- The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Citizenship—<i>Quo Vadis</i>?
- Revisiting the Classical Ideal of Citizenship
- Re-Scaling the Geography of Citizenship
- Political Membership and Democratic Boundaries
- Liberal and Republican Conceptions of Citizenship
- Citizenship and Nationhood
- The History of Racialized Citizenship
- Feminist, Sexual, and Queer Citizenship
- Postcolonial Citizenship
- Economic Theories of Citizenship Ascension
- Comparing Citizenship Regimes
- Citizenship and Human Rights
- Citizenship and Cultural Diversity
- Citizenship and the Franchise
- Status Non-Citizens
- Citizenship in Immigration States
- Citizenship and State Transition
- Citizenship in Non-Western Contexts
- Indigenous Citizenship in Settler States
- Secular and Religious Citizenship
- Performative Citizenship
- Does Citizenship Matter?
- The Place of Territory in Citizenship
- Diasporas and Transnational Citizenship
- Fragmentation of Citizenship Governance
- Multiple Citizenship
- Multilevel Citizenship
- Supranational Citizenship
- Cosmopolitan Citizenship
- On Refugeehood and Citizenship
- Statelessness, ‘In-Between’ Statuses, and Precarious Citizenship
- Citizenship and Technology
- Citizenship For Sale?
- Citizenship and Membership Duties Toward Quasi-Citizens
- Inclusive Citizenship Beyond the Capacity Contract
Abstract and Keywords
Dual citizenship was historically disfavored by states. In the nineteenth century, the incidence of dual nationality threatened bilateral relations as states contested control over individuals. Although dual nationality persisted as states refused to harmonize nationality practice, states used expatriation, election, and renunciation as tools to suppress the status. Through international law doctrines and bilateral arrangements, the negative consequences of dual nationality were mitigated by the mid-twentieth century. However, sticky social norms against the status, the perception of emigrants as traitors to states of the Global South, and the largely unfounded association of dual nationality with security threats retarded acceptances of the status. More recently, a clear majority of states have come to tolerate and even embrace dual citizenship as advancing state policies, especially among immigrant-source states. Individuals increasingly value the status for instrumental and sentimental reasons. Even though dual citizenship challenges equality norms, this acceptance is unlikely to be reversed.
Peter J. Spiro is Charles R. Weiner Professor of Law in the James E. Beasley School of Law at Temple University, United States. He has written widely on the role of nonstate actors in international law-making.
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