- The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Citizenship—<i>Quo Vadis</i>?
- Revisiting the Classical Ideal of Citizenship
- Re-Scaling the Geography of Citizenship
- Political Membership and Democratic Boundaries
- Liberal and Republican Conceptions of Citizenship
- Citizenship and Nationhood
- The History of Racialized Citizenship
- Feminist, Sexual, and Queer Citizenship
- Postcolonial Citizenship
- Economic Theories of Citizenship Ascension
- Comparing Citizenship Regimes
- Citizenship and Human Rights
- Citizenship and Cultural Diversity
- Citizenship and the Franchise
- Status Non-Citizens
- Citizenship in Immigration States
- Citizenship and State Transition
- Citizenship in Non-Western Contexts
- Indigenous Citizenship in Settler States
- Secular and Religious Citizenship
- Performative Citizenship
- Does Citizenship Matter?
- The Place of Territory in Citizenship
- Diasporas and Transnational Citizenship
- Fragmentation of Citizenship Governance
- Multiple Citizenship
- Multilevel Citizenship
- Supranational Citizenship
- Cosmopolitan Citizenship
- On Refugeehood and Citizenship
- Statelessness, ‘In-Between’ Statuses, and Precarious Citizenship
- Citizenship and Technology
- Citizenship For Sale?
- Citizenship and Membership Duties Toward Quasi-Citizens
- Inclusive Citizenship Beyond the Capacity Contract
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter analyzes the development of citizenship in postcolonial states. Imperial subjects within Empire are disaggregated into four categories. Imperial racial hierarchies and the legacies of divide-and-rule colonialism mark the transition from imperial subject to post-colonial citizen at independence. A uniting anti-colonial nationalism is in tension with majoritarian nationalism. While initial citizenship was an outcome of struggles over defining a national political identity, the postcolonial state was soon expanding to deliver and realize socio-economic citizenship for the marginalized and the poor. Strengthening postcolonial citizenship through welfare generated contestations over the eligibility of groups deserving of state sponsored welfare, which led to more political and social fragmentation. Inclusionary welfare for some groups meant the exclusion of others. Contemporary postcolonial citizenship building is being advanced through political and legal activism over specific rights. Future research will benefit from analyzing the role of bottom up political and legal activism in producing new types of citizenship.
Kamal Sadiq, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of California, Irvine.
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