- The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Citizenship—<i>Quo Vadis</i>?
- Revisiting the Classical Ideal of Citizenship
- Re-Scaling the Geography of Citizenship
- Political Membership and Democratic Boundaries
- Liberal and Republican Conceptions of Citizenship
- Citizenship and Nationhood
- The History of Racialized Citizenship
- Feminist, Sexual, and Queer Citizenship
- Postcolonial Citizenship
- Economic Theories of Citizenship Ascension
- Comparing Citizenship Regimes
- Citizenship and Human Rights
- Citizenship and Cultural Diversity
- Citizenship and the Franchise
- Status Non-Citizens
- Citizenship in Immigration States
- Citizenship and State Transition
- Citizenship in Non-Western Contexts
- Indigenous Citizenship in Settler States
- Secular and Religious Citizenship
- Performative Citizenship
- Does Citizenship Matter?
- The Place of Territory in Citizenship
- Diasporas and Transnational Citizenship
- Fragmentation of Citizenship Governance
- Multiple Citizenship
- Multilevel Citizenship
- Supranational Citizenship
- Cosmopolitan Citizenship
- On Refugeehood and Citizenship
- Statelessness, ‘In-Between’ Statuses, and Precarious Citizenship
- Citizenship and Technology
- Citizenship For Sale?
- Citizenship and Membership Duties Toward Quasi-Citizens
- Inclusive Citizenship Beyond the Capacity Contract
Abstract and Keywords
“There are some things that money can’t buy.” Is citizenship among them? This chapter explores this question by highlighting the core legal and ethical puzzles associated with the surge in cash-for-passport programs. The spread of these new programs is one of the most significant developments in citizenship practice in the past few decades. It tests our deepest intuitions about the meaning and attributes of the relationship between the individual and the political community to which she belongs. This chapter identifies the main strategies employed by a growing number of states putting their visas and passports “for sale,” selectively opening their otherwise bolted gates of admission to the high-net-worth individuals of the world. Moving from the positive to the normative, the discussion then elaborates the main arguments in favor of, as well as against, citizenship-for-sale. The discussion draws attention to the distributive and political implications of these developments, both locally and globally, and identifies the deeper forces at work that contribute to the perpetual testing, blurring, and erosion of the state-market boundary regulating access to membership.
Ayelet Shachar is Canada Research Chair in Citizenship and Multiculturalism, Professor of Law, Political Science, and Global Affairs, University of Toronto Faculty of Law
Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.