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date: 04 June 2020

(p. 1371) Index

(p. 1371) Index

Note: Figures are indicated by an italic f, respectively, following the page number.

Aaron, Benjamin 1126
Abbott, Nathan 164
abortion 378, 1218
absolute rights 1040, 1047, 1049
numerus clausus of 1042–4
abstraction, principle of 82
abuse of rights 122, 883
access to justice 1331–7, 1366
financing litigation 1332–3
mass claims 1333–7
accessibility of legal materials 567–9
accidents 1022
costs 997
accomplice 1294
Accursius 10
Acevedo, Eduardo 262, 267–70
Ackerman, Bruce 454, 1201–2
acquis communautaire 193, 562, 564–5, 579, 584, 587, 595, 906, 1056
Acquis Group 941
act, concept of 1288
act dominion, concept of 1301
actio de deiectis vel effusis 999
actio iniuriarum 25
active personality principle 1298
actus reus 1298–9
Adams, John 150, 152, 154–5
Adams, Maurice 400
Adams, Michael 838
adaptionism 350, 352–4, 466see also functional method
adequate causation, concept of 204
administrative action 1252
administrative fault 1269
administrative justice 1261
administrative law 1251–74
administrative organizations, comparison of 1265–6
administrative procedures, comparison of 1266–8
assessment of 1251
constitutional values 1262–4
definition of 1252
empirical research 1259–61
French 900
fundamental rights 1263–4
global, concept of 1259
good administration, standards of 1264
grievances 1269–70
ideological communities, comparison with 1255
influences shaping 1273–4
institutions 1253–4
judges 1269, 1273–4
legal families, comparison with 1255–7
legal redress, comparison of 1268–73
legislators 1273–4
local administration 1266
maladministration 1272
powers of the administration 1264–5
private law 1252–4
professors 1273–4
public administration and 1254
public law 1252–4
rule of law 1262–3
scope of 1252–4
systems, usefulness of comparison 1255–61
transnational trends 1257–9
trends in law 1274
trends in public administration 1274
values served by 1262–4
administrative litigation 1252
adoption 1095–6
Adorno, Theodor 701
adultery 878
adversarial legalism 1330
advertising industry 1215
African law 652–80
challenge for comparative law 677–80
colonialism 654–6
comparative legal studies 653–4
critical legal studies 811
decolonization 671–2
legal anthropology and theoretical change 662–71
legal pluralism 673–7
legal terminology 660–2
oral law 656–8
sales law 945–6
transcription 659–60
translation 659–60
Western legal form, transformation into 656–62
writing, effects of 658–9see also Islamic law; South African law
agency (mandato) 281–2
(p. 1372) Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) 553
agency of legal form 801
AGIL system (Adaptation, Goal Attainment, Integration, Latency) 373, 378
Akkermans, Bram 593
Alberdi, Juan Buatista 1194
Alciatus 755
Alfonsin, Quintin 1348
Alfred, Anglo-Saxon king 8n21
ALI/UNIDROIT Project 1309, 1322–5
ALI/Uniform Law Commission 172
al-Kasani, Ala᾽ al-Din 644
Allen, Carleton Kemp 116, 895
Allott, Anthony 138
al-Qari, Ahmad ibn ‘Abd Allah 643
al-Razzāq al-Sanhūrī, ‘Abd 449
al-Sanhuri, Abdul-Razzaq 642–4
Alston, Philip 1263
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) 218, 220–4, 1327–8
Amari, Emerico 89
American Association for Labor Legislation 1117
American Association for the Comparative Study of Law 174–5
American Bar Association (ABA) 150, 161, 163–4, 166
American Bureau
support for publications 166–7
American Foreign Law Association (AFLA) 168, 174
American Journal of Comparative Law 175–6
American Law Institute (ALI) 109, 505, 1093
corporate governance, principles of 1157
Judgment Recognition Initiative 1321–2
Model Penal Code 1287–92, 1298–303
American legal realism 204, 293, 779
American Society of Comparative Law (ASCL) 176–7, 812
Americanization of law 177
Ames, James Barr 161, 164–5
Amos, Maurice 120, 124–5, 128, 130, 131, 133, 136, 138, 139
amparo, writ of 259
Ancel, Marc 395–6, 415–16, 1345
Ancien droit 33
Ancien Régime 1000
ancient legal codes 504
Anderson, Norman 138
Andrews, John B. 1112
animals 1018, 1022
sacrifice 743
wild 21, 24–6
anthropology 125, 662, 732, 774, 792
antitrust law
definition of 1170see also competition law
Antokolskaia, Masha 1098
Anton, A. E. 140
apartheid 138, 669–70
apology 781
Apple 1051
Aquilian liability 999–1001
Aquinas, Thomas 351
Arab Spring 633
arbitration 799–800, 1309
Aristotle 13, 19, 317, 350–2, 365, 884
Politics 4
Arminjon, Pierre 761
Arnaud, André-Jean 788
Arthurs, Harry 1120
articles on comparative law
method-related terms, evolution of 854–5
topic-related terms, evolution of 864
artificial intelligence (AI) 1133
Asad, Talal 743–4
Ascarelli, Tullio 90
Asian law 777
assault 1288
Assman, Jan 744
Association for Comparative Law 71
Association for Comparative Legal and Political Science 59
Association Henri Capitant 1035
Association of American Law Schools (AALS) 163–4, 174
Atatürk, Kemal 450
Atiyah, Patrick 895, 1027
Atkin, Lord 120, 135–7
Atkin Report 142
attempt, tort law of 1288, 1294
attribution of gain, theory of 971
Aubry, Charles 267, 269
Audit, Bernard 1345
Auer, Marietta 985
Austin, J. L. 113, 125, 655–6
Australian law 520, 908
aboriginal culture 303, 509, 783
comparative law, reception to 341–2
unjust enrichment 962, 964
Austrian Civil Code 56, 59
authoritarianism 36
Babel 695–7see also language
backsliding, constitutional 1196
Bainham, Andrew 1102
balance theory 984
Baldwin, Simeon 163, 165
bank credits 129
banking sector 274
banking supervision 1158see also financial crisis (2008)
bankruptcy 268
Bant, Elise 964
Barbarossa, Friedrich (Emperor) 22
Barbeyrac, Jean 22, 25
(p. 1373) Barbosa, Joaquim 287
Barbosa, Ruy 272
Baron, Éguinaire 13
barter 665
Barthes, Roland 687
Bartolus 10–12, 755
Basedow, Jürgen 48
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision 1158
Basha, Muhammad Qadri 643
Batiffol, Henri 1345
Baudouin, François 13
Bauman, Zygmunt 701
Baxi, Upendra 614–15
Beale, Joseph 164, 1346
Beatty, David 1216
Beccaria, Cesare 89, 352, 1278, 1282–3
Beck, C. H. 592
Becker, Gary 1161
Bedwell, C. E. A. 130
Beekhuis, Jacob Houdyn 767
Bell, John 140, 856
Belle Époque du droit comparé 30, 32
Bello, Andrés 258, 263–6
Benjamin, Walter 701
Bennett, Colin 1119
Bentham, Jeremy 113, 260, 263, 1278, 1283
Bentwich, Norman 131
Berinzon, Maya 859
Berle, Adolf 1141
Berlin, Isaiah 707–8
Berman, Harold 735, 751–2, 757–8
Berman, Nathaniel 689, 696
Bernhöft, Franz 57, 760
best practice, concept of 1254
better-law approach 77, 348, 379–80, 1351–2, 1357
Beveridge, William 1124
Bevilaqua, Clovis 271–3, 1348
Big Data 1017
bilateral investment treaties (BITs) 1368
bills of rights 1263
Binder, Julius 690
Bingham, Lord 514
Birkinshaw, Patrick 1258
Birks, Peter 962–3, 972–3
black box approach 400, 408, 410
black-letter rules 414, 514, 856, 858
Blackstone, William 1279, 1283
Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765–9) 154, 161
Blair, D. Marianne 1093
blameworthiness 1013–15
Blanc-Jouvan, Xavier 1126
Bloch, Marc 315, 406
Blomeyer, Arwed 64
Blondel, Georges 164
Bobek, Michal 199
