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date: 23 February 2020

(p. 861) Index

(p. 861) Index

A
ascension see citizenship ascension
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
additional layer of identity 779
effect on statelessness 162, 768
impact 777
legal and political controversies 778–9
asylum seekers see refugeehood
B
biological citizenship
additional layer of identity 779
DNA testing 779–82
impact of ART 777
legal and political controversies 778–9
underlying concept 776–7
birthright citizenship see jus sanguinis; jus soli
birthright tourism 69
boundary problem
citizenship as membership 61–4
concluding remarks 78–9
franchise rights 293–7
mismatch between territorial and membership boundaries
effect of migration 72–3
free movement 74
international system of states 73–4
jus domicilii 73
secession of states 74–8
territorial boundary shifts 74–5
‘world state cosmopolitans’ 74
C
capacity contract
argument for rejection 841
challenge to inherited assumptions 840–1
cognitively disabled persons
political participation 842–4
developing more inclusive citizenship 855–7
problem of wardship 844–51
rethinking political agency 851–5
underlying concept 840
children
capacity contract 842–4
developing more inclusive citizenship 855–7
problem of wardship 844–51
rethinking political agency 851–5
citizenship
see also individual concepts of citizenship
challenging perspectives
hollow-promise critics 529–30
post-national critics 530
identity and collective membership 541–4
importance
key empirical questions 524–6
key questions 544–6
methodological challenges 530–2
theoretical perspectives 527–9
for sale
naturalization 350
significance for access
mechanisms and participation 534–6
political and civic engagement 533–4
socio-economic participation
see also Economic theories of citizenship ascension; comparing citizenship regimes
consequences for society 540–1
premiums and outcomes 537–9
(p. 862) citizenship ascension
age-earning profiles 204–6
club membership compared 202–4
economic citizenship premium and issues arising 200–2
effects
impact on country of origin 215–16
on migrants 208–13
further development of human capital model 216–18
impact of particular citizenship regimes 235–6
naturalization
changes in process 348–53
future developments 353–4
importance 337–8
ultimate goals 339–43
variety of policies 338
ways in which naturalization policies are contested 343–7
waiting periods 206–7
citizenship-by-investment 55
citizenship for sale
arguments against 804–10
arguments in favour 797–803
future direction for research 810–13
history and development 794–7
naturalization 350
new global stratifcation 789–94
citizenship regimes
determinants for variation
comparative law and political science 231–3
historical institutionalism 230–1
international diffusion 233–5
in immigration states
exclusion in Gulf States 387–92
future developments 399–402
inclusion in Western States 392–9
paradoxical nature of citizenship 384–7
impact on other outcomes
citizenship acquisition rates 235–6
immigrant integration 236–7
mobility 237–8
key theoretical and methodological challenges
data availability and validity 240
generalizability 238–9
interdisciplinarity 239
methodological nationalism 239–40
political contestation 240–1
meaning and scope 222–4
meaning and scope of research 221–2
non-citizenship 333–4
non-Western contexts 442
critical engagement in key concepts 446–8
fundamental question for postcolonial citizenship 197
gender discrimination 442
Greek and Roman citizenship 16
internal migration 443–5
major challenges and insights 431–2
meso-level citizenship 435–7
migrant policies 439–42
no guarantee of rights 434
non-citizenship 438–9
organization of citizenship rights and obligations 433
scope of citizenship 433–4
selective jus sanguinis norms 187
rethinking political agency 851–5
socio-economic participation 540–1
state transition
challenges and dynamics of new transition states 407–10
defence of sovereignty 410–14
ethnicization of citizenship laws 415–20
notable and consequential differences 424–7
role of international actors 420–4
typologies 224
access to status and rights 227
acquisition and loss of the status 225
ascriptive and voluntary membership conceptions 224–5
comprehensive versus specific range of issues 227–9
ideal-type models 229–30
importance 224
one-dimensional versus multi-dimensional 226–7
scope and purpose 225
static versus dynamic 229
city-states 39–41
classical citizenships 41–2
coercively constituted identities
policy implications 826–34
underlying principle 825–6
cognitively disabled persons
capacity contract 842–4
(p. 863) current challenges to liberal and republican theories 95
developing more inclusive citizenship 855–7
problem of wardship 844–51
rethinking political agency 851–5
selection of voters 300–1
colonialism
categories of imperial subjects
elite European membership 183
exclusionary reality of racialized citizenship 180–1
lineage and ancestral based claims 182
merchant and slave labor based claims 182–3
natives and non-natives distinguished 182
city-states 39
contemporary postcolonial citizenship
emergence of group differentiated citizenship 194–5
important questions for the future 197
role of civil society 195–6
nation-state citizenships 45–7
post-colonial citizenship
origins and early development 178–80
transition from imperial subject to postcolonial citizen 184–9
proto-racialized citizenship 134–5
rise of a welfare citizenship
erratic coverage 192
meaning and scope 190–1
need for fragmented classes of people 191–2
resentment against social protection programs 193–4
subset of social citizenship 189–90
Roman citizenship 25
territory in citizenship 558
transition from imperial subject to postcolonial citizen
attempts at rights-bearing autonomy 188
euphoria of emergent nationalism 185–6
group conflict 184
impact of long-term colonial law 187–8
impact of migration 186–7
outcome of divisive colonial polices 188–9
scramble for territory 184–5
tension between jus soli and jus sanguinis 185
cosmopolitan citizenship
ancient Greek philosophy 40–1
controversial concept and challenges arising 694–5
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 99
democracy
liberal nationalist challenge 699–704
response to problem of global democratic deficit 697–9
underlying concept 696
different associations and meanings 710–11
‘end of nation-states’ debate 819
global citizens 570
main conceptions distinguished 695–6
