Welcome to this text on cyberpsychology, the discipline of understanding the psychological processes related to, and underlying, all aspects and features of technologically interconnected human behavior. A truly international book, it is intended as an introduction to many aspects of online behavior that have received theoretical interest over the last twenty years. With its handbook approach, it also outlines current psychological understanding of many newer forms of behavior unique to the Internet. It is important to note that whilst most of the chapters discuss the Internet in a global manner, people use diverse technological devices, ranging from mobile phones (or cell phones if you are not in the UK), to gaming consoles and smart TVs. Therefore, in your reading of this text, bear in mind that whilst we focus on the Internet, human behavior occurs through the interaction of many technologies. You might, at this stage, wonder what the difference is between human computer interaction and cyberpsychology. This book focuses on the latter, namely on the psychology of how people behave in a technologically connected environment. It is important to remain focused on the psychological processes here; from cognition to individual differences, and from developmental features of human behavior to social psychological factors, there are an array of psychological factors that play a role in human behavior, both online and offline. Cyberpsychology, whilst often comparing the two, focuses on understanding online, or digital, behavior, both at the individual and group levels. Such behaviors span the development, maintenance and dissolution of all types of human relationships, to how online activities negatively impact on financial and socioeconomic standing (e.g., gambling and compulsive online shopping behaviors), and from providing support in times of need (e.g., social support groups and specialized forums) to capitalizing on a person’s weaknesses to negatively impact on their psychological and physical well-being (e.g., pro-suicide websites). Imagine any facet of human behavior that can be carried out online, and you will likely find a section in this book that covers current thinking and theorizing on that online behavior.
To this end, the Internet most often referred to throughout this text is the infrastructure of connectivity that brings all of these technologies together worldwide. It is the cable network to which we all connect in order to communicate with millions of other computers worldwide. It is not the World Wide Web as we have come to refer to it. The World Wide Web (WWW) is the tool that we use to access information hosted via the Internet. That information is encoded and transmitted via the Internet using codes and languages specifically designed to transmit that information. In order to search the (p. xvi) WWW, you use browsers, such as Google Chrome or Firefox. If you had to hazard a guess as to how many websites there now are worldwide, we wonder how close to the actual figure you would come? Maybe you could use an Internet browser to find the answer to this. While doing so, you might wonder why we are using the upper-case I for the Internet and not writing internet with a lower-case i. The former is the Internet as you have come to know it, whilst a small i for internet denotes a localized network, to which only a limited number of people have access. These are not the focus of this book. We focus on features of human behavior across the WWW. Another feature of the Internet is that it hosts email and other interconnected communications that are based on simple mail transfer protocols (SMTP), such as instant messaging and other file transfer protocols. Now that the technology is out of the way, let’s move on to explaining the focus of each of the book sections.
Part I: Introduction and Foundations (edited by Dr Alison Attrill-Smith)
The introductory chapters of this book focus on setting the scene to aid readers’ understanding of the psychology of online behavior presented in Parts II–VIII of the book. We begin with a chapter by Professor John Krantz of Hanover College in the USA. John’s knowledge of psychology research methods and analyses is second to none, and in this chapter he outlines the main scientific approach to studying online behavior. He considers the different types of data collection that can be applied to cyberpsychology research as well as their advantages and limitations. In doing so, he introduces a number of key terms and ethical considerations that are essential to understanding reports of online behavior that you will come across in most of the remaining book chapters.
Another fundamental component of online behavior is that in order to achieve any task online, a person needs to create an online self. This is the focus of the second chapter in this section, presented by Dr Alison Attrill-Smith of the Cyberpsychology Research Group at the University of Wolverhampton, UK. This chapter explores how different versions of a person’s self are created online to achieve diverse goals in the heterogeneous Internet landscape, which consists of lots of different types of websites (e.g., dating, social media, and banking websites). Consideration is given to whether people create different selves to those presented in everyday offline lives and how these are adapted to online behavior to compensate for the absence of the social cues pivotal to offline interactions.
Underlying these self-creations are personality factors and individual differences. The second two chapters of this section therefore revolve around these. In the first, Dr Chris Fullwood, also of the Cyberpsychology Research Group at the University of Wolverhampton, UK, explores how people manage others’ impressions of them online through their online self-presentations. Chris considers different theoretical approaches to understanding online self-presentation, and the role of motivations that drive how people are afforded the freedom to experiment with different versions of their self online.
