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date: 03 March 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Citizenship, having antecedents in the ancient world and in the Enlightenment, is often understood in political theory as a secular framework of rights and duties. This chapter argues that there is typically a parallel religious development in which members of churches have to pay taxes, follow the authoritative commands, abide by an orthodoxy and norms of religious and ethical practice, and in return they receive sacramental services and frequently welfare and educational services. Just as citizens can be incarcerated for misdemeanours, members of a religious community can also be expelled or denied ritual services. While there are two distinctive spheres of membership, their relationship has varied considerably over time and by national context. In the liberal politics of western societies, the two spheres are kept apart by the constitutional separation of church and state. However, the two spheres often overlap or conflict with each other.

Keywords: Aristotle, Augustine, Bockenforde Dilemma, citizenship, Islam, Management of Religions, secularization, Shari’a, two-cities model, Max Weber

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