as normative ideal 705–10
ontological foundations 51
supranational citizenship distinguished 670
‘world state cosmopolitans’ 74
critical race theory
absence of clear trajectory 148–9
construction of nation-states 135–41
key concepts 129–32
negative racial discrimination 144–6
proto-racialized citizenship 132–5
racial denaturalizations 141–4
culture
changes in naturalization process 351–3
citizenship in immigration states 385
cultural diversity
arguments for a more unified concept 280–4
arguments for a multicultural ethos 284–6
citizenship as descriptive concept 270–2
claims of diversity 274–80
impact on liberal-democratic norms 286
key arguments and areas of interest 268–9
meaning and scope 272–4
culture of ‘Romanness’ 23
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 95–7
inclusion in Western States 397–8
(p. 864) indigenous citizenship
distinctive claims 456–7
range of conceptual frameworks 454–5
nationhood
current nation-building practices 111
ethno-cultural demand for congruency 115–16
shallowing the cultural depth of civic nationhood 124–6
shrinking the overlap with citizenship 116–23
socio-historical perspectives of nationhood 114
territory in citizenship 555
cyber citizens 570
D
democracy
boundary problem in political theory 61–4
claims of diversity 274
contemporary liberal approaches 120–2
cosmopolitan citizenship 51
liberal nationalist challenge 699–704
response to problem of global democratic deficit 697–9
underlying concept 696
current nation-building practices 111
demos and citizenry distinguished 71–2
European Union citizenship 678
franchise rights
boundary problem 293–7
contribution of citizenship as a legal status 308–9
importance 290–3
referendums 306–8
right-sizing the electorate 301–6
selection of voters 297–301
Greek citizenship
associative project of taking responsibility 27
participatory engagement 26–7
proto-philosophical species of democracy 30–1
republican models distinguished 28–9
human rights 253–6
impact of gender on citizenship 154–5
impact of war in Western Europe 47
performative citizenship in democratic polities 508–11
rethinking political agency 853
shared nationhood 75–6
denationalization
changing nature of citizenship 376–7
citizenship security and state powers 358–60
denaturalization distinguished 361
evolution over time 364–7
goals 361–2
grounds 362–4
meaning and scope 360–1
outstanding key questions 379–80
questions of legitimacy
absolute right to retain one’s citizenship 370–2
arbitrariness 372–4
responsibilities to other states 374–5
refugeehood 721
state power 377–9
theoretical perspectives 367–9
denaturalization
denationalization distinguished 361
in Gulf States 436–7
importance 250
marital denaturalization 299
pre-war legislation in Europe 365
racial denaturalizations 141–4, 148
rare object of international opprobrium 132
targetting of stateless persons 755
diasporas
accommodation of ethno-cultural diversity 123
citizenship and nationhood 115
citizenship regimes 233
durability of rights 593–5
engagement practices 234
evolving conceptions 569
external citizenship 401
franchise rights 301, 820
Greek passport refusals 399
meaning and scope
analytical use 580–2
diasporic citizenship 583–5
ethno-national groups 582
institutionalization of relationships 583
membership 583
multiple citizenship 622
(p. 865) policy objectives 582
politics in a non-Western context 241
state trends 631
territory in citizenship 558
digital citizenship
concluding remarks 783
governance of immigration 775–6
history and development 769–70
impact on mobility 774–5
improvements to access and participation 770–1
‘social sorting’ 773–4
spread of surveillance 771–3
disabled persons see cognitively disabled persons
diversity
contemporary liberal approaches 124
cultural diversity
arguments for a more unified concept 280–4
arguments for a multicultural ethos 284–6
citizenship as descriptive concept 270–2
claims of diversity 274–80
impact on liberal-democratic norms 286
key arguments and areas of interest 268–9
meaning and scope 272–4
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 96–7
current nation-building practices 111
religion as framework for citizenship 489–93
Western States 395–6
domesticated animals
developing more inclusive citizenship 856
internal exclusion 839–40
problem of wardship 844–5
dual citizenship
broad acceptance 50, 631–4
citizenship regimes 234, 235
economic theories of citizenship ascension 209, 212, 216–17
franchise rights 301, 304, 309
governance 601, 606, 609
moral complexities arising 833–4
multilevel citizenship 651
post-colonial citizenship 186
re-scaling citizenship 55
recognition of benefits 635–8
state transition 414, 417, 420, 425
territory in citizenship 568
E
e-citizenship 55
early citizenships
classical antiquity 41–2
cosmopolitanism 40–1
emergence of city-states 39–41
hunter-gatherers 38
key elements for discussion 37–8
nation-state citizenships 43–5
nation-state colonialism 45–7
Neolithic Revolution 39
State-citizenships 42–3
ecocitizens 570
economics
boundary problem in political theory 61–4
categories of imperial subjects 182–3
changes in naturalization process 349–50
citizenship-by-investment 55
citizenship for sale
arguments against 804–10
arguments in favour 797–803
future direction for research 810–13
history and development 794–7
naturalization 350
new global stratifcation 789–94
contemporary postcolonial citizenship 194–5
cosmopolitan citizenship 51
gender
role of gender on right to earn 156–7
‘guest workers’ 760–2
Gulf States
impact of oil 389
internal tiering 390
impact of Neolithic Revolution 39
nation-state citizenships 45, 46
non-Western contexts 443
post-modern citizenships
current challenges 48
the ‘new Argonauts’ 50
trans-State mobility of goods 48–9
precarious citizenship 752
selection of voters 298–9
socio-economic participation
(p. 866) consequences for society 540–1
premiums and outcomes 537–9
socio-historical perspectives of nationhood
shift from agrarian to industrial economy 113
transport and communication 114–15
theories of citizenship ascension
age-earning profiles 204–6
club membership compared 202–4
economic citizenship premium and issues arising 200–2
further development of human capital model 216–18
impact on country of origin 215–16
impact on host country 213–15
implications for migrants 208–13
waiting periods 206–7
welfare citizenship
data from Malaysia 192
new political economy 190
‘embryo citizenship’ 161–2
emigration see diasporas; migration