(p. xvii) Subsequently, Professor Yair Amichai-Hamburger, the Director of the Research Center for Internet Psychology at the Sammy Ofer School of Communications at the Interdisciplinary Center in Herzliya, Israel, and Dr Shir Etgar, The Research Center for Innovation in Learning Technologies, The Open University of Israel, look at the role of personality in more detail in creating an individually unique psychological environment online. Specifically, Yair and Shir focus on the role of introversion and extroversion as a key dimension underlying online behavior, in both anonymous and identified online environments.
Part II: Technology Across the Lifespan (edited by Dr Melanie Keep)
The chapters in this section build on the foundations established in Part I to consider the role of digital technologies and the Internet across the lifespan. Our current time in history also affords us the opportunity to consider the impact of the Internet and digital tools on how we develop throughout our own lives. This is particularly so in the case of the first chapter on adolescent risk-taking. Professor Kaveri Subrahmanyam, Associate Director of the Children’s Digital Media Center@LA and Dr Cody Weeks from California State University, USA, explore how exposure to online risky behaviors, for instance alcohol or drug use, or sexually explicit content, influence the decision to engage in offline risk-taking. The authors also consider how theories of human behavior have led researchers to use technology to reduce adolescent risk-taking.
Outside of our personal lives, the Internet has also shaped our education system. In the second chapter of Part II, Dr Linda Corrin from Swinburne University of Technology, Australia, and her co-authors Dr Tiffani Apps, Dr Karley Beckman, and Professor Sue Bennett from the University of Wollongong, Australia, debunk the myth of the “digital native”, that is, that young people who have grown up with digital technology are proficient users of this technology. The authors discuss the implications of this assumption on Higher Education, and explore how university students’ experiences of technology are shaped by childhood and adolescence.
From young adulthood, many of us develop romantic relationships and some go onto becoming parents against the backdrop of smartphones, social media, and constant connectivity. Associate Professor Michelle Drouin, leading researcher in relationships and technology at Indiana University-Purdue University, Fort Wayne, USA, and her co-author Dr Brandon T. McDaniel of Illinois State University, Normal, USA, discuss the impact of digital technologies on couple and family relationships, specifically the research on technoference—the interruptions of social interactions by the use of technology. The chapter considers psychological theories of couple relationships and parenting, as well as research on relationship satisfaction and co-parenting quality.
As we mature, and enter into different social, psychological, and biological life stages, technology can be adapted to meet our changing needs. In the final chapter of this (p. xviii) section, Dr Meryl Lovarni, Associate Professor Kate O’Loughlin, and Professor Lindy Clemson from the University of Sydney, Australia, explore how the Internet and digital technologies can be used to help us remain independent, socially connected, and healthy as we age. They discuss the role of technology in perpetuating stereotypes of aging, how older adults use technology, evidence for the use of technology for maintaining well-being, and the challenges with implementing systemic changes to policy and infrastructure to enable this.
Part III: Interaction and Interactivity (edited by Dr Chris Fullwood)
The chapters in this section focus on the manner in which individuals communicate, interact, and develop relationships with others via various forms of digital technology, as well as the consequences to the individual for interacting in an increasingly digital world. The first chapter in this section, authored by Dr Nenagh Kemp, University of Tasmania, Australia, considers the written language of the digital world and how this may be distinct from other more traditional forms of written communication. Within this chapter, Nenagh discusses the different reasons why many individuals may adopt a more casual and abbreviated form of writing, referred to as textese, while online and in their text messages. In addition to providing illustrative examples of various forms of textese, Nenagh evaluates the different methodological approaches which have been used by researchers to collect data from participants who use textese in their communications. Consideration is given to the variety of different factors which have been associated with the amount and types of textese that individuals use. In addition, an important discussion centers on a much debated topic within this literature, namely whether or not using textese is impacting on the development of literacy skills in young people.
In the next chapter in this section, Dr Heyla Selim, University of Sussex, UK/King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, focuses on cultural considerations in online interactions. Within this chapter, Heyla draws on numerous established cultural theories and reflects on how these models might apply to interactions within the cyberspace. Heyla considers how culture might affect one’s engagement with the online world, with a special focus on the self-presentation strategies of different cultural groups within social media sites. The chapter considers the important question of whether interacting in the online world is likely to lead to cultural convergence or indeed whether individuals retain aspects of their cultural identity in their online interactions.
