- The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Citizenship—<i>Quo Vadis</i>?
- Revisiting the Classical Ideal of Citizenship
- Re-Scaling the Geography of Citizenship
- Political Membership and Democratic Boundaries
- Liberal and Republican Conceptions of Citizenship
- Citizenship and Nationhood
- The History of Racialized Citizenship
- Feminist, Sexual, and Queer Citizenship
- Postcolonial Citizenship
- Economic Theories of Citizenship Ascension
- Comparing Citizenship Regimes
- Citizenship and Human Rights
- Citizenship and Cultural Diversity
- Citizenship and the Franchise
- Status Non-Citizens
- Citizenship in Immigration States
- Citizenship and State Transition
- Citizenship in Non-Western Contexts
- Indigenous Citizenship in Settler States
- Secular and Religious Citizenship
- Performative Citizenship
- Does Citizenship Matter?
- The Place of Territory in Citizenship
- Diasporas and Transnational Citizenship
- Fragmentation of Citizenship Governance
- Multiple Citizenship
- Multilevel Citizenship
- Supranational Citizenship
- Cosmopolitan Citizenship
- On Refugeehood and Citizenship
- Statelessness, ‘In-Between’ Statuses, and Precarious Citizenship
- Citizenship and Technology
- Citizenship For Sale?
- Citizenship and Membership Duties Toward Quasi-Citizens
- Inclusive Citizenship Beyond the Capacity Contract
Abstract and Keywords
The chapter focuses on citizenship as membership in a political community. It starts from a critical discussion of the “democratic boundary problem” and argues that principles of democratic inclusion need to be differentiated for various stages of the democratic process and different types of polities. Section 2 focuses on conceptual analysis and argues that – as a form of membership – citizenship creates categorical distinctions but not necessarily impermeable, stable or bright boundaries. Section 3 examines the variety of democratic polities and identifies birthright, residence and multilevel derivation as the characteristic membership rules for independent states, for municipalities and for subnational or supranational regions. The last section discusses the mismatch between territorial and membership boundaries in the international state system as the main reason for the increasing complexity of citizenship relations in the current world. My conclusion is that normative inclusion principles need to be sensitive not only to the diversity of interests, beliefs and values in liberal society, but also to the pluralism of self-governing polities and of individuals’ relations to these.
Rainer Bauböck is Professor of Social and Political Theory in the Department of Political and Social Sciences at the European University Institute, Fiesole near Florence, Italy.
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