Bodin, Jean 13, 18–19, 27, 755
Bogdan, Michael 416
Bohannan, Paul 661, 666–7
Böhm, Franz 1161
Bok, Derek 1125
Bolgar, Vera 191
Bonaparte, Napoléon 34
Bonell, Joachim 109
Bopp, Franz 305, 309
Borchard, Edwin 165
Bourdieu, Pierre 365, 784–5, 1274
bourgeois legal theory 186
Boyer, Laurent 1008
Braun, Alexandra 1067
Brazilian law 1337
breach of confidence 1012
breach of contract 129, 929–30, 975
breach of statutory duty 1003
Brewer, David 164
Brexit 47, 560, 706, 1184, 1187
Briand, Aristide 559
bricolage 454, 512
Briggs, Ryan 859
British Colonial Empire 328, 451–3
British Institute of International and Comparative Law 142
Brito, Guzmán 260, 262, 264
Brown, Neville 140–1, 143
Brown, Peter 741
Brown, W. Jethro 115
Brubaker, Rogers 797–8
Bruns, Victor 62
Bryce, James 113
Buchanan, Allen 1238
Buchanan, Ruth 787
Buckland, W. W. 128, 132, 139
Buddhist law 126, 752
bureaucracy 781
Burge, William 114
Burgundian code 7–8
Burrows, Andrew 965, 981
Bush, George H. W. 1298
Bussani, Mauro 94, 612
Bustamante Code 1353
Byzantine law 131
Cadbury, international following of 1159–60
Cadbury Report (1992) 1159
Cafaggi, Fabrizio 610
Calabresi, Dean 897, 997
Calamandrei, Piero 91
Calavita, Kitty 787
Caldeira, Gregory 715–16
Calderón, García 276
Cambodian Civil Code 206
Canada 518, 520, 908, 964–5, 974, 1195, 1212–13, 1219–20
comparative law 341–2
(p. 1374) Cane, Peter 1261
Canon law 9–11, 15, 101, 256, 261, 447, 758
capital punishment 509, 1290
capitalism 301, 669, 790, 1112, 1135
‘US-style’ 1178
Cappelletti, Mauro 91–2, 96, 102, 108, 275
Carbonnier, Jean 40–2
Carey Miller, David 499
Carnap, Rudolf 430
Carnegie, Andrew 168
Caroline of Hanover 1011
case law, concept of 704
Casebooks on the Common Law of Europe 567–8
Cassagne, Juan Carlos 285
Cassin, René 689–90
Cassirer, Ernst 349, 360–1, 363, 699–700
Castel, Robert 1112, 1122
Castro, Leonel Pereznieto 1348
Catalano, Nicola 545
causality, terminology of 854–5
causation 1288
cause
of action, definition of 1317
consideration and 133
caveat emptor principle 950–4
Cavers, David 77, 175
cellular punishment 752
Central and Eastern Europe 181–200
1960s-1980s 186–92
assessment of 181–2
comparative constitutional law 195–9
during socialism 184–92
post-communist 192–9
post-communist legal academia 194–5
pre-communism 182–4
prospective of comparative law in 199–200
role of comparative law 192–3
Stalinism 184–6
transformation of communist law 192–3
certiorari 259
ceteris paribus 832
Charbonnier, Advocate General 1022
Chiang Kai-shek 237
Chiba, Masaji 782, 799
Chicago School approach 1175
children
African legal tradition 661
child custody in Islamic law 646, 649
child labour 1113, 1122–3, 1134
financial benefits for 1359
illegitimate 72–3, 1357
marital vs non-marital 79–80
marriage of 23–4
parental responsibility and 584–5, 1090see also family law
China
assessment of 228–9, 250–1
communist China and Western relations 240–4
development of comparative law in 228–51
ideological struggles 244–50
Late Qing period 229–36
post-Mao era, foreign and comparative law in 244–50
Republican period 236–40
self-doubt, origins of 229–36
Soviet law, reception of 240–4
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 241–3
Chinese law 77, 101, 126, 205, 445, 450
Antimonopoly Law 1184–5
Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901) 233, 235
Chinese Civil Code 84, 521
competition law 1174
Confucian moral principles 232
Cultural Revolution (1966–1976) 243
Great Leap Forward (1958–1962) 243
Wuxu Reforms (1898) 233
Chipman Gray, John 839
Chiti, Mario 1258
choice-of-law 1355–9, 1365
revolution 1346–52
rules to be examined 837–8
Chomsky, Noam 690–1, 1282, 1292
Choudry, Sujit 512
chthonic law 741–2
Churchill, Winston 91, 559
Cicero, Marcus Tullius 154–5
CIDIP (Inter-American Specialized Conferences on Private International Law) 277–9
Civil Codes, diffusion of 448–51
Civil Law Initiative 50
civil law systems 485
civil procedure 1306–37
access to justice 1331–7
American law, special status of 1312–13
assessment of 1306–7
categorization, attempts at 1307–13
Damaska’s categories 1310–12
harmonization 1313–31
legal procedural families 1307–13
traditional labels 1308–10
civilian concepts 1079
civilist, definition 40n45
Clagett, Helen 167
Clark, David 773
climate theory 33
close proximity requirement 1009
Coase theorem 828–9
Coase, Ronald 1130, 1161
Code Napoléon 125, 253
comparative law before 3–27
ancient world 4–7
seventeenth and eighteenth Centuries 19–27
Codex Iuris Canonici 892
(p. 1375) codification of law 125
projects 586–8
coding law 859–60
Cohen, Felix 358
Cohn, E. J. 142
Cohn, Georg 57, 760
Coing, Helmut 565, 757
Cold War 173, 395, 823, 1227
Coles, Kimberly 786
Colins, Hugh 1120
collateral sciences 40
collective agreements 1124see also labour law
collective bargaining 1114, 1131, 1134, 1266
labour law 1123–4
Colneric, Ninon 1148
colonialism 654–6see also British Colonial Empire
colonization 425, 451–3, 662, 729
Comaroff, John 668
Comité de législation étrangère 35
comity 1234
commercial contracts 585
Commission on European Contract Law 83, 565
Commission on European Family Law 592
‘commission through omission’ 1288
Common Core of European Private Law Project 93, 108–9, 147, 338, 369, 575–6, 612, 694, 762, 1035, 1078
methodology 815–16
Common European Sales Law (CESL) 83, 564, 582, 588, 594
common good 1253
common law systems 485
Commons, John R. 1112
communicative theory of comparative law 800
communism 1033, 1054
law, transformation of 192–3
Soviet 173
communitarianism 387, 639–40
Community Directives 81
Community of Independent States (CIS) 555
community
concept of 467
property 14–15
companies, groups of 1149–51
company law 1137–67
academia 1145–7
assessment of 1138–9
banking and the financial crisis (2008) 1157–9
beyond 1164–7
Cadbury 1159–60
capital market and banking law 1154–62
Company Law Action Plan (EC) 1152–4
company self-regulation 1159–60
comparative law and 1139–54
Courts 1147–9
economics and 1161–2
European, development of 1149–50
European Law of Groups 1150–2
Forum Europaeum Konzernrecht 1150–2
future research directions 1162–7
global advance of 1155–7
global development of 1139–42
global impact on capital market law 1155–7
harmonization, EU 1149–54
international code movement 1159–60
judges 1144–5
lawyers 1144–5
legal counsel 1144–5
legislators 1142–4
modern development of 1141–2
regulators 1147–9
requirement for 1141–2
reviews of 1147
rise of modern companies 1139–41
US company law and investor protection 1154–5
US securities regulation 1154–5
comparative anatomy 425
comparative biology 305, 349–50, 425
comparative economics 303–4
comparative grammar 305, 593, 1282see also comparative linguistics; language; linguistics
comparative history 410
Comparative Law Bureau 150, 165–6, 330
comparative law, origins of the term 113
comparative linguistics 425see also comparative grammar; language; linguistics
comparative palaeontology 303
comparative scholarship, definition of 1170
comparison and comparative law
analysis 419–21
assessment of 391
basis of comparison 411–13