Following on from this, Dr Joanne Lloyd, Dr Alison Attrill-Smith, and Dr Chris Fullwood, University of Wolverhampton’s Cyberpsychology Research Group, CRUW, UK move on to talk about the development and maintenance of romantic relationships in the online world. Although some thought is given to the numerous ways in which people may begin and maintain romantic relationships online, the primary focus of the chapter is on the ways in which individuals can make use of online sites which have (p. xix) the specific purpose of connecting singles. Consideration is given to the reasons why online dating sites have surged in popularity, as well as the types of individuals who may be more inclined to use them and their motivations for joining these sites. In addition, a discussion is provided around the benefits and drawbacks of seeking love online.
The section concludes with a chapter on the social consequences of online interactions, authored by Dr Melanie C. Green, University of Buffalo, USA and Jenna L. Clark, Center for Advanced Hindsight at Duke University, USA. Whereas the previous three chapters in this section focus on how the introduction of new technology has altered the communication landscape, the concluding chapter considers the broader question of whether interacting in the online space may be thought of as generally harmful or helpful for social connectedness and well-being. Drawing on the Interpersonal Connection Behaviors Framework, the authors argue for the notion that the extent to which individuals may accrue positive outcomes from their online interactions is likely to be related to whether or not those specific interactions serve a relational purpose. Evidence for this assertion is provided through a consideration of research focusing on how online interactions may promote self-disclosure and provide important sources of social support. In addition, the authors provide examples where online interactions may lead to negative consequences, for instance where they arouse social comparison or lead to feelings of loneliness.
Part IV: Groups and Communities (edited by Dr Melanie Keep)
In this section, the social aspect of online interaction is further reinforced through consideration of online groups and communities, and the psychology of participation (or non-participation), the ways in which these communities can facilitate inclusion, and a re-conceptualization of what constitutes an online group or community. The focus shifts from Part III where we consider interactions of individuals and how they navigate the online world, to Part IV where we discuss group dynamics and the social nature of Internet use.
Professor Neil Coulson, leading researcher in online support groups from the University of Nottingham, UK, takes us through the nature and popularity of online support communities, the advantages and disadvantages of these groups, why people engage with online peer support, and the theoretical frameworks for understanding these interactions.
This sets the scene for Dr Darren Chadwick from the Cyberpsychology Research Group at the University of Wolverhampton, UK, and his co-authors Dr Melanie Chapman and Dr Sue Caton from Manchester Metropolitan University, UK. Their chapter focuses on how people with an intellectual disability use the Internet and the benefits of, and barriers to, this engagement with digital technologies. They consider the risks of online participation and the supports required for facilitating digital inclusion (p. xx) of people with an intellectual disability. This chapter shows that whether by choice, or through circumstances or situations beyond their control, some people are not active users of online communities.
Building from that, Dr Maša Popovac from the University of Buckingham, UK, and Dr Chris Fullwood in his third contribution to this handbook, explore the psychology of lurking, of viewing posts and others’ contributions to forums, chat rooms, social media and the like, without participating. Their chapter considers the individual and situational factors that affect participation or lurking, and the impact of different levels of participation. Maša and Chris then go into a more detailed discussion of the psychology of lurking within the context of online support groups, and educational settings.
This section closes by taking a step back to reconsider our definitions of online groups and communities. Bei Yan from the University of Southern California, Dr Young Ji Kim from the University of California Santa Barbara, Professor Andrea Hollingshead also from the University of Southern California, and Dr David Brandon from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, reconceptualize online groups as multidimensional networks that may or may not include a digital agent, such as a robot or algorithm, and that operates within and is influenced by a social context. This chapter challenges us to consider the dynamics of online groups in this new framework, and provides a detailed discussion of how such groups are currently operating within our workplaces and online lives.