enclosure model of citizenship 320–3
‘end of nation-states’ debate 818–20
ethnic cleansing 144–6
ethnicity
critical race theory
absence of clear trajectory 148–9
construction of nation-states 135–41
international legal constraints 146–8
key concepts 129–32
negative racial discrimination 144–6
proto-racialized citizenship 132–5
racial denaturalizations 141–4
current nation-building practices 111
diasporas 582
ethnicization of laws in new states 415–20
federal citizenship 655
non-universal aspect of citizenship 52
non-Western migrant policies 439–42
precarious citizenship 752
relationship between citizenship and reproduction 162
socio-historical perspectives of nationhood 114
transition from imperial subject to postcolonial citizen 186
European Union citizenship 398–9, 565–9, 645, 674–81, 832–3
F
federal citizenship
coexistence of two levels of citizenship 655–6
governance 602
internal jurisdictional boundaries 653–4
legal status 654–5
political membership 69
supranational citizenship distinguished 672
underlying concept 645
feminist perspectives
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 95–6
dual nature of citizenship 153–4
impact of gender on citizenship 154–7
need for recognition of care work 157–60
non-universal aspect of citizenship 52
queer citizenship 171–3
queer liberalism 167–71
relationship between citizenship and reproduction 160–4
sexual activity absent reproduction 164–6
franchise rights
boundary problem 293–7
contribution of citizenship as a legal status 308–9
importance 290–3
indigenous peoples 458
non-citizenship 328–30
referendums 306–8
right-sizing the electorate 301–6
selection of voters 297–301
freedom of movement
changes in naturalization process 349
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 100
digital citizenship 774–5
impact of particular citizenship regimes on integration 237–8
mismatch between territorial and membership boundaries 74
multilevel citizenship 648
precarious citizenship 747–8
socio-historical perspectives of nationhood 114–15
supranational citizenship
European Union citizenship 681
regional agreements 682
trans-State mobility of goods 48–9
G
(p. 867) gender
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 95
federal citizenship 655
non-universal aspect of citizenship 52
non-Western migrant policies 442
patriarchal world of Greek citizenship 29–30
performative citizenship 503
refugee definition 725
secular law 480
selection of voters 298–9
sexual citizenship
dual nature of citizenship 153–4
impact of gender on citizenship 154–7
need for recognition of care work 157–60
queer citizenship 171–3
queer liberalism 167–71
relationship between citizenship and reproduction 160–4
sexual activity absent reproduction 164–6
global citizens 272, 570, 670, 679, 709
governance
capacity contract
argument for rejection 841
challenge to inherited assumptions 840–1
cognitively disabled persons 842–4
problem of wardship 844–51
underlying concept 840
challenge to conventional concept of citizenship 599–603
colonies 46
cosmopolitan citizenship 696, 699
digital citizenship 775–6
early citizenships 38–9
‘end of nation-states’ debate 820
impact on core values 826
indigenous peoples 471
internal migration 443, 445
international organization to address migration 613–17
intrusion of market 805
multilevel citizenship 646–7
multiple citizenship 655, 661
networked societies 772
post-colonial citizenship 185
pressure from future migration 617–18
queer citizenship 167, 172
rights
choice of law 606–7
negative rights 608
positive rights 608–9
rights to enter and remain 603–6
tradeoff between mobility and citizenship rights 610–12
scaling up 48
territory in citizenship 570
Greek citizenship
associative project of taking responsibility 27
elitist regime 27
goal of ‘happiness’ 27–8
high point of racialized citizenship 129
no solution to modern issues 31–2
participatory engagement 26–7
patriarchal world 29–30
proto-philosophical species of democracy 30–1
proto-racialized citizenship 132–3
religious celebration 30
republican models distinguished 28–9
secular antecedents 479
secular form of political membership 486
shared regime 26
task of political theory and its problems 16–17
Gulf States
denaturalization 437
design of plural territorial citizenship 568
guest worker system 761
immigration policies 611
inherent exclusiveness 391–2
internal tiering 390
kafala system 388–9
meso-level citizenship 435–6
rentier states 387–8
strong versions of jus sanguinis 137
supranational citizenship capability 682
three-tier society 388
tradeoff between mobility and citizenship rights 612
H
historical perspectives
citizenship for sale 794–7
citizenship regimes 230–1
claims of universal sovereignty 41
digital citizenship 769–70
(p. 868) early citizenships
classical antiquity 41–2
cosmopolitanism 40–1
emergence of city-states 39–41
hunter-gatherers 38
key elements for discussion 37–8
nation-state citizenships 43–5
nation-state colonialism 45–7
Neolithic Revolution 39
State-citizenships 42–3
early history of city-states 39–40
indigenous citizenship 458–9
liberal political theory 86–7
nationhood
advantages of congruency 109–11
characterization 111–12
current nation-building practices 111
ethno-culturalism 114
invention of print 118–19
need for citizenship and nationhood to be coterminous 112
Peace of Westphalia (1648) 109
relationship with citizenship 109–12
shift from agrarian to industrial economy 113
socio-historical perspectives of nationhood 114
transport and communication 114–15
statelessness 41
technology 43
homonationalism 167–71
homonormativity 167–71
household registration system 437, 443–4
human rights
changes in naturalization process 348
Christian doctrine as predecessor 31
citizenship as status and activity 264–5
citizenship for sale 813
cultural selection 352
democracy 253–6
denationalization 368, 374
global challenges 37
impact of trans-State dispersion 51
impact on dual nationality 629–31
indigenous communities 471–2
multiple citizenship 629, 634
national citizenship 250–3
naturalization policies 347
non-citizenship 438, 508
politics and practice 257–9
reconciling citizenship 259–64
refugees 515, 722, 725, 733
restraint of capitalist abuses 49
right-sizing the electorate 300
right to self-government 75
rights to enter and remain 603
theoretical perspectives 248–9
trans-border institutions 49
universal suffrage 291, 298
war-time violations 114
I
identity
biological citizenship 779
coercively constituted identities
