- The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Citizenship—<i>Quo Vadis</i>?
- Revisiting the Classical Ideal of Citizenship
- Re-Scaling the Geography of Citizenship
- Political Membership and Democratic Boundaries
- Liberal and Republican Conceptions of Citizenship
- Citizenship and Nationhood
- The History of Racialized Citizenship
- Feminist, Sexual, and Queer Citizenship
- Postcolonial Citizenship
- Economic Theories of Citizenship Ascension
- Comparing Citizenship Regimes
- Citizenship and Human Rights
- Citizenship and Cultural Diversity
- Citizenship and the Franchise
- Status Non-Citizens
- Citizenship in Immigration States
- Citizenship and State Transition
- Citizenship in Non-Western Contexts
- Indigenous Citizenship in Settler States
- Secular and Religious Citizenship
- Performative Citizenship
- Does Citizenship Matter?
- The Place of Territory in Citizenship
- Diasporas and Transnational Citizenship
- Fragmentation of Citizenship Governance
- Multiple Citizenship
- Multilevel Citizenship
- Supranational Citizenship
- Cosmopolitan Citizenship
- On Refugeehood and Citizenship
- Statelessness, ‘In-Between’ Statuses, and Precarious Citizenship
- Citizenship and Technology
- Citizenship For Sale?
- Citizenship and Membership Duties Toward Quasi-Citizens
- Inclusive Citizenship Beyond the Capacity Contract
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter explains why a growing number of people across the globe experience precarious citizenship--they cannot gain access to secure and permanent legal statuses for protracted periods. Ambiguous and temporary legal statuses are spreading because they represent a strategic government response to avoid resolving dilemmas about citizenship (especially questions about the incorporation of minorities, refugees, or labor migrants) by postponing those decisions, perhaps indefinitely. Moreover, the very processes of boundary-enforcement (biometric IDs and deportations) have pulled more people into the documentary power of the state without providing them a secure place within it. Four categories are discussed: 1) individuals who cannot obtain national identity documents and become stateless; 2) individuals who may have identity documents but lack residency authorization and become ‘illegal’; and a spectrum of groups with temporary statuses that are neither stateless nor fully unauthorized, including (3) temporary humanitarian protection or (4) temporary labor statuses.
Noora A. Lori, Assistant Professor of International Relations, Pardee School of Global Studies, Boston University.
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