Part V: Social Media (edited by Dr Chris Fullwood)
Social media sites like Facebook and Twitter are some of the real success stories of the World Wide Web, and have become incorporated into the everyday routines of the majority of Internet users. For this reason, it is important to not only give social media a special focus in this book, but to also understand how using these sites might impact on the individual and society in both positive and negative ways. The first chapter in this section, authored by Dr Lisa Orchard, University of Wolverhampton’s Cyberpsychology Research Group, CRUW, UK, sets the context for the remaining chapters by addressing the question of who uses social media and why? The chapter is underpinned by Uses and Gratifications theory to explain the different motivations that users may have for joining and using various social media platforms. In attempting to understand what specific gratifications may be met by engagement with social media, Lisa discusses how our personalities may drive these specific motivations.
One of the most valued and widespread features of social media sites is their ability to allow users to upload, share, and document images of their life stories. In the next chapter in this section, Dr Melanie Keep, Anna Janssen, and Dr Krestina L. Amon, from the University of Sydney, Australia, consider why photo-sharing via social media sites has become such a popular feature of these sites. Concentrating on three specific social (p. xxi) media sites (Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram), the authors discuss how different personal characteristics, such as personality, are likely to affect the reasons why and the extent and types of images that people share on each site. The chapter concludes with a consideration of how sharing images via social media impacts on one’s mental health.
Although we may think of social media sites as primarily serving the function of allowing individuals to build and maintain friendships and family connections, they may also be used to drive social change. In the third chapter in this section, Dr Chris Stiff, University of Keele, UK, focuses on the use of social media sites for cyberactivism. Within the chapter, Chris talks about how the idiosyncratic features of social media sites may be helpful in fostering cyberactivism. Chris draws on numerous models of offline collective action and considers how these might be applied to understanding activism in the online domain. A taxonomy of cyberactivism is introduced and evaluated in the context of how this may explain the antecedents and consequences of engaging in cyberactivism. Finally, the chapter concludes with a deliberation of whether or not cyberactivism genuinely creates meaningful social change in the offline world.
If you were asked to provide an example of a social media site, most of us would likely consider social networking sites like Facebook or Twitter as archetypal examples. Although blogging platforms may not be as popular as they once were, they are still examples of social media sites, but are important to consider separately given that they often serve very different functions to sites like Facebook and Twitter. In the fourth chapter in this section, Dr Bradley M. Okdie, The Ohio State University at Newark, USA, and Daniel M. Rempala, The University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA, discuss trends and motivations for using blogging sites. The chapter focuses on blogging as a tool for self-expression and social connection and examines the many different derivations of blogging services, including microblogging and video-blogging or vlogging.
In the concluding chapter in this section, Dr Sally Quinn, University of York, UK, considers the positive aspects of using social media. This chapter is timely given the predilection for the media to focus on the more negative aspects of using social media, for example how they may be addictive or used by bullies. Within this chapter, Sally introduces a raft of different positive outcomes associated with using social media sites, including increasing connectedness, providing a platform for social support, and how using such sites may increase psychological well-being. Sally also considers which specific groups are likely to reap the most benefits from engagement with social media and a special focus is given to young people’s use of these sites.
Part VI: Health and Technology (edited by Dr Daria J. Kuss)
Technology is now increasingly used for the purpose of health. This section will deal with the ways in which technology use is shaping how we access health information, the possible detrimental impact of excessive use, the use of technology in the context of mourning, as well as how technology may benefit users from a health perspective.
(p. xxii) Dr Elizabeth Sillence, Psychology and Communication Technologies (PACT) Lab at the University of Northumbria, and Professor Pamela Briggs, Professor and Chair in Applied Psychology at the University of Northumbria, UK, start off this section with their chapter, “Managing your Health Online: Issues in the Selection, Curation, and Sharing of Digital Health Information”. They outline how the shift towards peer-to-peer sharing sites represents a significant change in how online health information is used and perceived, and the challenges that stem from this. These challenges include sharing personal health information and maintaining this vast and complex information resource.
The next chapter introduces “A Psychological Overview of Gaming Disorder”, a new psychological disorder, now in the process of being included in the international diagnostic manuals. The chapter is written by Dr Daria J. Kuss and Dr Halley Pontes of the Cyberpsychology Research Group and the International Gaming Research Unit at Nottingham Trent University, UK, and Dr ORSOLYA Király and Professor Zsolt Demetrovics, from the Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest, Hungary. Daria and her team delineate current approaches to clinical and psychometric assessment of Gaming Disorder and the controversies in this new and blossoming research field, with the aim of presenting a balanced view of this emerging mental health problem.