policy implications 826–34
underlying principle 825–6
and collective membership 541–4
‘construction of sameness’ 52–3
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 96
European Union citizenship 678
the ‘global community’ 50
nation-state citizenships 44–5
non-citizenship 317
territory in citizenship 558
Western States 395
immigration see migration
immigration states
exclusion in Gulf States
impact of oil 389
inherent exclusiveness 391–2
internal tiering 390
kafala system 388–9
rentier states 387–8
three-tier society 388
future developments 399–402
Germany
‘ethno’ element in Leitkultur 397
fully modernized and inclusive citizenship law, 398
traditional focus of poor relief 393
inclusion in Western States
‘cultural defense of nations’ 397–8
diversity 395–6
European Union citizenship 398–9
identity 395
legal status 392–3
nationalism 395
(p. 869) ‘paradox of universalism’ 396–7
rights 393–5
paradoxical nature of citizenship 384–7
indigenous peoples
citizenship in settler states
competing principles in play 472–3
diversity of tribal nations 460–3
history of subjecthood 458–9
jus sanguinis rules and tribal citizenship 463–7
normative problems 467–72
range of conceptual frameworks 454–5
tribal constituencies 456–7
claims of diversity 275–6
cultural diversity 275
European colonization 46
franchise rights 292
human rights 261
meso-level citizenship 435
performative citizenship 509–11
post-colonial citizenship 182, 187–9, 192
racialized citizenship 134, 137, 139
selection of voters 298
state transition 425
supranational citizenship 660
territoriality 558
internally displaced persons 722
J
jus domicilii
defined 68–9
membership and boundaries 63
membership status of migrants 73
replaced by birthright citizenship 400
zero solution 77
jus sanguinis
changes in naturalization process 351
citizenship in immigration states 400
defined 68–9
human rights 250
inclusion in Western States 393
indigenous peoples 463–7, 472–3
initially determined by birthright 70
legacies of nationhood argument 136
post-colonial citizenship 180, 185
profound quandaries and injustices 811
territory in citizenship 556, 564
typologies of regime 225, 232
zero solution 77
jus soli
citizenship in immigration states 400
defined 68–9
denationalization 377
dual nationals 626
human rights 250
implications of coercively constituted identities 827
inclusion in Western States 393
initially determined by birthright 70
legacies of nationhood argument 136
membership and boundaries 67
new German law 531
non-citizenship 325
post-colonial citizenship 180, 185–8
problems of ART 777
profound quandaries and injustices 811
relationship between citizenship and reproduction 161
territory in citizenship 555, 564
typologies of regime 225, 232
United States 302
zero solution 77
L
language
changes in naturalization process 351–2
claims of diversity 274–5
socio-historical perspectives of nationhood 114
legal status
changes in naturalization process 348–9
citizenship as status and activity 264–5
citizenship in immigration states
paradoxical nature of citizenship 384
citizenship regimes
access to status and rights 227
acquisition and loss of the status 225
meaning and scope of research 223
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 94–101
de facto and de jure relegation 839
denationalization
citizenship security and state powers 358
European Union citizenship 675–6
federal citizenship 654–5
importance of citizenship 527–8
indigenous citizenship
diversity of tribal nations 460–3
franchise rights 458–9
inherent sovereign powers 459
jus sanguinis rules and tribal citizenship 463–7
(p. 870) range of conceptual frameworks 454–5
tribal constituencies 456–7
liberal and republican theory compared 91–2
multilevel citizenship 649–50, 662
newly independent states
ethnicization of citizenship laws 415–20
role of international actors 420–4
non-citizenship
citizenship regimes 333–4
enclosure model of citizenship 320–3
‘non-ness’ as a reflection of variety 316–20
political participation 328–30
product and precondition of borders 314–16
right to have rights 330–3
territorial security 326–8
variations of status 323–7
refugeehood
non-refoulement 728–30
stateless persons distinguished 721
Roman citizenship 18–19
statelessness
absence of recognition 748–9
enforcement of citizen/non-citizen distinctions 749–50
‘unauthorized’ movement or residency 747–8
weak documentary infrastructure 750
territory in citizenship 555
transition from imperial subject to postcolonial citizen 187–8
Western States 392–3
liberal political theory
activity 92–4
aggregate of individual goods 87
cultural diversity 269
current challenges 94–101
defence of freedom 87
focus on citizenship as membership in a political community 101–3
history and development 86–7
impact of gender on citizenship 154–5
legal status and rights 91–2
membership 92
nationhood
contemporary approaches 115–26
development from different directions 126
history of relationship with citizenship 109–12
key notion 108
socio-historical perspectives 113–15
non-citizenship
citizenship regimes 333–4
product and precondition of borders 314–16
right to have rights 330–3
queer liberalism 167–71
republicanism distinguished 89
social and economic equality 87
M
marital denaturalization 299
marketization see citizenship for sale
materialistic citizenship 17
membership
binary concept 65–6
capacity contract
argument for rejection 841
challenge to inherited assumptions 840–1
cognitively disabled persons 842–4
problem of wardship 844–51
underlying concept 840
categorical membership 66–7
categories of imperial subjects
elite European membership 183
lineage and ancestral based claims 182
merchant and slave labor based claims 182–3
natives and non-natives distinguished 182
citizenship ascension 202–4
citizenship regimes
ascriptive and voluntary membership conceptions 224–5
meaning and scope of research 222–3
concluding remarks 78–9
cosmopolitan citizenship 695
de facto and de jure relegation 839
defined 526–7
developing more inclusive citizenship 855–7
diasporas 583
domesticated animals
internal exclusion 839–40
identity and collective membership 541–4
in immigration states
paradoxical nature of citizenship 384
three-tier Gulf society 388
(p. 871) impact of gender 155–6
indigenous citizenship
tribal constituencies 456
internal challenge 838–9
liberal and republican theory compared 92
mismatch between territorial and membership boundaries
effect of migration 72–3
free movement 74
