrades 888, 889
trade openness 140
unbalanced growth theory 140
Economic and Technical Development Zones (ETDZs) 815
Economist Intelligence Unit 125
education 10, 25–6, 30–1
agricultural sector 442
coffee plantations (private) 532
demography 374–5, 376, 381
developmental state 837
economic diplomacy and regional integration 115, 120
economic policy and structural transformation 140, 143
elementary level 25
federalism and development 81, 86–7
financial sector development 161, 164, 168
financing development 185
industrial policy and late industrialization 613
industrial workforce 678–81
infrastructure and economic transformation 192, 201, 202n, 203
manufacturing sector: productivity, export and competitiveness 666
manufacturing sector: structure and performance 643
operationalized investment projects 697
political economy 37
poverty and inequality 315–17, 319, 321, 331, 333
rural–urban linkages 773, 776
secondary level 25–6
smallholder crop production 476, 478, 480, 482
social protection 413
technological learning and industrialization 736
urbanization and industrial development 796 see also education and economic development
education and economic development 428–44
brain drain 428, 443–4
conceptual and theoretical framework 429–31
Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) 439
employment creation initiatives 442
external efficiency 428
formal employment 430
gender aspects 435–8
general education 434
gross enrolment rate (GER) 434–6
higher education 437–8, 439–40, 442n
human capital 428, 429, 430–1
(p. 917)
industrialization 432, 442, 444
major shortcomings in education system 438–43
economic structure, equality and external efficiency 440–3
vicious cycle of low-quality education 439–40
National Learning Assessments (NLA) 439
net enrolment rate (NER) 434–5
net intake rate (NIR) 434
organization and management of education system 433–4
outmigration 431
physical capital 429, 430–1
policies, strategies and programmes 431–3
poverty reduction 442
primary education 434–6, 439–42
quality of education 428
regional equity aspects 436
resource allocation 433
rural areas 441
school quality standards 440
secondary education 436, 439–42
structural transformation 431, 432, 442–4
teacher training 434
technical and vocational education and training (TVET) 434, 436–7, 439
total education sector expenditure 433
underemployment 428, 430–1, 444
unemployment 428, 430–1, 443–4
Universal Primary Education 432–3, 434
urban areas 441
vicious cycle 443–4
virtuous cycles 430
Zonal Educational Departments 433
Education Offices 433
Education Sector Development Programmes (ESDPs) 432, 438
Education and Training Boards 433
Education and Training Policy (ETP) 431–2, 439
EFFORT 711
Ege, S. 57, 61–2
EIB 634
Elazar, D. 84
electrical and electronic equipment sector 237
electricity 10
Climate Resilience and Green Economy (CRGE) strategy 302–3
Ethiopian Investment Commission (EIC) 863, 866–9, 871
federalism and development 86
financing development 185
infrastructure and economic transformation 191, 193, 194–5, 196, 199, 200–1, 207
rural–urban linkages 772, 777 see also hydropower; power/energy
electric vehicles 301
Ellis, G. 507n
Emergency Food Security Reserve Administration 879
Emergency Recovery and Reconstruction Program (ERRP) 143, 612n
Employment Generation Schemes (EGSs) 414–15
energy/power 29, 837
economic diplomacy and regional integration 114, 116–17, 119, 120, 125, 127–9, 131
economic policy and structural transformation 155
financing development 175, 183, 185
geothermal energy 9, 196
green energy 127
infrastructure and economic transformation 195, 197, 198, 199, 201
output 9
rural–urban linkages 772, 777
solar power 9
thermal energy 116
wind energy 9, 116, 196, 303 see also electricity; hydropower
Engel’s law 140
engineering sector 120, 851–2
Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF) 1 and 2 175, 180
enjera (staple pancake) 561
enset (crop) 392
EPRDF Electric Utility (EEU) 869
(p. 918) Eritrea 35, 69
Derg regime 39, 40
Imperial regime 38
independence (1993) 117, 456
mobility/migration in border regions 269, 271–3
no-war, no-peace 125, 130
political economy under EPRDF 44
Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF) 39–40, 70
Eritrean Relief Association (ERA) 39
Eritrea war (1998) 114, 642
Ethio-Djibouti Railway Company 29
Ethio-Djibouti railway project 126, 369, 607
Ethiopia–China 756–8, 813–14
Ethiopia Grain Trade Enterprise (EGTE) 558, 563
Ethiopia Horticulture Producers and Exporters Association (EHPEA) 540, 543, 548
Ethiopia–Kenya interconnection 128
Ethiopian Airlines (EAL) 29, 35, 126–7, 192n, 264, 614, 647
sectoral policies and structural transformation 879–81, 883
Ethiopian Chamber of Commerce and Sectoral Association (ECCSA) 118, 690, 896–7
Ethiopian Church 19
Ethiopian Climate Innovation Centre 890
Ethiopian Coffee Research Institute (formerly Jimma Agricultural Research Institute) 516–17
Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI) 295n, 696, 795
Ethiopian Electric Light and Power Authority 29
Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation (EEPCo) 193, 199, 201, 863
Ethiopian Electric Service 863
Ethiopian Grain Trading Enterprise (EGT) 557
Ethiopian Horticulture Development Agency (EHDA) 540, 543
Ethiopian Household Consumption Surveys 310n
Ethiopian Investment Agency 123, 125
Ethiopian Investment Commission (EIC) 102, 118, 123, 124n, 858–72, 899
auction prices 863
business licencing 864, 866–7, 869
commissioner/deputy commissioner 863, 864
community disputes 869
customs 864, 865, 866–7, 869, 871
damage and theft 869
designation as a Commission 862
effectiveness 865
evolving policy issues 851
export performance tracking 870–1
FDI 858
firm’s contact person (‘expert’) 863, 864
firms selection 860–1
industrial parks 871
job creation 860
liaison with other ministries 864
loan requests 869
minimum size criterion 860
new practices and procedures, establishment of 860
‘off committee’ 870
one stop shop 860
operational phase 860
Point Person 863, 864
practices and procedures, establishment of 861–2, 865
pre-operational phase 860
private sector 694
programme evaluation 865–70
caveats 865–6
pitfalls with metrics 869–70
resolution rates by sector 868–9
resolution rates by type of issue 866–8
unresolved issues 869
programme evolution (2015–17) 862–5
public–private sector cooperation 896–7
recurring issues 862
relationship-building programme establishment 859–60, 869–71
rural land 863
special economic zones (SEZs) 808, 811, 813
tabled issues 865–6
(p. 919)
urban land 863
Urban Land Proclamation 864
wider pay-offs 870–1
Ethiopian Investment Corporation 608
Ethiopian Kaizen Institute (EKI) 851–2
Ethiopian Leather and Leather Products Technology Institute 809
Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Consular Monitoring and Support Directorate 280
Ethiopian Ministry of Science and Technology 729
Ethiopian Orthodox Church 34
Ethiopian Panel on Climate Change (EPCC) 294
Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) 6, 7, 8–9, 143
agricultural sector 456
apparel and textiles sector 709, 712
coffee sector 513, 521, 524, 526–7, 534
developmental state 828, 830, 832, 834–5, 839
Development, Peace and Democracy Strategy 193n, 194
economic diplomacy and regional integration 113–15, 123, 143–4
economic policy and structural transformation 138
education and economic development 431, 437
faster growth and slow structural transformation 143–4
FDI 745
federalism 66, 70, 75, 76–7, 82
financial sector development 161, 175
foreign and economic policy 114–15
industrial policy and late industrialization 605, 611, 613n, 621
infrastructure and economic transformation 192, 193
institutional capacity 893
land tenure and land policy 48, 57–8, 61–2
political economy 33, 40–6
political leadership commitment and engagement 898
private sector 688
rural finance and smallholder farming 472–3, 494
social protection 414
trade policy 243
urbanization and industrial development 786 see also agricultural, development-led industrialization (ADLI) strategy
Ethiopian Privatization Agency 689
Ethiopian Public Private Consultative Forum (EPPCF) 690, 896
Ethiopian Railways Corporation (ERC) 126
Ethiopian Resilient Cities, Green Growth and Governance Programs and Packages (ECR-3G2P) 793
