- The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Citizenship—<i>Quo Vadis</i>?
- Revisiting the Classical Ideal of Citizenship
- Re-Scaling the Geography of Citizenship
- Political Membership and Democratic Boundaries
- Liberal and Republican Conceptions of Citizenship
- Citizenship and Nationhood
- The History of Racialized Citizenship
- Feminist, Sexual, and Queer Citizenship
- Postcolonial Citizenship
- Economic Theories of Citizenship Ascension
- Comparing Citizenship Regimes
- Citizenship and Human Rights
- Citizenship and Cultural Diversity
- Citizenship and the Franchise
- Status Non-Citizens
- Citizenship in Immigration States
- Citizenship and State Transition
- Citizenship in Non-Western Contexts
- Indigenous Citizenship in Settler States
- Secular and Religious Citizenship
- Performative Citizenship
- Does Citizenship Matter?
- The Place of Territory in Citizenship
- Diasporas and Transnational Citizenship
- Fragmentation of Citizenship Governance
- Multiple Citizenship
- Multilevel Citizenship
- Supranational Citizenship
- Cosmopolitan Citizenship
- On Refugeehood and Citizenship
- Statelessness, ‘In-Between’ Statuses, and Precarious Citizenship
- Citizenship and Technology
- Citizenship For Sale?
- Citizenship and Membership Duties Toward Quasi-Citizens
- Inclusive Citizenship Beyond the Capacity Contract
Abstract and Keywords
Does holding citizenship matter? Do countries reap benefits or face disadvantages from extending citizenship status? A “postnational” or “denationalized” view holds that citizenship’s saliency has decreased with the normative and legal extension of human rights and growth of more local or transnational identities. Others contend that citizenship is just a “hollow promise” of little substantive help to the disadvantaged. Surprisingly, the empirical evidence for citizenship’s significance is thin, in part due to significant data and methodological challenges in identifying effects. Nevertheless, existing research suggests that citizenship status may increase political and civic participation, carry economic benefits, strengthen identification with the national community, and improve social integration. Effects are modest, however, though stronger for non-Western immigrants living in liberal democracies. Moving forward, researchers must investigate not just whether citizenship matters, but for whom, in what contexts, and why. The chapter elaborates six possible mechanisms linking citizenship status to life experiences.
Irene Bloemraad, Professor of Sociology and Thomas Garden Barnes Chair of Canadian Studies, University of California, Berkeley.
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