international system of states 73–4
jus domicilii 73
secession of states 74–8
territorial boundary shifts 74–5
‘world state cosmopolitans’ 74
naturalization
form of a contract 339–41
non-members distinguished 66
non-Western contexts
meso-level citizenship 435–7
political communities
choice 69
demos and citizenry distinguished 71–2
global interdependence 69–70
institutionalization 68–9
institutionalized multilevel citizenship 70
local citizenship 70–1
rights, obligations, virtues, or practices 68
refugee definition 726
relational concept 65
religion as framework
conceptions of citizenship 487–9
diversity and public reason 489–93
exemptions and equality of citizenship 494–5
relationship of distinctive spheres of membership 478–81
role in modern politics 482–5
two conceptually distinct but interconnected spheres 496
rethinking political agency 851–5
‘special obligations’ debate 820–5
stability over time 67
migration
see also refugeehood
basis of dual citizenship 623–4
boundary problem in political theory 63
citizenship in immigration states
exclusion in Gulf States 387–92
future developments 399–402
inclusion in Western States 392–9
paradoxical nature of citizenship 384–7
claims of diversity 279–80
contemporary liberal approaches 120–1
cosmopolitan citizenship 51
critical race theory 139
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 100
diasporas
accommodation of ethno-cultural diversity 123
analytical use 580–2
citizenship and nationhood 115
citizenship regimes 233
diasporic citizenship 583–5
durability of rights 593–5
engagement practices 234
ethno-national groups 582
evolving conceptions 569
external citizenship 401
franchise rights 301, 820
Greek passport refusals 399
institutionalization of relationships 583
membership 583
multiple citizenship 622
policy objectives 582
politics in a non-Western context 241
state trends 631
territory in citizenship 558
economic theories of citizenship ascension
age-earning profiles 204–6
club membership compared 202–4
economic citizenship premium and issues arising 200–2
further development of human capital model 216–18
impact on country of origin 215–16
impact on host country 213–15
implications for migrants 208–13
waiting periods 206–7
franchise rights 301–6
governance
challenge to conventional concept of citizenship 599–603
choice of law 606–7
citizenship 609–10
digital citizenship 775–6
international organization to address migration 613–17
negative rights 608
(p. 872) positive rights 608–9
pressure from future migration 617–18
rights to enter and remain 603–6
tradeoff between mobility and citizenship rights 610–12
‘illegal’ immigration 756–8
impact of particular citizenship regimes on integration 236–7
impact of war in Western Europe 47
implications of coercively constituted identities 830–2
mismatch between territorial and membership boundaries 72–3
naturalization
changes in process 348–53
future developments 353–4
importance 337–8
ultimate goals 339–43
variety of policies 338
ways in which naturalization policies are contested 343–7
non-Western policies
critical engagement in key concepts 446–8
internal migration 443–5
non-citizenship 439–42
queer liberalism 169
re-scaling of citizenship 54–5
relationship between citizenship and reproduction 162–3
territory in citizenship 558
transition from imperial subject to postcolonial citizen 186–7
multiculturalism
claims of diversity 279–80
contemporary liberal approaches 118
diversity and public reason 489–90
post-modern citizenships 53
multilevel citizenship
citizenship in immigration states 400
federal citizenship
coexistence of two levels of citizenship 655–6
federacies and unitary states compared 656–7
future developments 662–4
governance 602
internal jurisdictional boundaries 653–4
legal status 654–5
political membership 69
supranational citizenship distinguished 672
underlying concept 645
franchise rights 306
future developments 662–4
important developments ‘above’ and ‘below’ the state 644–5
municipal citizenship 660–2
relevant literatures on equality 651–3
supranational citizenship 657–60
underlying conceptions 645–51
multiple citizenship
disfavor associated with dual nationality 623–5
dual citizenship
broad acceptance 631–4
recognition of benefits 635–8
effect of globalization 621–3
elimination of dual nationality 625–8
governance 602–3
immigration states 401
impact of human rights on dual nationality 629–31
international acceptance 50, 71, 74
moral complexities arising 833–4
non-citizens 324
territory in citizenship 565
theoretical perspectives 638–40
transnational citizenship 578, 582
Western States 392
municipal citizenship 660–2
N
nation-building
meaning and scope 108
naturalization 342–3, 347
overlap of citizenship and nationhood 119
settler nations 64
nation-state citizenships
colonialism 45–7
continuing role of nationalism 51
critical race theory 135–41
denationalization 369
‘end of nation-states’ debate 818–20
formation 43–5
forming modern citizenships 43–5
impact of gender 155
impact of minority demands for Nation-Statehood 51
importance of citizenship 530
(p. 873) indigenous peoples 456
issues concerning freedom and equality 99
management of religion 496
performative citizenship 502
queer citizenship 155–6
sexual citizenship 165
nationalism
arguments for a more unified cultural concept 281
challenge to cosmopolitan citizenship 699–704
nationality
critical race theory 135–7
denationalization
changing nature of citizenship 376–7
citizenship security and state powers 358–60
evolution over time 364–7
goals 361–2
grounds 362–4
meaning and scope 360–1
outstanding key questions 379–80
questions of legitimacy 369–75
refugeehood 721
state power 377–9
theoretical perspectives 367–9
European Union citizenship 676
impact of gender 156
impact of minority demands for Nation-Statehood 51
informed by customary or Sharia law 436
multiple citizenship
disfavor associated with dual nationality 623–5
elimination of dual nationality 625–8
impact of human rights on dual nationality 629–31
nation-state citizenships 45
refugee definition 722–3
supranational citizenship 670–1
transition from imperial subject to postcolonial citizen 185–6
nationhood
critical race theory 135–6
development from different directions 126
history of relationship with citizenship
advantages of congruency 109–11
characterization 111–12
current nation-building practices 111
need for citizenship and nationhood to be coterminous 112
Peace of Westphalia (1648) 109
