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date: 23 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter analyzes the development of citizenship in postcolonial states. Imperial subjects within Empire are disaggregated into four categories. Imperial racial hierarchies and the legacies of divide-and-rule colonialism mark the transition from imperial subject to post-colonial citizen at independence. A uniting anti-colonial nationalism is in tension with majoritarian nationalism. While initial citizenship was an outcome of struggles over defining a national political identity, the postcolonial state was soon expanding to deliver and realize socio-economic citizenship for the marginalized and the poor. Strengthening postcolonial citizenship through welfare generated contestations over the eligibility of groups deserving of state sponsored welfare, which led to more political and social fragmentation. Inclusionary welfare for some groups meant the exclusion of others. Contemporary postcolonial citizenship building is being advanced through political and legal activism over specific rights. Future research will benefit from analyzing the role of bottom up political and legal activism in producing new types of citizenship.

Keywords: postcolonial citizenship, non-western citizenship, imperial subjects, native, India, Africa, rights, welfare citizenship, social rights, T.H. Marshall

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