- The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Citizenship—<i>Quo Vadis</i>?
- Revisiting the Classical Ideal of Citizenship
- Re-Scaling the Geography of Citizenship
- Political Membership and Democratic Boundaries
- Liberal and Republican Conceptions of Citizenship
- Citizenship and Nationhood
- The History of Racialized Citizenship
- Feminist, Sexual, and Queer Citizenship
- Postcolonial Citizenship
- Economic Theories of Citizenship Ascension
- Comparing Citizenship Regimes
- Citizenship and Human Rights
- Citizenship and Cultural Diversity
- Citizenship and the Franchise
- Status Non-Citizens
- Citizenship in Immigration States
- Citizenship and State Transition
- Citizenship in Non-Western Contexts
- Indigenous Citizenship in Settler States
- Secular and Religious Citizenship
- Performative Citizenship
- Does Citizenship Matter?
- The Place of Territory in Citizenship
- Diasporas and Transnational Citizenship
- Fragmentation of Citizenship Governance
- Multiple Citizenship
- Multilevel Citizenship
- Supranational Citizenship
- Cosmopolitan Citizenship
- On Refugeehood and Citizenship
- Statelessness, ‘In-Between’ Statuses, and Precarious Citizenship
- Citizenship and Technology
- Citizenship For Sale?
- Citizenship and Membership Duties Toward Quasi-Citizens
- Inclusive Citizenship Beyond the Capacity Contract
Abstract and Keywords
The manner in which new citizens should be created is one of the most complex questions in political theory. The law of naturalization functions as a gatekeeper—it is designed to include the desirable people and exclude the undesirable ones. This chapter explores legal and theoretical aspects of naturalization. Part I addresses the ultimate goal of naturalization—what function does it serve?—by presenting three goals: contract, political test, and nation-building. Part II seeks to present three ways to assess the ethics of naturalization, drawing on conceptual and utilitarian grounds. Part III examines three trends in naturalization policy in the West—legalization, devaluation, and liberalization (followed by a restrictive turn). Naturalization has been internationalized in the direction of creating a right to citizenship; citizenship is becoming a “commodity” whose nature is increasingly influenced by economic considerations; and the process of liberalization in access to the status of citizenship is facing a cultural restrictive turn.
Liav Orgad, Associate Professor, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya; WZB Berlin Social Science Center.
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