Ethiopian Revenue and Customs Authority (ERCA) 245, 557, 634, 870–1
Ethiopian Roads Authority 126
Ethiopian Rural Household Survey (ERHS) 260, 459
Ethiopian Rural Travel and Transport Sub-Program (ERTTP) 194
Ethiopian Shipping Lines 29, 864
Ethiopian Shipping and Logistics Service Enterprise (ESLSE) 117
Ethiopian Textile and Garment Industry Institute 809
Ethiopian Textile Industry Development Institute (TIDI) 713, 811, 813
Ethiopia Rural Socioeconomic Survey 319n
Ethiopia-United Kingdom 756–9
Ethio telecom 201
ethnic diversity and divisions 38, 42–3, 81–6
European Commission 255
European Union ‘Everything but Arms’ arrangements (EBA) 121, 239, 246, 704, 856
EU Trust Fund Research and Evidence Facility 276
Evans, P. 826, 827
Expenditure Management and Control Reform Programme 181
Export Promotion Strategy 732
Export Report meeting 870
Fairtrade 515–16, 542, 548
Fair Trade, Employment and Poverty Reduction Research (FTEPR) 314–15, 317, 319
(p. 920) Family and Fertility Survey 372
Fate Ledi 424
Federal Cooperatives Agency (FCA) 473, 495
federal investment board 90
federalism 66–78, 80–93
absolute poverty reduction 86
American federalism 82
assimilation 73
characteristics of federal arrangement 67–70
Constitution 81, 82, 83–5, 87, 88–91
corruption 77
corruption and rent-seeking 77
cultural diversity, management of 73–4
democratization challenges 75–6
developmentalism 91
devolution 75, 80
equitable representation 85
ethnic 7, 8, 834, 837
ethnic (language) boundaries 67
ethno-nationalism 81–6, 88
FDI 91
first-past-the-post (FPTP) electoral system 83
fragility 66n
geographic distribution of diversity 84
geographic or territorial-based federalism 82
House of Peoples’ Representatives 83
human development 87
human rights violations 75
income 87
infrastructure 70, 81, 86
investment 71, 90–2
land expropriation, rural and urban 89
land/land use 87, 89–90
language 85
legislative bodies 88
liberation movements 70
life expectancy 87
mortality, child and infant 72
nation building, factors undermining 74–5
political and economic marginalization 69–70
political violence, reduction in 74
poverty 71, 72–3
power sharing 82–3
proclamations 89–90
progress under 70–3
regional states 67
rent-seeking 77
results and emerging issues 86–92
Addis Ababa and the Surrounding Oromia Integrated Development Plan (2014) 88
land and large-scale agricultural investments 89–90
secession 68, 82, 84
self-determination 68, 82, 84–5
shared rule and self-rule 84–5, 87
subjugation 69–70
sub-nationalism 73
transparency, lack of 88
unity in diversity 82
youth unemployment 73
Federal Land Administration Proclamation 592
Feldman, S. 676
Felege Mayat 424
Ferrari, E. 251n
Ferro 319n
Feyisa, K. 276n
Feyissa, D. 275, 278, 279
Filipski, M. 423–4
Finance for Development 899
Finance Ministry 882
financial balances 213–28
accelerated public investment 227
balance of payments on current account 214–15, 217–18, 221–2, 223, 227
borrowing patterns 223
business as usual 227
central bank borrowing 226
concessional debt 224
consumption 214
crowding out 227
current account deficit 214, 216, 217, 218, 222, 225, 226, 227–8
debt implications and risks to sustained growth 214n, 223–5, 227
(p. 921)
disposable income 213–14
exchange rate 224–5, 227–8
expenditure 213
external balances 225
external sector 213, 214n, 220, 227
FDI 216n
financial assets 216
fiscal policy 213
foreign borrowing 223
foreign commercial banks 224
foreign creditors 224
foreign loans 225
global financial crisis 225
global liquidity 223
government balance 218–19
government deficit 222
government expenditure 227
government investment 219
government revenue 223
government savings 221
gross fixed capital formation 219
heterodox financing policies 226
imports 224
income inflows 218
industrial parks 222, 227
inflation 226, 227
infrastructure investment 227
interest rates 226
international capital markets 224
international reserves 223
investment 214, 219–20, 221, 222, 226–7
macroeconomics 214, 225–8
monetary policy 213
national accounts 215
national income identity 214–15
private balances 225
private investment 227
private sector 213–14, 215, 220–1, 227
public balances 225