choice, facilitation of between legal systems 409–10
complex enquiries 405–7
contemporary debate, evaluation of 400–3
criticism of 396–8
description 415–19
difference, emphasis on 396–8
difference theory 396
diversity in legal process and dynamics 397–8
explaining differences and similarities 419–20
foreign law, application of 409
functionalism/ functional approach 393
history and the state of the debate 392–403
learning between legal systems 420–1
legal context 417
legal families 393–4
legal institutions and rules 415–17
legal systems 413–15
legal traditions 393–4
linking rules to effects 403–5
(p. 1376) macrocomparison 394
microcomparison 394
non-legal context 417–18
overview of 421–2
problem-solving 408–9
purposes of comparative legal enquiries 407–11
reasons to look for 403–11
reconciliation 398–400
results 418–19
selection 411–15
similarities and differences 390–422
similarity of problems and results 394–5
similarity, presumption of 396–8
steps of comparative enquiries 411–22
understanding law 410–11
unification 392–3
unifying law 407–8
compensation 997, 1013, 1022
of damages 282
law on 1273
Compensation Recovery Unit (CRU) 1025
competition
culture 1172
law, definition of 1170, 1180
legal conferences 1172
policy, definition of 1180
rules on 550
tendering, concept of 1269
competition law 1168–92
Africa 1186
assessment of 1169, 1191–2
boundaries of 1169–70
breadth and depth 1188–9
emerging markets 1186
enriching the comparative competition law agenda 1188–9
EU-level comparisons 1182–3
Europe 1181–4
evolution of competition law 1181–2
fashioning the tools 1189–91
form and content 1173–4
global perspective 1170–3
interaction across difference 1189
internal dynamics 1176–7
international organizations 1186
Latin America 1185–6
leadership perspective 1174–6
lines of separation 1172–3
national level comparative writing 1183–4
outside the US 1177–80
patterns and influences 1179–80
responding to new contexts 1187–8
roles for scholarship 1187–91
shaping factors 1176–7
shared influences on scholarship 1170–2
US Antitrust law 1177–9
US scholarship 1173–7
complicity, law of 1301, 1303
Comte, Auguste 349, 352
conceptual structures 570–4
condictio indebiti 969–70, 977
confessionalism 19n67
conflict of laws 407
conflict resolution 1310
conflicts justice 1350see also private international law
Confucianism 747–8
consent, tort law of 1288
consideration, doctrine of 910–12
consilium 12, 15
conspiracy 1294, 1303
Constantinesco, Léontin Jean 73, 75, 430–1
constitutional bloc, concept of 1200
constitutional law 1193–21
assessment of 1220–1
branches 1206
constitutional foundations 1200–5
constitutionalism 1197–1200
emergency powers 1206–8
evolution of the field 1194–6
generic constitutional review 1214–18
horizontal effect, doctrine of 1217–18
international human rights 1197–1200
judicial review, structures of 1208–14
national identity 1218–20
politics and 1196–7
proportionality analysis, justifications for 1215–16
structures 1205–8
constitutional values 1262–4
constitutionalism 453–4, 1218
constructive trusts 983
constructivism 350, 371
contra proferentem 919
contract
concept of 301, 308
termination of 946, 951
contract law 903–31, 1359
assessment of 903–9
civil and common law 907–9
comparative analysis 903–4
constructive interpretation 916
content of contracts 913–16
damages 929–31
enforceability of agreements 909–13
evidentiary purpose 912
illegal contracts 916–17
immoral contracts 916–17
information, provision of 913
interpretation 914–15
mistake 920–3
performance, claims for 923–5
practical relevance of 904–6
(p. 1377) statutory rules 915, 917
supplementation 915–16
termination of contracts 925–8
transition-marking 913
unfairness 917–19
warning function 913see also Principles of European Contract Law
convention mixte 1320
Cooper, Mansfield 1115, 1129
Cooper, Thomas 158
copyright 1042
Coquille, Guy 14–16
Coquillette, Daniel 150
corporate personality 752
corruption 383, 636
Corruption Perception Index (CPI) 872
cosmopolitanism 810–11, 866–7
Coudert, Alexis 175–6
Country Risk Index (CRI) 872
Coutin, Susan 787
Couvier, Baron 302
Craig, Paul 1258
creditor protection 1163
criminal law 381, 1276–304
as a blueprint for the law of delict 1002–3
context of 1304
corporate acts 1300
criminal liability, analysis and principles of 1298–302
criminal procedure 1294–5
culpable mental states 1300
domestication of 1288–9
egalitarian/multidirectional 1286–8
foreign law as 1289–92
fragmentation of criminal law 1002
function of 1280–94
general part 1295–1302
general theory of 1292–3
hierarchical/unidirectional 1284–6
history of 1280–94
international 1293–4
internationalization of 1294
jurisdiction 1297–8
jurisdiction and territoriality 1297–8
modes of 1284–8
monetary fines and penalties 1300
order contraventions 1300
order offences 1300
overview of 1003–4
parochialism of 1277–9
positive general prevention 1296
punishment and sanctions 1295
punishment theory 1295–6
punishment types 1286
regionalization of 1294
special part 1302–3
substantive 1294
topics in 1294–303
tort law and 1002–4
victims 1296–7
criminal liability
analysis of 1298–9
general principles of 1300–2
critical legal studies (CLS) 106, 725, 805–25
areas of activity 820–1
comparative law and 807–12
critique and 821–5
critique, contexts of 820–1
definitions 805–7
disruption vs continuity 812–21
functionalism 814–17
legal consciousness 818–19
receptions, critique of 817–18
structuralism 814–17
traditional ‘canon’, assault on 813–14
transplants, critique of 817–18
critical race theory 725
cross-channel differences 576–8
cruel and unusual punishment 511–12
Cruz, Santa 261
Cujas 267, 755
culpa in contrahendo 1010
culturalism 370
culture 1330
crudeness of the concept of 796–7
constitution of 797
cultural autonomy 384–5
cultural identity 729–30
cultural immersion 398
Cunctos populos 11
Curran, Vivian 398–9, 711, 717, 721–4, 730
Currie, Brainerd 77, 1346
Cusanus, Bishop 302
Cushing, Luther 158–9
customary international law 484, 540, 669–72, 782–3, 1234
‘living’ 674–6
‘official’ 674–6
systems 485
CUTS INTERNATIONAL 1185
Cuvier, Georges 425
cybernetics 706
Czapliński, W. 193
Dagan, Hanoch 974
Dahm, Georg 68
damage, risk of 840
damages 563, 569, 929–31
collective settlements of mass 1336–7
restitutionary 973
Damaška, Mirjam 191, 397, 1310–12
Dannemann, Gerhard 582, 965
(p. 1378) Darian-Smith, Eve 786–7
Darwinism 350, 352, 357
social 425
data protection 1052
law 1120
Daube, David 756–7
Davis, Kingsley 348–9
David, René 38–9, 42, 93, 175, 187, 284, 424, 427, 434, 439, 654, 759–60, 780, 821, 895
Dawson, John 757, 895, 967, 981
day-fine system 1286
de Asúa, Jimenez 1300
de Bustamante, A. Sanchez 1348
De Coninck, Julie 399
De Freitas, Teixeira 265–7, 269, 272
De Geest, Gerrit 839, 849
de la Morandière, Julliot 37
de Man, Paul 708
de Mello, Celso 287
de Miranda, Francisco Pontes 283–4, 1348
de Montmorency, J. E. G. 115–16, 132, 134–5
de Rosas, Ortiz 265
de Sousa Santos, Boaventura 788–9, 793
de Thou, Christophe 16–17
de Tocqueville, Alexis 645
