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date: 23 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Federal citizenship is one of several kinds of divided and overlapping sovereignties, in which two or more distinct polities coexist on the same territory. Multilevel citizenship requires a sense of political peoplehood (even if this identity is weaker than the peoplehood promoted by nation-states, as in most subnational and supranational identities) coupled with a means of involving citizens in decision-making. Citizenship today is usually conceived as a unitary relationship between individuals and a sovereign state, a conception that can be traced back to Westphalia even though local citizenships dominated in most countries until relatively recently. Contemporary developments at supranational, subnational, and transnational levels mean that citizenship is returning to the historical norm of a patchwork of different statuses operating simultaneously. This is evident in the rise of supranational citizenship in the European Union, Unasur, and elsewhere, devolution to regional authorities, and the reemergence of cities as key venues of citizenship.

Keywords: multilevel citizenship, federalism, territory, borders, jurisdiction, governance, cities, equality, rights

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