publicly guaranteed debt (PPG) 223–5
public sector 213–14, 219, 220–2, 224, 226–7
rail networks 227
resource gap 222n
road networks 227
savings 216, 221, 225, 226
social accounting matrices (SAMs) 216n, 222n
SOEs 215, 220, 222, 222n, 223
stock-flow 214
surpluses 214
US monetary policy, expansionary 223
wealth-to-income ratio 214
financial sector development 6, 159–73
asset holdings 166
bail-outs 166
bank branch expansion 168–9, 170, 172
bank deposits 163
banking sector 160
base money 169
broad money 160, 168, 169
capital account of the balance of payments 162, 165–6
capital account of balance of payments liberalization 165–6
capital account liberalization 165–6
capital adequacy ratio 169
central bank 166, 168
commercial banks 160, 168–9, 171
commodity prices collapse 159n
compulsory credit allocations 163
credit 163, 163n, 165, 167, 172
current account of the balance of payments 159n, 161
demonetization 160
deposits 161, 167, 168, 169, 171, 172
development banking 173
domestic savings 160, 168, 171
economic stabilization 167
efficiency 163n
exchange rates 160–1, 163, 163n, 165
export controls 161
external debt relief 168
external debt service ratio 159n
financial crises 162, 165, 166n
financial deepening 164, 167
financial inclusion 168
financial liberalization 163
food price rises 171
foreign exchange 161, 165, 173
GDP 159, 163, 164, 167, 169
global financial crises (2007–8) 164
government banks 160
(p. 922)
government domestic debt repayment programme 167
government-owned insurance company 161
gradualist approach 161–2, 166
historical background 160–1
import controls and quotas 161
import tariffs 161
inflation 169, 171
infrastructure 161, 164, 168, 171
interbank foreign exchange market 161
interest rates 160, 161, 163, 165, 166, 167, 169, 171
international food price crises 160
investment-to-GDP ratio 168
lease financing 162n
lending rates 161
liberalization 165, 172–3
liquidity crunch 166
loans 171
macroeconomic stability and growth 162, 167, 170–2
macro indicators 169
monetary overhang elimination 167
monetary policy 160–1, 163n
money-to-GDP ratio 160
NBE Bill 169–70
non-performing loans (NPLs) 166, 168, 169, 170, 173
opening up of sector 162–5
output growth 164
performance 166–70
physical capital 163, 164
post office 161
poverty circle 164
preferential treatment 165
prices 163
private capital 165–6
public sector credit 171
real-estate prices 166
reforms 167–8
reserve requirements 163
return on average asset 169
return on capital 169
savings 171
soundness indicators 169
specialized banks 160
stability 163n
structural adjustment 167
total banking sector assets 167
treasury bills/bonds 166
virtuous circle of growth 164
wholesale auction system 161
financing development 175–89
accelerated growth 175
agricultural income tax 188
aid 177
annual plans and budgets 178
balance-of-payments problems 179, 189
banks 186
bilateral donors 175
branch expansion 186
budget deficit 179
capital expenditure 181–2
capital formation 189
capital goods finance 186
capital markets 186
climate financing 188
commercial banks 186
commercial loans 188
communications 185
debt financing risks 188
debt repayment 185
defence spending 181
deposit mobilization 186
development policy context 176–7
domestic borrowing 185
domestic policy 177
domestic resources 180–1, 189
domestic revenue GDP ratio 189
domestic savings 176, 177, 182–3
domestic trade 188
donor funding 177
economic reform programmes 175
Eurobond 187
expenditure 179
exports 175, 177–9, 187–8, 189
external debt 184–5
external loans and assistance 177, 182–3, 185, 189
external resources 183–5
FDI 177, 185
financial constraints 187–9
financial sector 185
financing package 178
(p. 923)
fiscal deficit 179
fiscal policy as instrument of macroeconomic stability for growth 178–9
food inflation 178
foreign exchange 176–7, 185, 187–8
foreign investment 187
foreign savings 189
GDP 176, 180, 181, 189
government bonds 186
government expenditure 181–2
grace period 183
gross fixed capital formation 176
highways transport infrastructure 185
human capital 176
human development 185
illicit financial flows 181
imports 189
industrial parks 187