Deák, Francis 172
Deakin, Simon 1115, 1121
death penalty 859–60, 1219
debts, of deceased persons 1083
deceased estates 1069–71
categorization 1083
context 1082
executors, role of 1084
representatives, role of 1084
transfer of estates upon death 1082–4
decisions 534–5
Decock, Wim 757
decollectivization 1131–3see also labour law
decolonization 668–71, 671–2
deconstructivism 674
deeds 911
defences, law of 1301–2
Del Vecchio, Giorgio 717–18, 721, 894
Deleuze, Gilles 792
delict 570–4, 1359see also tort law
delictual liability 283, 571–4
delictual responsibility 129
Delmas-Marty, Mireille 694
Demleitner, Nora 722–3, 728
democracy 36, 403, 863
constitutional 1206
human rights and 1237, 1239
demographic change 1133see also labour law
Denning, Lord 141
Denti, Vittorio 96, 98
departmentalism 1209
deregulation 1130–1see also labour law
Derrida, Jacques 695, 724, 824
Desprez, Jean 1116
deterrence 1013
Dezalay, Yves 285, 784–5, 794, 799–800, 802
Dicey, A. V. 118, 1262, 1273
Dickens, Charles 387
Diderot, Denis 690
die, right to 1303
difference
literature 11n39
theory 396
differentialism 1232
Digital Market Strategy for Europe 589, 943
digitalization, challenge of 1028–9
dilettantism 85
diligens paterfamilias 1014
Diogenes 866
Dionysius [of Halicarnassus] 13, 21
direct effect, principle of 532–3
Directives 534–5, 560–2
disability, mental and physical 1016–17
disclose-or-comply mechanism 1160
discretionary power 1269–70
discretionary remedialism 982–3
dispute resolution 666–8, 679, 1368
diversity, celebration of 1232
divorce 384, 1096–100see also family law; marriage
Djankov, Simeon 861–2, 872
DNA-testing 1102–3
Doing Business Report (2004) 43, 50, 357, 814, 861, 872–3
Dolezalek, Gero 757
Dolinger, Jacob 1348
Dölle, Hans 70, 75, 77
Domat, Jean 156, 159, 268, 763, 1000
dominium directum 9
dominium utile 9
Donahue, Charles 758
donations, posthumous 1075
doorstep transactions 563
double jeopardy 378
Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) 83, 564–5, 762, 768, 941–2, 995, 1056, 1082
Drobnig, Ulrich 75, 1348
droit civil mondial, concept of 137
Du Plessis, Jacques 965, 989, 991
dualism 541
Duan Qirui 237
Duden, Konrad 65
due process, concept of 606
Duguit, Léon 89
(p. 1379) Dumoulin, Charles 768
Dunlop, John 1125
duplex dominium, doctrine of 1046
duress 920, 1294, 1301
Durkheim, Émile 53, 309, 349, 355–6, 359, 365, 368, 467
Durkheimian functionalism 350
Dutch Civil Code 1038, 1041, 1045
duty, legal concept of 308
duty of care 76, 418, 1005, 1009
Dworkin, Ronald 461, 615
Dyson, Freeman 706
e-commerce 565
East India Company 1154
Easterbrook, Frank H. 1161
Eastern Europe see Central and Eastern Europe
Eco, Umberto 696
economic analysis of law 725, 826–50
ancillary discipline of 833–6
application of law 843–5
choice of rules 837–8
comparatist’s perspective 839–41
comparative 843–8
comparative law as ancillary to economic analysis 836–9
descriptive approach 833–4
disciplinarity and 832–42
disciplinary synthesis of 848–50
illustrations of 839–42
Law and Economics movement 105–7
legislation 845–7
normative 830–2, 848
normative approach 834–6
overview of 839, 842
people’s behaviour, prediction of 838–9
perspective of 841–2
positive 827–30, 847–8
subject matter, disciplines as 842–8
unrealistic, danger of being 836–7
economic loss, ‘pure’ 1004–10
expansions of liability for 1008–10
French law 1006–8
Germany and Anglo-America 1008–10
restrictions on liability for 1006–8
economic rationalist theory 220–3
Edelman, James 964
Eder, Phanor J. 176, 284
education see legal education
efficiency, principle of 461
egalitarianism 1237
Egyptian Civil Code 643–4, 818
Egyptian law 129, 333, 449, 632, 636
Ehrenzweig, Albert 77, 519, 1346
Ehrlich, Eugen 204, 673
elections 1197–8
ELI (European Law Institute) 108, 596–7, 1324
Elias, T. O. 671
Eliot, Charles 160–1, 170
elite management theory 220
Elster, Alexander 68
Emerich, Yaëll 1035–6
Emge, Carl August 66
emphyteusis 1042–3
empiricism 780
employment law 1116
public 1266see also labour law
‘encyclopaedic phase’ of comparative law 89
Encyclopaedia of Private International Law 1349
enforceability of agreements 909–13
consideration 910–12
formal requirements 912–13
intention to create legal relations 909–10see also contract law
English language 108
as a lingua franca 84, 322see also language; translation
English law 12, 60, 90, 408, 447–8, 908
contract 918
German law and 967–70
ownership and possession 767–8
Roman law and 115
unjust enrichment 962, 965, 974, 984
waiver of tort 981see also United Kingdom
Enlightenment era 20, 56, 688, 1278–9
political philosophy 153, 257
enrichment liability, definition of 968–84see also unjust enrichment
Enron scandal 1149
environmental pollution 220
Eörsi, Gyula 188
epistemological functionalism 350
equal treatment
before the law, principle of 671
equality 863
of the sexes/ gender equality 77, 404, 451
equitable interest 1080
equitable liens 983
equity 419, 777
common law and 1047
natural, concept of 494
equivalence functionalism 350, 371
Erasmus programmes 44, 338
erga omnes rights 1040, 1042–3, 1048, 1211–12
Errera, Roger 1272
error, writ of 259
Esquirol, Jorge 821
Esser, Josef 72, 351, 362, 364
estate
concept of 1045–7
transfer of see deceased estates
ethical principles, universal 745
ethnocentrism 101
(p. 1380) ethnological studies 57–8, 302
etiamsi daremus doctrine 738–9, 742
Eucken, Walter 1161
Eurocentrism 433–5, 559, 1128
European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC) 527
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) 462, 1054–5
European Banking Union (EBU) 1152
European Capital Market Union (ECMU) 1152
European Central Bank (ECB) 1158
European Civil Code 38, 82–3, 564–5, 581, 584, 587, 694, 944, 995–6, 1035
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) 527, 530, 1126
European company law, development of 1149–50
European contract law 569–70, 941–4
approach 578–80
concepts of 42
features 578–80
perspectives 581–2
principles of 578–82, 944
purposes of 581–2
scope of 578–80
European Corporate Governance Institute (ECGI) 1159
European Court of Justice, role of 563
European Economic Area (EEA) 554
European Economic Community (EEC) 74, 142, 527, 1126, 1182
European Enforcement Orders 1317
European Group on Tort Law 83, 583
European harmonization process 944
European judicial system 542–9
character of Court’s judgments 547–8
comparative law 548–9
Constitution of the Court of Justice 543–4
context 542
Court of Justice 542–3
General Court 543
judicial precedent, treatment of 547–8
jurisdiction of the Court 544–6
procedure 546
reasoning of 548
working methods 546–7see also European Union (EU)
European Law Institute 108, 596–7, 1324
European Law of Groups 1150–2
European legal culture 440see also legal culture
European legal education 329see also legal education
European legal scholarship 565–6
European Model Company Acts (EMCA) 1147
European Principles of Family Law 1092
European Public Law Organisation 1251
European Research Groups 944
European Sales Law 563–5
European Union (EU) Law 204, 525–56