impact of European colonialism 47
liberal nationalist theory 75
meaning and scope 107–8
socio-historical perspectives
ethno-culturalism 114
impact of war 114
invention of print 118–19
shift from agrarian to industrial economy 113
transport and communication 114–15
ways in which naturalization policies are contested 345–6
naturalization
changes in process
cultural turns 351–3
impact of transnational law 348–9
rise of free-market ideas 349–50
citizenship regimes 223
construction of nation-states 138–9
economic theories of citizenship ascension
age-earning profiles 204–6
club membership compared 204
further development of human capital model 216–18
impact on country of origin 215–16
impact on host country 213–15
implications for migrants 208–13
waiting periods 206–7
future developments 353–4
importance 337–8
indigenous peoples 463–4
non-Western migrant policies 442
post-modern citizenships 50
racial denaturalizations 141–4
refugees 732–3
relationship between citizenship and reproduction 163
selection of voters 301
ultimate goals
form of a contract 339–41
nation-building 342–3
as a political test 341–2
variety of policies 338
ways in which naturalization policies are contested
assessment of legitimacy 343–4
perceived character of community 345–6
theoretical perspectives 344–5
utilitarian considerations 346–7
(p. 874) Neolithic Revolution 39
‘new Argonauts’ 50, 51
newly independent states see state transition
non-citizenship
see also statelessness
citizenship regimes 333–4
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 100–1
early history of city-states 39–40
enclosure model of citizenship 320–3
enforcement of citizen/non-citizen distinctions 749–50
‘non-ness’ as a reflection of variety 316–20
non-Western contexts 433–4, 438–9, 445
performative citizenship 503–4
political participation
franchise rights 328–9
voting contributions 329–30
product and precondition of borders 314–16
reinforced borders 53–4
right to have rights 330–3
territorial security 326–8
variations of status 323–7
non-refoulement 728–30
non-territorial citizenship 569–72
non-Western contexts
critical engagement in key concepts 446–8
fundamental question for postcolonial citizenship 197
gender discrimination 442
Greek and Roman citizenship 16
internal migration 443–5
major challenges and insights 431–2
meso-level citizenship 435–7
migrant policies 439–42
no guarantee of rights 434
non-citizenship 438–9
organization of citizenship rights and obligations 433
scope of citizenship 433–4
selective jus sanguinis norms 187
P
partial citizenship 165, 537, 583–4, 594
participatory citizenship 26, 164
performative citizenship
‘a subject of rights’ and its meaning 500–1
across polities 515–16
citizens and non-citizens 503–4
contradictions in citizenship 504–5
in democratic polities 508–11
issue of struggle 502–3
‘making rights claims’ 505–6
meaning and scope 501–2
in non-democratic polities 511–15
people constitute themselves as citizens 507–8
process of resignification and resulting conclusions 516–20
tensions inherent in citizenship 506–7
political participation
boundary problem in political theory 61–4
children 842–4
citizenship as status and activity 264–5
cognitively disabled persons 842–4
cosmopolitan citizenship 695–6
digital citizenship 770–1
franchise rights
boundary problem 293–7
contribution of citizenship as a legal status 308–9
importance 290–3
referendums 306–8
right-sizing the electorate 301–6
selection of voters 297–301
Greek citizenship 26–7
liberal and republican theory compared 92–4
nation-state citizenships 43–5
non-citizenship 328–30
‘non-ness’ as a reflection of variety 317–19
problem of wardship 844–51
refugees 732–3
rethinking political agency 851–5
Roman citizenship 21
significance of citizenship
mechanisms and participation 534–6
political and civic engagement 533–4
State-citizenships 42
post-colonial citizenship
contemporary postcolonial citizenship
emergence of group differentiated citizenship 194–5
important questions for the future 197
role of civil society 195–6
(p. 875) implications of coercively constituted identities 827–30
origins and early development 178–80
performative citizenship 512–15
rise of a welfare citizenship
erratic coverage 192
meaning and scope 190–1
need for fragmented classes of people 191–2
resentment against social protection programs 193–4
subset of social citizenship 189–90
supranational citizenship 672–4
transition from imperial subject to postcolonial citizen
attempts at rights-bearing autonomy 188
euphoria of emergent nationalism 185–6
group conflict 184
impact of long-term colonial law 187–8
impact of migration 186–7
outcome of divisive colonial polices 188–9
scramble for territory 184–5
tension between jus soli and jus sanguinis 185
post-modern citizenships
‘construction of sameness’ 52–3
current challenges 48
impact of globalization 49–50
optimal scale for citizenship 55
re-scaling of citizenship 54
restraint of capitalist abuses 49
trans-State mobility of goods 48–9
post-national citizenship 671
precarious citizenship
absence of national identity documents 753–6
absence of recognition 748–9
enforcement of citizen/non-citizen distinctions 749–50
impact of individual and group characteristics 751–3
state policies 750–1
‘unauthorized’ movement or residency 747–8
underlying concept 745–6
weak documentary infrastructure 750
Q
quasi-citizenship
implications of coercively constituted identities 826–34
moral complexities arising 834–5
preference of first generation immigrants 73–4
proliferation 827
related diaspora 594
transnational citizenship 120
queer citizenship
dual nature of citizenship 153–4
need to engage in a new framework of normality 171–3
partial citizenship 165
queer liberalism 167–71
R
race
citizenship as membership 66
colonialism citizenship
elite European membership 183
exclusionary reality of racialized citizenship 180–1
lineage and ancestral based claims 182
merchant and slave labor based claims 182–3
natives and non-natives distinguished 182
critical race theory
absence of clear trajectory 148–9
construction of nation-states 135–41
international legal constraints 146–8
key concepts 129–32
negative racial discrimination 144–6
proto-racialized citizenship 132–5
racial denaturalizations 141–4
federal citizenship 655
non-universal aspect of citizenship 52
precarious citizenship 752
refugee definition 722
relationship between citizenship and reproduction 162
selection of voters 298–9
refugeehood
cessation scenarios 730–1