industry sector and industrialization 175, 185, 186
inflation 178–9
infrastructure 175, 176, 183, 185
insurance companies 186
interest rates 183, 187
investment 176, 177
irrigation 175
land tax 189
land-use fees 188
lease financing 186
liberalization 179
living standards improvements 176
loans 185, 189
maturity periods 183
micro-finance institutions 186
monetary policies 179
multilateral debt 184–5
NBE Bills 186
non-debt-creating instruments 189
non-performing loans (NPLs) 186
non-public sector finance 182
official development assistance 183–4
PBS 185
poverty reduction 176
predictability 184
private-sector savings, mobilization of 186–7
privatization 179
public expenditure restructuring 181–2
public–private partnerships (PPPs) 188
public-sector external debt disbursement 185
public and social administration 185
rail networks 175, 182, 183
recurrent expenditure 181–2
reform programme 180
rental income tax 188
resource gap 177, 182, 189
revenue 179, 181
road networks 175, 182, 183
savings 177
structural transformation 175
supply-side constraints 179
taxation 175, 177, 180–1, 187, 188–9
transaction costs 184
Treasury bills 186
Fine, B. 385–6
Fiseha, A. 100
fish sector 148
floriculture 4, 11, 147, 533, 537–53, 561, 566
Afriflora (Sher) 543
auction system 541
backward and forward linkages 543
benefits 549
bonus schemes 549
capital dynamics 553
chemicals 543
‘clock system’ 541
credit 551
cumulative causations 537–8
decent work deficits 539
development of flower sector 542–4
direct sales 541–2
domestic firm capabilities 538–9, 540
domestic firm characteristics and capability-building problems 544–9, 553
labour retention 548–9
management skills 546–7
market diversification 546
R&D investment 547–8
domestic violence and women workers 551
employment and impact on women workers 541, 549–52
Etfruit 542
fertilizers 543
food inflation 550
(p. 924)
food security and economic policy 387
gender factors 540, 541, 551–2
global financial crisis 543
global floriculture, features of 541–2
global value chains (GVCs) 538–9, 541–2, 546
government brokers 544
housing/accommodation 550
incentives 548, 549–50
industrial policy and late industrialization 619, 620, 621, 622
industrial workforce 673, 682
international standards 549
investment incentives 544
iqub (rotating saving and credit system) 551
Japanese perspective of Ethiopia’s transformation 852
jobs dementia 538
labour dynamics 553
labour organization 548
labour shortages 549
labour turnover 549
labour unions 549
‘lead firms’ 538, 541
living wage 552
manufacturing sector 537–9, 632
methodology 540–1
migration/migrant workers 550–1, 552
minimum wage 548, 550
Netherlands and Dutch auction 540, 541, 543, 546
net wage 550–1
permanent contracts 549
‘pre-clock’ direct sales 542
private pension arrangements 549
private sector 699
productive activities 552
productive industries, employment in 539–40
public–private partnership programmes 543
rural–urban linkages 768
savings 551
sectoral policies 877, 880
smallholder crop production 469
social stigma 551–2
state-owned farms 542
structural transformation 538–40, 553, 877, 880
technological capabilities 552
temporary contracts 549
trade policy 237
transformation, lessons in 898
trust-based networks 546
wage goods inflation 540
wages 550–1
working conditions 549
workplace sexual harassment 551–2
flour and milling sector 393, 561
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 393, 516, 572n, 578, 590, 594, 879
food sector
economic policy and structural transformation 142
industrial policy and late industrialization 625
manufacturing and economic transformation 150, 152
manufacturing sector: structure and performance 630, 634–5, 636, 637, 638–9
rural–urban linkages 767, 772–3, 780–1
trade policy 235, 237, 238 see also specific food sector entries
food security and economic policy 383–96
acute or emergency food shortages 388
agricultural policy 389
breastfeeding, exclusive 387
cereal import dependency ratio and value of food imports over total merchandise exports 388
childhood anaemia 384, 386–7
childhood stunting and wasting 383, 386–7, 389
childhood underweight 386–7