assessment of 556
basic treaties 528–30
civil law systems 527
common law systems 527
competition law 550–1
components (sources) of 528–42
constitution, lack of formal 528–30
constitutional principles 532–3
Court of Justice 532–3
creation of 559–60
derivation and use of 536–8
EFTA Court 554–5
European law 551
federal systems 551–4
fundamental rights 530–2
general principles of law 536–40
judicial systems inspired by European model 554–6
legislation 533–6
national private law 551
nature of 526–7
perspectives 525–6
private law and public law 549–51
progressive constitutionalization 530–2
proportionality principle 538–40
public international law 540–2
role in comparative law teaching 337–9
transnational courts 555–6
European University Institute, Florence 1146
Europeanization 49, 52, 81–3, 521, 523, 557–97, 1315–16, 1367
accessibility of legal materials 567–9
broad scope 591–4
classical comparative approach 81–2
codification projects 586–8
Common Core Project 575–6
conceptual structures 570–4
contemporary situation 588–94
contract law 588–91
contribution of comparative law 566–8
cross-channel differences 576–8
delict 570–4
Directives 560–2
European contract law 569–70
European Court of Justice, role of 563
European legal scholarship 565–6
European Sales Law 563–5
European Union, creation of 559–60
ius commune approach 82
law journals 574–5
legal training 566–7
momentum, preservation of 594–7
networks 574–5
(p. 1381) practical endeavours 83
principles 584–6
principles of 582–4
private international law 1363–5
Rome and Lisbon treaties 559–60
unification of private law 558–9
unjustified enrichment 570–4
euthanasia 513
Evans-Pritchard, Edward E. 663
Everett, Daniel L. 690
evolutionism 662
Ewald, William 719, 721, 765, 789
ex facto non oritur ius 653
ex nunc effect 1049
exceptionalism 1312
excuse, tort law of 1288
expression theory 914
expressivism 512
extraterritoriality 202–3, 1297–8
Facebook 1051
factualism 1232
fairness
concept of 835, 1267
procedural vs substantive 917
false imprisonment 1288
family
concept of 1064
legal see legal families
similarity 300–2
family law 451, 592, 1088–109, 1366
cohabitation 1101
de facto relationships 1101
debates and future challenges 1096–108
developments and pioneers 1091–3
divorce 1096–100
form and function 1108–9
formalized relationships, recognition of 1100–1
German, Austrian and Swiss 77
harmonization, organic and institutional 1093–6
horizontal 1096–102
individual 1106–8
informal relationships, recognition of 1101
Islamic law 645–50
legal parenthood 1103–4
marriage 1096–100
maternity 1102–3
parentage 1102–3
parental responsibility 1104–6
parenthood 1103–4
parenting, recognition of 1104–6
paternity 1102–3
property division 1096–100
registered partnerships 1100–1
usefulness for comparative study 1089–91
Farran, Sue 485
fascism 90, 321, 889, 1207
Fateh-Moghadam, Bijan 365
fault
concept of 1272
non-fault schemes 1025–8see also liability for fault
fault-principle 1019
faute civile, doctrine of 1014
federal systems 551–4
competences 552
European system and 553–4
federalism 641–2, 1205
Feenstra, Robert 757
fees and expenses 1335–6
Feilchenfeld, Ernst 169
feminism 725
Ferid, Murad 73–5, 77–8
feudalism 159, 301, 447, 903
legal system 8, 1045–7
Feuerbach, P. J. A. 1278, 1280–4, 1289–93
fideicommissa 12
Field, David 159, 164
Fikentscher, Wolfgang 735–8, 740, 742–3, 894–5
finalism 350–2see also functional method
finance and law 861
financial assets 1067
financial crisis (2008) 215, 1149, 1157–9
Financial Services Agency (FSA) 214
fiqh principles 643–4
Firdawsi 627
Firsching, Karl 77
Fishel, Daniel R. 1161
Fitzpatrick, Peter 786–7, 799
fizzurization 1131
Fletcher, E. G. M. 142
Fletcher, George 1292
flexibilization 1130–1see also labour law
floating charges 1055
Flogaïtis, Spiridon 1251
Florentine school of comparatists 91–2, 105
Foelix, Jean-Jacques Gaspard 34, 1343
folklore 889–90, 893
Follen, Charles 157
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 541
food and hospitality sector 865
force majeure 930–1
Ford, Henry 1129–30
Fordism 1129–30
foreign law
aims of 431
application of 409
definition of 1226
foreseeability rule 840–2
formalism, anti- 89
Fortescue, John 12, 18
Forum Europaeum Konzernrecht 1150–2
forum non conveniens, doctrine of 619, 1323, 1358
Foundation for Comparative Law Studies 43
France
administrative law 900, 1274
American critique 49–51
assessment of 30–2, 52–3
belle époque 35–9
Civil Code 30, 33–4, 36, 48, 51, 56, 72–4, 88, 132, 189, 270, 448–50, 471, 504, 527, 645, 705, 759, 768, 839, 884, 887, 889, 892, 975, 982–3
collateral science 40–3
Commission des opérations de bourse 39
comparative perspectives, practical uses of 52
Conseil d’Etat 45–6
constitution of 23
courts 45–7
customary law 13–14, 17, 26–7, 113
decline of comparative law 39–44
development of comparative law 29–53
French contract law 47–8
French law faculties 43–4
humanism, legal 13, 19, 27
international approach 51
internists 40
l’état de droit, concept of 1262–3
labour law 1122
language in 138, 699, 704
law of delict 999
law of obligations 966
law, importance of 140
legal culture 607
legal doctrine 510
Napoleonic Code 642
nationalism in 36
new challenges 49–51
new initiatives 45–9
new legislators 47–8
penal code 34, 56, 1003
post-structuralism 823
practice 48–9
premiers pas 32–5
private law 75
renaissance of 45–52
revitalization of comparative law 49–51
rise of comparative law 32–9
social insurance 1024
student engagement in CLS 44
teaching, insufficiency of 43–4
Frankenberg, Günter 396, 453, 696, 807–8, 813–14, 823
Franklin, Mitchell 168–9
fraud 920–1
free movement of capital 1365–6
free movement of goods 1365
free movement of people 1365–6, 1368
free movement of services 1365–6
Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) 278
freedom
concept of 765
of contract, principle of 905, 1112
of establishment 1315
of expression 859, 1217, 1220
of movement 1269
of the press 1010–11
of speech 1010–11, 1215
of thought 1302–3
freedom of testation
comparative research, role of 1073–5
focus areas 1075–6
limitations of 1073–6
pattern identification 1073–5
principle of 1073
Frege, Gottlob 696
French legal philosophy
sixteenth century 13–19
French Revolution 34, 56, 1032, 1043, 1046
French Society of Comparative Legislation 112
French Supreme Court 45–6
Freudian theory 690
Freund, Ernst 162
Friedman, Lawrence 106, 716–19, 777–8, 797–8, 1064, 1066
frustration, doctrine of 929
functional method (functionalism) 61, 72, 146, 235, 294, 345–88, 393, 512, 663–6, 814–17, 1232
adaptionism 352–4
anthropology and 677
challenges to 855–8
classical 355–6
comparative function 372–5
comparative law 365–7
constructivist 354–5
critical function 383–5
criticism of 396–8
critique of legal orders 383–5
epistemological 360–1
epistemological function 368–72
equivalence 362–5
evaluative function 379–81
finalism 350–2
functionalism, concepts of 348–67
functions of function 368–85
instrumentalism 356–7
interpretative 386–8
materialism and 234
method 346–8