clarification of relationship with citizenship 717–19
containment rather than cooperation 735–7
definitions 722–6
(p. 876) denationalization 368–9
economic theories of citizenship ascension 210–11
franchise rights 298
human rights 251
internally displaced persons distinguished 722
legal status
non-refoulement 728–30
stateless persons distinguished 721
naturalization 732–3
performative citizenship 504, 508, 515–16, 516
political participation 732–3
post-colonial citizenship 186–7
processes of RSD 727–8
re-scaling citizenship 49–50
repatriation 731–2
resettlement 734–5
scale of the global refugee population 719–20
stateless persons distinguished 720–1
territory in citizenship 566
religion
claims of diversity 276–7
contemporary liberal approaches 122–3
critical race theory 133–4
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 97–8
current nation-building practices 111
framework of citizenship
conceptions of citizenship 487–9
diversity and public reason 489–93
exemptions and equality of citizenship 494–5
relationship of distinctive spheres of membership 478–81
role in modern politics 482–5
two conceptually distinct but interconnected spheres 496
Greek citizenship 30
nationality is informed by customary or Sharia law 436
new and metaphorical notion of citizenship 31
non-territorial citizenship 569
precarious citizenship 752
queer liberalism 170
refugee definition 722
Roman citizenship 22
State-citizenships 43
republicanism
arguments for a more unified cultural concept 281
Greek citizenship 26–30, 129
political theory
activity 92–4
collective self-government 88–9
contemporary neo-republicans 88
current challenges 94–101
decline 86–7
emergence in early modern period 85–6
focus on citizenship as membership in a political community 101–3
Greek citizenship, 16–17
interpretation of freedom 91
legal status and rights 91–2
liberalism distinguished 89
membership 92
requirement for equal status 90
revival from 1990s 87–8
Roman citizenship 17–25, 31–2, 133, 479, 486
right to have rights
denationalization 369
in immigration states 402
non-citizenship 330–3
relationship of citizenship and human rights 247, 264
stateless people 525, 754
rights
changes in naturalization process 348–9
citizenship ascension 204
citizenship regimes
access to status and rights 227
meaning and scope of research 223
contemporary liberal approaches 119–20
cultural diversity
arguments for a more unified concept 280–4
arguments for a multicultural ethos 284–6
claims of diversity 274–80
impact on liberal-democratic norms 286
denationalization
absolute right to retain one’s citizenship 370–2
citizenship security and state powers 358
(p. 877) durability of rights 593–5
European Union citizenship 675
franchise
boundary problem 293–7
contribution of citizenship as a legal status 308–9
importance 290–3
referendums 306–8
right-sizing the electorate 301–6
selection of voters 297–301
governance
choice of law 606–7
negative rights 608
positive rights 608–9
rights to enter and remain 603–6
tradeoff between mobility and citizenship rights 610–12
human rights
Christian doctrine as predecessor 31
citizenship as status and activity 264–5
citizenship for sale 813
cultural selection 352
democracy 253–6
denationalization 368, 374
global challenges 37
impact of trans-State dispersion 51
importance 247–8
indigenous communities 471–2
multiple citizenship 629, 634
national citizenship 250–3
naturalization policies 347
non-citizenship 438, 508
politics and practice 257–9
reconciling citizenship 259–64
refugees 515, 722, 725, 733
right to self-government 75
theoretical perspectives 248–9
trans-border institutions 49
universal suffrage 291, 298
war-time violations 114
impact of gender 155
importance of citizenship 527
indigenous citizenship
diversity of tribal nations 460–3
franchise rights 458
inherent sovereign powers 459
liberal and republican theory compared 91–2
multilevel citizenship 647, 662
non-citizenship
‘non-ness’ as a reflection of variety 317–19
right to have rights 330–3
non-Western contexts
internal migration 443–5
migrant policies 439–42
no guarantee of rights 434
non-citizenship 438–9
organization of citizenship rights and obligations 433
performative citizenship
‘a subject of rights’ and its meaning 500–1
across polities 515–16
issue of struggle 502–3
‘making rights claims’ 505–6
meaning and scope 501–2
people constitute themselves as citizens 507–8
process of resignification and resulting conclusions 516–20
tensions inherent in citizenship 506–7
queer liberalism 167–8
religion as framework
legal and political problems arising 481
rise of a welfare citizenship
subset of social citizenship 189–90
supranational citizenship 683
territory in citizenship 555
transition from imperial subject to postcolonial citizen 188
transnational citizenship
durability of rights 593–5
extension of rights and shrinking interest 591–3
meaning and scope 576–80
policy objectives 582
Western States 393–5
Roman citizenship
‘civic humanist’ approach 17–18
emancipation from tyranny 18
external relations
colonialism 25
culture of ‘Romanness’ 23
integration of outsiders 24–5
military success 23–4
hierarchical power relations 21
idealistic possibilities 19–20
‘individualism’ 21–2
no solution to modern issues 31–2
plebeian’ ‘citizenship’ 20–1
privilege and property ownership 19
proto-racialized citizenship 133
role of civil religion 22
rule of law 18–19
(p. 878) secular antecedents 479
secular form of political membership 486
‘state of exception’ 22–3
‘Struggle of the Orders’ 20
task of political theory and its problems 16–17
three key points 25
S
secession of states
importance 78
mismatch between territorial and membership boundaries 74–5
three schools of thought 75–8
unilateral secession 74–5
‘second-class citizens’ 165–6, 181, 386, 390, 445–7, 529, 558, 610
secularism
contemporary postcolonial citizenship 195–6
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 97–8
current nation-building practices 111
framework of citizenship
form of political membership 485–7
relationship of distinctive spheres of membership 478–81
role in modern politics 482
two conceptually distinct but interconnected spheres 496
self-determination of peoples
boundary problem in political theory 63
claims of diversity 276–8
contemporary liberal approaches 116–17
critical race theory 138
current challenges to liberal and republican theories 99–100
franchise rights 306
post-colonialism
origins and early development 178–80