conceptual approach for policy examination 384–6
double burden of malnutrition 383
drought 388
economic policy and nutrition policy interrelationship 390–5
food processing and marketing distribution 393–4
food transfers 394–5
(p. 925)
own production 390–2
wages and employment 392–3
emergency food assistance 384
external food environment 385
famine 383, 385, 388
fertilizer 393, 396
food acquisition 385
food aid 394
food and fuel prices 393
food imports 388
food and nutrition outcomes, trends in 386–8
food price inflation 384
food price spikes 384, 387, 391, 392–3, 394, 395–6
income 387
industrial policy 389, 396
malnutrition 384, 389
non-communicable diseases (NCDs) 383
nutrition policy, changing 388–9
nutrition-sensitive interventions 384, 389
overweight and obesity 383
own-labour entitlements 385
personal food environment 385
population growth 387
poverty line 384
production-based entitlements 385
social protection policy 390
trade-based entitlements 385
trade policy 390, 396
transfer-based entitlements 385
undernutrition, chronic 389
urbanization 387
footwear sector 238, 731, 897
manufacturing and economic transformation 150, 152, 699–700
rural–urban linkages 774–6, 778
special economic zones and structural transformation 810, 812, 814
Foreign Affairs and National Security Policy and Strategy of Ethiopia 114–15, 118, 125
foreign direct investment (FDI) legal framework 742–61
ad hoc arbitration 759
applicable/appropriate law 752–3
bilateral investment treaties (BITs) 658–9, 743, 755, 756, 758–9, 760
choice of law 752
compensation 747, 753, 757–8, 760
competent authority 753
complaints handling procedure 748–9, 753–4, 760
Constitution of Ethiopia 744, 745, 746n
court system for judicial review 753
customs territory 751
dispute settlement 747–8, 749, 753, 760
domestic courts, access to 760
domestic investment law 746
environmental regulations 753–4
Ethiopia–United States Treaty of Amity and Economic Relations (1953) 742, 743n, 744–5
fair and equitable treatment (FET) 754, 755, 760
full protection and security 760
guarantee and protection 752
historical background 744–5
impartiality and independence guarantees 750
Imperial Constitution (1931) 744
industrial parks/industrial parks legislation 746, 750–4
interests 752, 753
international standards 754–5
investment guarantee 747–8
investment law: contemporary sources 745–6
Investment Proclamations 743n, 745–7, 749, 751n
most favoured nation (MFN) 743n, 755, 758, 760
national treatment (NT) 752, 755, 760
non-discrimination principle 745, 754
non-expropriation principle 746–8, 752–3, 754, 756–8, 760
permits: issuance and revocation 754
procedural guarantees 749–50, 755, 758–9, 760
public interests 757
regional treaties 743
restitution 752, 753
rights and benefits 753–4
substantive norms 746–9, 755
treatment 756
without unreasonable delay 757
(p. 926) ‘Foreign Trade Promotion Manual for Ethiopian Diplomatic Missions’ 118
Forest Reference Level study 299
forestry sector 768, 772
Foster, J. 337, 348
FRDE 419
Freire 293
Freund, C. 816
fruit and vegetables sector 148, 208, 278, 461, 477, 561, 768, 780–1
Fura 424
furniture sector 150, 152, 625, 635–6, 772–8
Gambella 23, 43, 105, 273, 344, 402, 434n, 575
Alwero dam 192
federalism 67, 72
urbanization and industrial development 788, 789, 790, 791
García-Cardona, J. 249n
garment industry see apparel and textiles industry
Gashaw, T. 294
Gebreeyesus, M. 235, 243, 636n, 653n, 654–5
Gebrehiwot, B. 698
Gebrehiwot, T. 395
Gebreyesus, A.T. 859, 862, 865, 867, 871
Geda, A. 217n
Gedeo 530, 531
George Shoe (company) 810
George Shoe Industrial Park 808
geothermal energy 9, 196
Getahun, T. 551, 636n
ghee sector 279
Giannecchini, P. 812n
GIBE III 193
Gilligan, D. 414–15, 416n, 417–21
Gini coefficient 86, 342, 344, 350, 357, 874
glass and glass products sector 634n
Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) 722
Global Green Economy Index 292
Global Green Grown Initiative (GGGI) 795
Gnogno, P. 191
Gode-Kebri Dehar Oasis Cluster 797
Godley, W. 214
Gojjam 25, 57, 312, 476
gold sector 699
Gollin, D. 310, 470
Golub, S. 270
Gondar 26, 476
Gonder-Metema 792, 796
Goodfellow, T. 275
Goodhand, J. 272–3