praesumptio similitudinis 375–7
presumptive function 375–7
refined 357–60
structuralism and 93
systematizing function 377–9
(p. 1383) terminology 854–5
tertium comparationis 372–5
typological method 1062
universalizing function 381–3
fundamental breach, doctrine of 957–8
fundamental rights 530–2, 1010, 1132, 1263–4, 1366–7
provision for 541–2, 731
mixed systems 497
Gaius 744, 888
Institutes 4–6, 10, 25, 221
Gallo, Paolo 965
Gambaro, Antonio 398
game, concept of 301
Gandolfi, Giuseppe 587
Gans, Eduard 57
Gardbaum, Stephen 1213
Gardner, J. C. 122, 130
Garlicki, Lech 196
Garner, J. F. 140
Garth, Bryant G. 285, 784–5, 794, 799–800, 802
Gärtner, Rudolf 979
Gaudemet-Tallon, Hélène 1345
Geertz, Clifford 722
gender
discrimination 220
equality 451, 645, 1220, 1366
identity 1106–8see also women
General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 1052
generic constitutional law, definition of 1215–16
genetic relations 304–8
Gentz, Joachim 744
Gény, François 36
Gerber, David 620–1
German Association of Comparative Law 73
German Insider Training Guidelines 1160
German/Swiss/Austrian model
assessment of 55, 84–6
conflict of laws 77
continuity 69–70
criticism 83–4
development of comparative law 54–86
early stages of institutionalization 59–60
Europeanization 81–3
evolutionary paradigm 57–8
family law 77
fields of interest 72–4
general aspects 70–2
general comparative law 75
German Civil Code (BGB), development of 79–80
Gleichschaltung policy 65–7
golden age (1919–1933) 60–5
institutionalization 70–2
Kaiser-Wilhelm Institutes 62–4
legal harmonization 79–84
legislation and courts 78–9
legislative comparative law 58–9
long nineteenth Century 56–60
Max Planck Institutes 69, 71–2, 77, 367, 1143–4, 1341, 1345
methodological foundations 72–3
methods 72–4
National Socialist comparative law 67–9
philosophical and political traditions 56–7
Rabel, influence of 60–2
recovery 70–9
restitution, law of 76
rupture and remorse (1933–1950) 65–70
sale of goods 64–5
sales, law of 75–6
scholarship in the post-war era 74–7
succession, law of 77
tort law 76
Uniform Law, development of 80–1
Weimar Republic 60–2
Germany
Civil Code (BGB) 57–9, 75, 88, 166, 203–4, 214, 223, 239, 360, 450, 504, 506, 527, 756, 763, 765, 768, 841, 845, 847, 914, 940, 1063
commercial statutes 58
faktisches Arbeitsverhältnis doctrine 287
English law and 967–70
expansionist foreign policy 69
family law 404–5
formalist heritage 89
idealism 765
interpretative principles 249
law and economics 838–9
law of obligations 966
legal categories 471
legal formalism 88
legal philosophy 160
pandectism 80, 82, 83, 88, 204–5, 271
private international law 77
public policy 384
Rechtsstaat, concept of 1263
Schutzzweck (protective ambit) 76
Takeover Code 1160
tort law 76
unjust enrichment 984
Verkehrspflichtenhaftung 301
Zollverein (1834) 276
Gessner, Volkmar 715
Gibb, Andrew Dewar 141
Gibson, James 715–16
gift, principle of 1066–7, 1361
gift giving 665, 781
promises 911–12
gig economy 1131
Gilmore, Eugene 164
Gilmore, Grant 769
(p. 1384) Ginsburg, Tom 785, 859
Girard, René 690
Glendon, Mary Ann 1093
Glenn, Patrick 394, 438–40, 607, 609, 735–6, 738, 740–1, 792, 1078
legal traditions 492–3
Global Competitiveness Report 872
global governance 863
globalization 47, 48, 146, 599–623, 774, 1169
academic retreat from 611–13
aftermath of 1127–8
assessment of 599–603
comparative knowledge 617–20
dynamic perspectives 607–8
economic and cultural dimensions of 179
education and 321, 337, 341, 343
epistemic communities 603–7
global governance 617–20
ideological challenges 611–20
information 620–2
interconnectedness 620–2
law, of 177
legal culture 728–30
legal profession and 784–5
methodological challenges 603–11
nation states 603–7
national legal systems 523
polycentric 789
practical challenges 620–3
private law, focus on 608–11
static perspectives 607–8
transnational uniform law, rise of 622–3
world vision of comparative law 613–17
Gluckman, Max 660–6, 668
Goadby, Frederic M. 120, 125–6, 128–31, 136
Godefroy, Jacques 18, 21, 152
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang 387
Goff, Lord Robert 516–17, 521, 963, 982
Goitein, Samuel 650
Goldschmidt, Walter 362
good administration, standards of 1264
good faith principle 223, 583, 727, 908–9, 919
good governance 463
concept of 1254
Google 1051
Gordley, James 351, 577, 974, 984
Gorla, Gino 92, 98, 109
contracts 92–5
Goudy, Henry 134
governmental interest analysis 77
Goyena, Florencio García 269–70
Gratian 8
Graveson, R. H. 141–2
Gray, Albert 130
Graziadei, Michele 399, 764
Great Britain see United Kingdom (UK)
Great Depression (1930s) 171–2, 1154
‘grey zone’ jurisdictions 1320
Griffiths, John 400, 673–4
Grimm, Jacob 305–6, 1282
Grimm’s law 305
Großfeld, Bernhard 398, 698
Grossi, Paolo 757
Grotius, Hugo 19, 20, 127, 151, 307, 738, 987
group liability 1294
Grundnorm (rule of recognition) 888
Guettier, Christophe 1271
Guifen, Feng 232
Gulf War (1991) 1298
Gutteridge, H. C. 120–2, 128, 130–8, 141, 395–6
gypsy law 101
habeas corpus 259–60
Habermas, Jürgen 642, 800, 1198
Hagan, John 794–5
Hague Conference on Private International Law 48–9, 164, 1348, 1352–3, 1362
Hague Conventions, conflict of laws 79
Hague Judgment Project 1319–21
Hague Principles on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts 48–9
Hague Uniform Law of International Sales (ULIS) 935–6
Hailsham, Lord 136
Haley, John 220
Hall, Jerome 1292
Halliday, Simon 1260
Hallstein, Walter 70, 560
Hamilton, Alexander 257, 1194
Hammond, William 161–2
Hampshire, Stuart 700–1
Hamson, C. J. 134, 140, 142–3
Hancock, John 153
Hansemann, David 1161
harm 1288
harmonization of law 596–7, 944, 949, 983
ALI’s Judgment Recognition Initiative 1321–2
domestic law for intra-state disputes in Europe 1314–16
Hague Judgment Project 1319–21
international arbitration 1325–8
Joint ALI/UNIDROIT Project 1322–5
limits to 1328–31
minimum 919
procedural 1325–8
of procedural law in the EU 1314–19
projects 785–7
scope of procedural 1328–31
supra-regional 1319–28
unified rules for cross-border litigation in Europe 1316–19see also civil procedure
Hart, Herbert L. A. 461
Hastings, William 165, 166
Haupt, Günter 74
Haupt, Heinz-Gerhard 406
(p. 1385) Hayek, Friedrich 777
Hazard, Geoffrey 109
Hazard, John 175
Heck, Philipp 353, 379
Hedley, Steve 988–9
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 57, 634, 764
Heidelberg School 57
Heineccius, Johann 151, 257, 266–7
Hellwege, Phillip 965, 976, 984
Helmholz, R. H. 156, 158
Henderson, Robert Candlish 129
Herbert, Ronald 278
Herder, Johann Gottfried 714, 721, 763, 765
Herschell, Lord Chancellor 117
Heydebrand, Wolf 608
Heymann, Ernst 65–7, 69
Higham, John 695
Hinckley, John 1301
Hindu law 114–15, 126, 132, 138
Hintze, Otto 406
Hirschl, Ran 454
Hispanic Law see Latin America
historical linguistics 304–8
comparative method 306–7
observations 307–8
science of language 305–6see also language; linguistics
Historical School 57–9, 238, 303
Hitler, Adolf 65, 71, 689, 692
Hobbes, Thomas 21–2, 26
Hoebel, E. Adamson 782