In the subsequent chapter, Dr Elaine Kasket, HCPC-Registered Counselling Psychologist and Independent Researcher, UK, discusses “Mourning and Memorialization on Social Media”. Elaine refers to “digital legacies” when considering the digital data left by deceased individuals. The effects are twofold: first, it affects the perception and experience of personhood and mortality. Second, it impacts significant others who mourn and memoralize the deceased person. In Elaine’s chapter, she delves into the topic of death in the digital age, and specifically addresses the digital afterlife and the continuing bonds on the social media site Facebook.
In the final chapter in the section on Health and Technology, Dr Mark Griffiths, Distinguished Professor of Behavioural Addictions and Director of the International Gaming Research Unit at Nottingham Trent University, UK, explores “The Therapeutic and Health Benefits of Playing Video Games”. Mark looks at the scientific literature base available on the extent to which playing video games can improve health. These benefits include pain management, physiotherapy and occupational therapy, social and communication skills for the learning disabled, psychotherapy, health compliance, stress, anxiety and emotional regulation, and physical activity. Altogether, he concludes that gaming can benefit many individuals, particularly when the gaming targets concrete problems and/or the development of a specific skill.
Part VII: Gaming (edited by Dr Daria J. Kuss)
Gaming is an activity people have engaged in since time immemorial. With the advent of the Internet and digital technologies, networked gaming has gained popularity, with individuals around the world coming together virtually to engage in one of their favorite (p. xxiii) pastime activities—playing games. This section sees the discussion of gaming in its various forms, including different types of games and the sociodemographics of players, considering how games can lead to behavior change and altered sensory perceptions outside of the game, its psychosocial and moral impact on the individual and the people around them.
Jessica McCain, Kyle Morrison, and Dr Sun Joo (Grace) Ahn, Director of the Games and Virtual Environments Lab at the University of Georgia, USA, start off this section with their chapter “Video Games and Behavior Change”. Jessica and her colleagues argue that the role of games goes well beyond entertainment, and that playing games can lead to changes in prosocial and antisocial behavior. In their chapter, the authors consider how virtual cues may lead to behavior alterations, how cognitive and emotional pathways are affected by gaming and may lead to changing behaviors, and how these changes brought about by games may be applied in different contexts, such as within healthcare.
Other than changing how we behave, games can also lead to altered perception. Accordingly Dr Angelica Ortiz de Gortari, Research Fellow at the University of Liège, Belgium, coined the term “Game Transfer Phenomena”. This refers to the effects of playing video games on cognition, sensory perception, and human behavior, brought about by the gamer engaging with the game, immersing in the game, and embodying their avatar, whilst using the game’s hardware. In her chapter “Game Transfer Phenomena: Origin, Development, and Contributions to the Video Game Research Field”, Angelica provides a synopsis on current Game Transfer Phenomena research, paying attention to the characteristics and prevalence of Game Transfer Phenomena, how it impacts the gamer, and the structural characteristics of games that contribute to experiencing it.
In the next chapter, Dr Michelle Colder Carras, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands, Dr Rachel Kowert, Independent Scholar, Ontario, Canada, and Dr Thorsten Quandt, the University of Münster, Germany, consider the extent to which gaming may have both positive as well as negative effects. Michelle and her team argue that since gaming has become a popular pastime activity, concerns have been raised about possible detrimental effects. In order to shed light on these concerns, the research team conducted a systematic literature review to assess the associations between video gaming and psychological effects. From their results it appears that when there are negative effects, these tend to be temporary and moderate. Additionally, the research assessed also suggests that there are a number of positive psychosocial effects of playing video games, including their use in the healthcare context. To end, Michelle and her team provide suggestions regarding progressing studies to research the associations between gaming and psychosocial effects more thoroughly.
Moving on from there, Dr Garry Young, The University of Melbourne, Australia, considers immoral and taboo behaviors in online games in his chapter “Enacting Immorality within Gamespace: Where Should We Draw the Line and Why?” In his chapter, Garry provides arguments in favor of prohibiting video game content, related to harm, meaningful expression, and player motivation, looking at single-player gamers enacting immoral behaviors against non-player characters.
