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date: 02 July 2022

Abstract and Keywords

In the 20th century, nation-states became the dominant form of political community around the world. Yet, aided by transportation and communications innovations, many 21st century states are forming regional partnerships; accepting dual or multiple national and transnational citizenships; and granting forms of “quasi-citizenship” to many who reside outside their boundaries but still have special relationships with those states, or who reside within them without full citizenship. What are states’ duties to the residents of their regional partners, to their former colonies, and to those who hold forms of “quasi-citizenship”? Many obligations arise from treaties and statutes. But constitutional democracies also have moral duties toward those whose identities and aspirations they have substantially shaped through their coercively enforced policies. Those duties may include obligations to provide financial aid, to permit immigration, to grant regional or group political autonomy, to extend full formal citizenship, to offer opportunities for voice and contestation, or any of a range of other options.

Keywords: immigration, multiple citizenships, quasi-citizens, nation-states, national obligations, membership duties, coercion, regionalism, transnationalism

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