Hoeflich, Michael 149, 157, 160, 162
Hoffman, David 158–9
holism 764
Holmes, Oliver Wendell 770, 1005, 1014, 1016
horizontal comparative research 1071
horizontal effect, doctrine of 1217–18
Horwitz, Morton 766, 770
Hotman, François 13
Howarth, David 1001
Howe, William 162
Huberich, Charles 164–6
Hug, Walther 169
Hugo, Gustav 266
human capital 1067
Human Development Index (HDI) 872
human dignity 863
human resource management 1118–19
human rights 515, 860, 1135
comparative domestic law 1228–30
comparative international law 1228–30
critical legal studies 821
discourse of 616
domestic law 1228
epistemic authority 1239–40
international law 1197–200, 1227–8
international minimum 1233–4
international standards 518
Islamic law 634
judicial practice 1227
legal universality of 1240
moral universality of 1240, 1247–8
persuasive authority 1235
private international law 1366–8
respect for 173
rule of law and 1262
universal instruments 1229
violation of 1321see also human rights law
human rights law 1222–49
actors 1246–8
assessment of 1223–4, 1248–9
authority 1234–5
boundaries of 1224–31
democratic objection to legitimacy of 1241–2
distinctions 1228–31
general 1232–4
justifications for authority of 1235–41
justified authority of comparison 1238–41
justified authority of transnational 1236–8
legitimate authority of 1234–43
methods of 1231–4, 1243–5
notion 1225–7
origins 1227–8
quantitative studies 1243–5
regions 1245–6
scope 1245–6
selected issues in 1243–8
transnational consensus method 1231–2
universal bodies 1246–8see also human rights
humanism 13–14, 24, 755–6, 857
Humboldt, Alexander von 263
Hungarian Civil Code 188–9
Hunt, Chris D. L. 965
hunting rights 24–6
Huntington, Samuel 431, 638
Hurst, James Willard 766
Husa, Jaakko 396, 399–400, 405, 439
Hyland, Richard 396, 967
Ibn Abi al-Dam, manual for 629–31
Ibrahim, Saadeddin 634
idea of law, definition of 57
idealtypus, concept of 300–2
ideological approach 1252–3
ignorance of law 1294
Iguvine Tablets 744
Ilbert, Sir Courtenay 115, 117, 120
illegal contracts 916–17
immaterial damages 508–9, 571
immoral contracts 916–17
inchoate criminality 1294, 1303
Index of Legal Certainty 50
Indian Codes 126
Indian law 130, 132, 138, 1195, 1214, 1284
(p. 1386) indicators 863
indirect effect, doctrine of 1217–18
indirect loss, concept of 947
individualism 48, 156, 206, 387, 716, 857, 1329
industrial accident insurance 1123see also accidents; labour law
industrial policy 220
Industrial Revolution 1113
industrialization 1122–6see also labour law
infancy, tort law of 1288
inheritance contracts 1075
injunction, writ of 259
insanity 1288, 1301
Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT) 64, 588see also UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts
Institute of Advanced Legal Studies 142
institutional approach 1253
instrumentalism 350, 356–7see also functional method
insurance law 376, 380, 979f, 1023–5
social insurance schemes 1024–5
social security systems, tort law and 1025
strict liability and liability insurance 1023–4 see also Principles of European Insurance Contract Law
integration studies 353
intellectual property law 407
IP rights 1042
intellectualism 714
intention, tort law of 1288
intention theory 914
interdisciplinary, definition of 854
International Academy of Comparative Law 37, 93, 95, 108, 128–9, 143, 281, 1146
international arbitration 1325–8
International Association for Comparative Legal Science and Political Economics 59–60
International Association for Labour Legislation (IALL) 1116
International Committee of Comparative Law 143
International Competition Network (ICN) 1172, 1186
International Congress of Comparative Law 78
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 795
International Encyclopaedia of Comparative Law 75, 767, 895, 995, 1033–4, 1060–1, 1138, 1146
International Faculty of Corporate Law and Securities Regulation 1146
International Labour Organization (ILO) 1124–7
international law, concept of 1283
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 811
International Organisation of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) 455
International Organizations (IOs) 529–30, 541, 866, 1186
International Society for Labour Law and Social Security Legislation (ISLLSSL) 1125
International Survey of Family Law 1091
international treaties 1267
Internet of Things 1051
intoxication, as a defence 1302
intra partes effect 1211–12
Ioffe, Olympiad S. 191
Iranian Civil Code 643
Ireland, Gordon 169
Irish law 1195, 1199, 1218
iron curtain 91
Islamic law 101, 125, 132, 183, 384, 445–6, 471, 488, 739, 748, 1361
assessment of 650–1
child custody 646, 649
civilization 625–8
comparative issues 637–50
contracts and torts 642–5
family law 645–50
gender equality 645
legal culture 624–51
marriage 646, 649
personal vs territorial models 638–42
public and private law 637–50
rule of law 629–36
succession, law of 646–50
termination of 646, 649
isolationism 51
Italian Civil Code 88–91, 270, 450, 587, 886, 888
Italy
1990s and beyond 98–102
challenges and future directions 102–7
civil and commercial law scholars, early 20th century 90–1
commercial law 98–9
development of comparative law 87–109
emergence of modern discipline 90–6
emergence of the mainstream (1950s–1960s) 92–5
global contribution to comparative law 107–9
Gorla’s Contracts 92–5
institutionalization of the field (1970s–1980s) 95–6
interdisciplinary trends 105–7
Italian law, Americanization of 103–4
law schools and associations 95
political influence, lack of 103–5
private law bias 102–3
private law comparison, dominance of 95–6
purity and pluralism 96–103
reception, layers of 88–9
reformists, post-World War II period 91–2
Sacco’s Formants 92–5
iura propria 433, 435
ius civile 5–6
(p. 1387) ius commune approach 5, 12, 14–16, 19, 33–4, 82, 91, 95, 255, 280, 327, 338, 351, 392, 433, 435, 446, 448, 565, 571, 574–5, 602, 1062–3, 1084, 1343see also Europeanization
ius dispositivum 915
ius gentium 5–6, 153, 256, 351
ius naturale 5–6
ius proprium 5
ius unum 435
iustum pretium 917
Jankélévitch, Vladimir 690
Jansen, Nils 750–1, 988–9
Japan
antitrust system 1171
assessment of 202, 226
challenges 226
Civil Code 84, 203–12, 449–50, 504
civil dispute resolution studies 219–24
civil law amendments 211–14
comparative law activity 207–18
comparison and assessment of 218–25
consumer protection 211–14
corporate law and practice 214–15
development of comparative law 201–26
exportation of Japanese law 204–7
foreign and comparative law, importation into 202–4
groups of companies (keiretsu) 1162
history matters 202–7
justice system reform 215–18
Meiji government 203
methodological lessons 224–5
Jaspers, Karl 740, 745
Jayme, Erik 77
Jefferson, Thomas 151, 153, 155, 163
Jenks, Edward 116, 129
Jescheck, Hans-Heinrich 1284–6, 1291
Jewish law 434, 487, 634–5, 640, 748, 857
Jitta, Josephus 164
João VI, king of Portugal 257
Joerges, Christian 77, 785
Joint Network on European Private Law 942, 944
Jolowicz, H. F. 130, 134, 140
Jones, Gareth 963
Jones, William 305
Jordanian Civil Code 645