‘semi-citizens’ 165
settler states
cultural diversity 275
different standards of inclusion 64
European colonization 46
importance of naturalization ceremony 163
indigenous citizenship
competing principles in play 472–3
diversity of tribal nations 460–3
history of subjecthood 458–9
jus sanguinis rules and tribal citizenship 463–7
normative problems 467–72
range of conceptual frameworks 454–5
tribal constituencies 456–7
performative citizenship 505
queer citizenship 171
racialized citizenship 134
sexual citizenship
dual nature of citizenship 153–4
impact of gender on citizenship 154–7
need for recognition of care work 157–60
queer citizenship 171–3
queer liberalism 167–71
relationship between citizenship and reproduction 160–4
sexual activity absent reproduction 164–6
shared citizenship 282
shared values 480, 703
‘smart borders’ 774–5
social citizenship 158, 181, 189, 189–90, 194, 258–9, 388, 584, 679, 805
sovereignty
coercively constituted identities 825
historical claims of universal sovereignty 41, 43–5
impact of dual citizenship 624
newly independent states 410–14
non-territorial citizenship 570
Peace of Westphalia 645
post-modern citizenships 48
refugee naturalization 732
symbolic significance of democratic process 587
transnational citizenship 579, 593–4
‘special obligations’ debate 820–5
State-citizenships 42–3
state transition
challenges and dynamics of new transition states 407–10
ethnicization of citizenship laws 415–20
notable and consequential differences 424–7
role of international actors 420–4
statelessness
citizenship in immigration states 386, 390, 394
cross-border surrogacy 777
denationalization 363, 365–74
diasporas 585
effect of ART 162, 768
(p. 879) historical perspectives 41
human rights 248, 250–3, 259–61
‘illegal’ immigration 756–8
importance of citizenship 525, 545
indigenous peoples 468
lack of permanent and secure citizenship rights 743–5
non-Western contexts 445
performative citizenship 508
precarious citizenship
absence of national identity documents 753–6
absence of recognition 748–9
enforcement of citizen/non-citizen distinctions 749–50
impact of individual and group characteristics 751–3
state policies 750–1
‘unauthorized’ movement or residency 747–8
underlying concept 745–6
weak documentary infrastructure 750
precarious citizenship approach 762–3
re-scaling citizenship 40
refugeehood distinguished 720–1
state transition 409, 411, 422–3
temporary authorizations
ad hoc protected statuses 758–60
‘guest workers’ 760–2
transnational citizenship 585
‘stateness problem’ 408, 420, 799
sub-citizenship see non-citizenship
suffrage see franchise rights
supranational citizenship
defined 670–4
diasporas 580
European Union citizenship 674–81
form of multilevel citizenship 657–60
franchise rights 306
future developments 686–8
implications of coercively constituted identities 832–3
regional agreements 682–5
territory in citizenship 569
underlying concept 669–70
surveillance 771–3
T
technology
biological citizenship
additional layer of identity 779
DNA testing 779–82
impact of ART 777
legal and political controversies 778–9
underlying concept 776–7
citizenship in immigration states 385
complex and contradictory effects 767–9
cyber citizens 570
developing more inclusive citizenship 857
digital citizenship
governance of immigration 775–6
history and development 769–70
impact on mobility 774–5
improvements to access and participation 770–1
‘social sorting’ 773–4
spread of surveillance 771–3
effect on overlap between citizenship and nationhood 114
enforcement of citizen/non-citizen distinctions 749
historical perspectives 43
impact of globalization 37
nation-state citizenships
facilitation of colonialism 45
limiting factor 43
post-modern citizenships
current challenges 48
potential to reshape citizenship 782–3
queer citizenship 172
re-scaling citizenship 52, 54
reinforced borders 53–4
territory in citizenship
boundary problem in political theory 63
contemporary liberal approaches 118–19
cosmopolitan citizenship 51
dilution by plural model of citizenship 565–9
early citizenships
classical antiquity 41–2
cosmopolitanism 40–1
emergence of city-states 39–41
hunter-gatherers 38
Neolithic Revolution 39
State-citizenships 42
‘end of nation-states’ debate 819–20
importance in contemporary discussions
as assumptive framework 555–6
challenge to conventional concept of citizenship 554
as object of critique 557–8
(p. 880) point of reference and contestation 559
as resilient but flexible theme 560–1
scalar transformation of the territoriality principle 561–2
key dimension as assumed framework 572
key element in the classical Westphalian system 562–5
moving beyond the territorial principle 569–72
multilevel citizenship 646
nation-state citizenships 45–7
non-citizenship
enclosure model of citizenship 320–3
product and precondition of borders 314–16
territorial security 326–8
post-modern citizenships
‘construction of sameness’ 52–3
impact of globalization 49–50
the ‘new Argonauts’ 50
reinforced borders 53–4
Roman citizenship
culture of ‘Romanness’ 23
integration of outsiders 24–5
military success 23–4
supranational citizenship 683–5
transition from imperial subject to postcolonial citizen 184–5
transnational citizenship 576–7
transnational citizenship
durability of rights 593–5
extension of rights and shrinking interest 591–3
franchise rights 305
meaning and scope 576–80
overlapping circles of membership 671
relationship between citizenship and human rights 264
V
voting see franchise rights
W
war
impact of war in Western Europe 47
military success of Rome 23–4
negative racial discrimination 141–2
refugee definition 725
socio-historical perspectives of nationhood 114
wardship 844–51
welfare citizenship
erratic coverage 192
impact of rights to enter and remain 604
meaning and scope 190–1
need for fragmented classes of people 191–2
resentment against social protection programs 193–4
subset of social citizenship 189–90
Western States
brokers of membership grants 350
citizenship in state transition 409, 414, 415, 420, 426
‘cultural defense of nations’ 397–8
diversity 395–6
European Union citizenship 398–9, 645, 674–81
identity 395
legal status 392–3
nationalism 395
noncitizen workers 537
‘paradox of universalism’ 396–7
post-colonial citizenship 178
revival of political interest in denationalization 360
rights 393–5
secular form of political membership 485
world citizenship see cosmopolitan citizenship
‘world state cosmopolitans’ 74