(p. xxiv) The final chapter of this section brings together our knowledge and understanding of different types of games and who plays them. In her contribution, Dr Linda K. Kaye, Edge Hill University, UK, introduces “Gaming Classifications and Player Demographics”. Linda focuses on how the game’s function, content, platform, and context impact upon player demographics, as those aspects are relevant to provide a clear picture of who the players are. To end, Linda outlines a conceptual framework, based on which the aforementioned aspects are affected by gaming domains and play formats. This chapter pulls together important research in the area and offers a comprehensive understanding of gaming in cyber contexts.
Part VIII: Cybercrime and Cybersecurity (edited by Dr Alison Attrill-Smith)
In this last section of the book, we consider the darker side of Internet behavior: the side associated with criminal activity and nefarious intent from criminals the world over. It is important to consider these aspects of online behavior, given the exponential rise of online criminality in conjunction with the growth of Internet uptake worldwide. Criminals have found new ways to carry out existing types of crime, but have equally developed entirely new levels and types of crime that prior to the Internet had not existed. In this section, both old and new crimes are explored. Technology is very much considered as a tool to crime, rather than to blame for crime across these four chapters. In the first chapter of this section, Dr Grainne Kirwan from the Dun Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design, and Technology in Ireland outlines the rise in cybercrime concomitant with the spread of Internet and wider technology use. Focusing on defining different types of cybercrime and outlining existing typologies of the groupings of cybercrimes, Grainne goes on to explore the hindrances to reporting many crimes committed online, and to providing an overview of the ways in which our understanding of the psychological factors involved in both perpetrating and falling victim to online crimes can aid our understanding of future prevention of those crimes.
This sets the scene for the following chapter on cybersecurity by Dr Thomas Holt and Jin Ree Lee of the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University, USA. In their chapter, they discuss further typologies of cybercrimes and how these can aid our understanding of the prevention and security measures needed to help internationally police the Internet. In doing so, they not only touch upon the more obvious factors associated with cybersecurity, such as moderating and administrating more socially oriented websites, but also explore the role of Internet service providers in protecting their users against online crimes. Interestingly, a brief comparison is offered of both public and non-public police and voluntary organizations that play a role in preventing and reducing Internet crime, as well as catching the criminals when crimes are identified (p. xxv) and/or reported. Offering an insight from a more legal than psychological perspective, this chapter provides the reader with an excellent overview of the problems facing a multitude of worldwide agencies in coming together to deal with cybercrime, and highlights why understanding the psychology of crime that uses the international tool that is the Internet is so difficult.
The remaining two chapters in this section focus on crimes against individuals and crimes against groups. Building on the outlines of the previous two chapters, both chapters are led by Dr Jason Nurse from the School of Computing at the University of Kent, UK. In the first, he considers the underlying human factors that play a role in cyber-attacks on individuals. He focuses on a range of cybercrimes, including those more commonly reported in the mass media (e.g., phishing and catfishing), but also considers other less well broadcast crimes, such as denial of service attacks. Jason introduces a new taxonomy that builds on those outlined in the previous chapters, prior to moving on to the second of his chapters, co-authored with Dr Maria Bada from the Global Cyber Security Capacity Centre at the University of Oxford, UK. When we think of cybercrime, we nearly always think of the new and emerging crimes that are perpetrated against individuals, such as revenge pornography and identity theft, or monetary fraud crimes. There is, however, another category of online crimes that is aimed at wider societal groups. These can range from hate crimes based on religion or group identities (e.g., race or sexual orientation) to organized crimes against whole nations. Touching on instances of terrorist activity and hacktivists, Jason and Maria explore crimes from both a perpetrator and victim perspective, using modern examples of group-oriented cybercrimes.
This edition of the Oxford Handbook of Cyberpsychology offers you a comprehensive tour of the different psychological processes underpinning the breadth of ways in which we engage with technology across a range of social contexts, and across the lifespan. The discussions from our international experts consider the multiple facets of technology, as a tool used to influence change, or a cause of change in our own behaviors, and share a range of theoretical frameworks and models for understanding cyberpsychology. We are excited to be sharing with you these considered and evidence-based discussions of research into the benefits and limitations of technology in our relationships, development of our own selves, and our health and well-being, and, through this book, connect you to a truly global network of scholars in the field. (p. xxvi)