Josserand, Louis 89
Journal of Comparative Legal Science 57–8
journals of comparative law 57, 71, 118–19, 150, 166–7, 169, 574–5
judges, role of 1144–5, 1273–4
judicial dialogue 548
judicial interpretation, process of 1232
judicial review 178, 1196, 1206, 1230
adjudicatory procedures 1213–14
categories of 1260–1
centralized review 1210–11
constitutional law 1208–14
diffuse 1208–10
generalist 1208–10
grounds of 1270–1
Kelsenian Constitutional Court 1210–11
political constitutionalism 1213
principles of 537
specialized review 1210–11
strong-form review 1208–10
structures of 1208–14
United States 1208–10
weak-form 1211–13
Juenger, Friedrich 77, 1346, 1350
jura novit curia 43
Juris Diversitas 480–1
jurisdiction 1297–8
jurisdictional error 1256
jurisprudence 170
debate 781
juristic papyrology 61
jurists, role of 13, 22, 465–6
jury participation 1329
jury theorem approach 1244
jus commune 694, 1226see also ius commune approach
jus gentium 1226, 1241
justice
concept of 835, 1282
formula for commutative 986
justification, principle of 1288
Justinian 9–10, 25, 152, 161, 446, 471, 886
Kahn-Freund, Otto 133, 140, 144–5, 1113, 1124, 1345
Kaiser-Wilhelm Institutes 62–4
Kaldor-Hicks criterion 831–2
Kalman, Laura 349
Kant, Immanuel 354–5, 765, 797, 1278
Kantian philosophy 748see also neo-Kantian functionalism
Karst, Kenneth L. 282
Kaser, Max 1096
Kaskel, Walter 1129
Kawashima, Takeyoshi 219–21
Keeton, Robert 1026
Kegel, Gerhard 68, 77, 1345, 1346
Keith, Berriedale 130–1
Kelsen, Hans 94, 461, 1194, 1206, 1208
Kelsenian Constitutional Court 1210–11
Kemmerer, Edwin W. 274
Kennedy, David 399, 611–13, 617, 820
Kennedy, Duncan 106, 778, 815, 818
Kent, James 157–8, 839
Kertesz, Imre 693
Kessler, Friedrich 64, 66, 519
Kieninger, Eva-Maria 1034–5
Kiralfy, Albert 140
(p. 1388) Kirchmann, Julius von 354
Kirchwey, George 165
Kischel, Uwe 400, 440
Kitagawa 204–5
Klein, Franz 1161
Klemperer, Victor 691
knowledge 292–317
analysing comparison 295–302
assessment of 292–5, 317–18
comparison and classification 295–6
comparison and qualification 296–7
comparison and theory 316–17
complex comparisons 300–2
family similarity 300–2
genetic relations 304–8
histoire comparée 314–15
historic development of 313–17
historical linguistics 304–8
idealtypus, concept of 300–2
interests and methods 302–4
judging similarity and difference 297–8
religion and typologies 309–13
social change 313–17
tertia comparationis 299–300
Kocka, Jürgen 406
Kocourek, Albert 170–1, 330
Kohlberg, Lawrence 745
Köhler, Hans 71
Kohler, Josef 57–8, 59–60, 657, 679
König, Detlef 76
Koopmans, T. 508
Korkisch, Fritz 65
Korkunov, N. M. 166
Koschaker, Paul 303, 566
Koskenniemi, Martii 694–5
Koziol, Helmut 83
Krause, Harry D. 1089
Krebs, Thomas 965, 974, 990–1
Kristeva, Julia 700–1
Kronman, Anthony 632
Kuhn, Arthur 165
Kutscher, Hans 537
Kuttner, Stephan 757
Kwall, Roberta Rosenthal 857
l’Amérique latine, concept of 275–6
La Porta, Rafael 462, 861–2, 872, 1162
Laband, Paul 282
Labatt, C. B. 1116
Labor Law Trust Group 1126
labour co-determination 1163–4
labour law 1110–35
academic instruction 1113–16
arbitration 1123
assessment of 1111–16
child labour 1122–3
collective agreements 1124
collective bargaining 1123–4
comparative law, role of 1129–34
decollectivization 1131–3
demographic change 1133
deregulation 1130–1
descriptive 1117–18
discipline of 1115
European project 1126–7
female labour 1122–3
flexibilization 1130–1
future prospects 1134–5
globalization, aftermath of 1127–8
industrial accident insurance 1123
industrialization 1122–6
interest disputes, conciliation of 1123
labour rights adjudication 1123
legal category 1111–13
multidimensional 1120–1
national law, role in 1121–8
predictive 1118
purposive 1118–20
state capacity, global pressure on 1134
taxonomy of 1116–21
technological change 1133–4
unemployment insurance 1123
wage payment 1122
laesio enormis 917
Laferrière, Dany 1273
Lagarde, Paul 1345
Lalive, Pierre 1345
Lambert, Edouard 35–7, 59, 121, 128, 558, 611, 773, 1194
land 1067see also property
Landis, James 1114, 1129
Langbein, John 1066, 1085, 1331
Langdell, Christopher 160–1, 328, 769
Langer, Maximo 792
language 681–708
assessment of 681–3, 706–8
Babel 695–7
carnivalesque 823
deflation of 697–700
English, use in Court proceedings 554–5, 568–9, 697–8
European law 703–6
familiarity 700–3
foreignness 700–3
French 699
generational shifts 694–5
history, modern 691–5
(p. 1389) imagination 685–7
journals 575
natural 469
non-national, growth of 697–700
observations 684–5
of the case 546–7
particularism 688–91
plurilinguism 685–7
post-war 688–91
post-war generation 691–3
protection of minority 731
regional and minority 698
universalism 688–91see also linguistics; translation
Larenz, Karl 74, 690
Lassen, Jul 1113–14
Lasser, Mitchel 347
Last Judgment, doctrine of 749
Latin America 167, 253–87
Andean community 279–80
Argentina and Uruguay 267–70
assessment of 253–4, 287
authority of comparative law 283–5
challenges of comparative law 283–5
Chile 263–5
civil law, attempts to codify 262–3
codification 257–2, 260–2
colonial period 254–7
common law, growing influence of 273–5
competition law 1185–6
constitutions 257–60
contract law, principles of 280–1
critical legal studies 810
development in first century of 272–3
developments 281–7
eclecticism, high degree of ‘wild’ 270–1, 281–3
European ‘softness’ 280–1
foreign and French law, copying of 260–2
foreign law, role of 262–3
ibero-americanism 276–7
independence 257–73
MERCOSUR 279–80
mimicry 270
pan-americanism 276–7
Portugal 256–7
primary legal structures 254
Spanish legal order 255–6
sub-regional integration 279–80
Supreme Court of Argentina 285–7
Supreme Court of Brazil 285–7
twentieth century to present day trends 273–7
unification of law 275–81
Latin American Association of Integration (ALADI) 279
Latour, Bruno 800–1, 803
law, concept of 470–1
Law and Economics movement 105–7, 1175
Law Commissions 143–4
English and Scottish 505
role of 1274
law merchant 447
law of nations 150see also ius gentium
law of obligations 407
Law on Road Traffic Accidents 39
law-selecting approach 1350–1
Lawson, F. H. 124, 134, 139–42
lawyers 1144–5
Lay, Horatio Nelson 231–2
League of Nations 37, 64, 128, 935
Learned Hand-formula 997, 1014
least restrictive means requirement 1216
Lebanon, political situation in 636, 639–41
Lee, R. W. 120, 126–30, 136–7
Leflar, Robert B. 77
legal anthropology 106–7, 125, 667, 674, 678–9, 726, 781–2
deconstruction 668–71
dispute resolution 666–8
evolutionism 662
functionalism 663–6
Neo-Marxist theory 668–71
process 666–8
theoretical changes 662–71
legal argumentation 803
legal borrowing 1119–20
legal certainty 50n 90
legal consciousness 818–19
concept of 816, 819
legal counsel 1144–5
legal culture 710–33, 791–3
assessment of 710–11
components of 715–17
concept of 469–71, 724, 728, 730–1, 845
cultures as fields of similarity 713–17
definition of 717–18
difference, celebration of 724–30
disaggregation of 730–3
European 713–15
European legal integration 726–8
globalization 728–30
ident