- The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Citizenship—<i>Quo Vadis</i>?
- Revisiting the Classical Ideal of Citizenship
- Re-Scaling the Geography of Citizenship
- Political Membership and Democratic Boundaries
- Liberal and Republican Conceptions of Citizenship
- Citizenship and Nationhood
- The History of Racialized Citizenship
- Feminist, Sexual, and Queer Citizenship
- Postcolonial Citizenship
- Economic Theories of Citizenship Ascension
- Comparing Citizenship Regimes
- Citizenship and Human Rights
- Citizenship and Cultural Diversity
- Citizenship and the Franchise
- Status Non-Citizens
- Citizenship in Immigration States
- Citizenship and State Transition
- Citizenship in Non-Western Contexts
- Indigenous Citizenship in Settler States
- Secular and Religious Citizenship
- Performative Citizenship
- Does Citizenship Matter?
- The Place of Territory in Citizenship
- Diasporas and Transnational Citizenship
- Fragmentation of Citizenship Governance
- Multiple Citizenship
- Multilevel Citizenship
- Supranational Citizenship
- Cosmopolitan Citizenship
- On Refugeehood and Citizenship
- Statelessness, ‘In-Between’ Statuses, and Precarious Citizenship
- Citizenship and Technology
- Citizenship For Sale?
- Citizenship and Membership Duties Toward Quasi-Citizens
- Inclusive Citizenship Beyond the Capacity Contract
Abstract and Keywords
Racial categorizations have been used since antiquity as grounds for assigning and taking away citizenship. This history includes cycles of racialization and deracialization. The proto-racialization of citizenship in Athens was followed by a more open Roman model. The racialization of religious bigotry did not become formalized until the creation of anti-Jewish and anti-Moorish policies in sixteenth century Iberia. Examining the historical record across diverse contexts suggests that jus sanguinis is not inherently racist. While in an abstract sense, jus soli might sustain a civic vision of nationality, in practice, the examples of Western Hemisphere states, particularly the United States, shows that jus soli is fully compatible with racialized citizenship. The construction of nation-states from empires is consonant with the racialization of policies while the consolidation of the nation-state system created barriers to racialization. Since the mid-twentieth century, citizenship has entered a deracializing phase, even as political entrepreneurs aggressively test the strength of anti-racist institutions.
David Scott FitzGerald, Professor of Sociology and Theodore E. Gildred Chair in U.S.-Mexican Relations, University of California, San Diego.
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