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date: 23 June 2021

(p. 679) Index

(p. 679) Index

abject cosmopolitans 649
Abts, Koen 412, 413, 417, 554, 564, 568, 646
Acemoglu, Daron 14
Ackerman, Bruce 598, 600
Adams, Herbert Baxter 521
Advani, L.K. 184
Africa
anti-elite rhetoric 111–12, 115
anti-establishment discourse 104
ascriptive identity appeals in rural areas 113–14
centrality of urban concerns 112–13
contemporary populism 106–9
contemporary populist strategies 109–14
cumulative conceptual approach 102–17
demand-side (demographic/economic shifts) 102, 108
democracy 104, 106–9
demography 106–9
disillusionment with democracy 106–7
eclectic economic ideologies 112–13
economic crises 104–5
exclusionary populism and ideological discourse 104–6
general will 104, 115
ideological discourse 116
inequality 106–9
leaders’ performance tactics 110
party systems 106–8
people power 111–12
peoples’ revolutions in 1980s 102–4
personalistic leadership 102, 116
political strategy 116
populism in 101–17
populist conceptualisations 116
populist leaders eras 115
populist regimes (1980s) 102–4, 115
populist regimes (2000–2015) 11
presidential systems 101
pure people 115, 116
socio-cultural performance 116, 117
state-interventionist economies 104
supply-side (party system) 102
unmediated ties 109–11, 115
urbanization 108–9
youth 108–9
Agnew, Spiro 243
agrarian populism 18, 36, 162, 165, 166–9, 171, 175, 182, 192
Ahmadinejad, Mahmood 449
Akkerman, T. 472
ALBA (Alliance of the Americas) 393
Albertazzi, Daniele 565
Aldrich, John A. 289, 297
Alessandri, Arturo 4
ambiguities of populism 662–4
Anderson, Benedict 344
Anderson, Perry 654
Anderton, Jim 127
Anker, Elizabeth 244
anti-Americanism 394
anti-anti-populists 654, 656
anti-cosmopolitanism 79–81, 644, 647
anti-elitism 74, 92, 109, 114–15, 127, 134, 148–51, 163, 191, 222–3, 226, 366, 384, 450, 456, 470–1, 472, 593, 647
anti-establishment appeal 288–9
anti-immigration 81, 125, 126–7, 129, 134, 250, 251, 252, 294, 307, 386, 397, 419, 430, 439–40, 648
anti-intellectualism 638
anti-pluralism 603
antipodean populism see Australia; New Zealand
anti-politics 512
(p. 680) anti-populist elitists 31, 75, 83, 215, 220–1, 300, 490, 499–500, 502, 503, 535, 538–41, 544, 545, 549, 550, 602, 644, 648–52, 656–7
anti-semitism 145, 266, 354, 367, 370, 376, 379, 447, 540
Antonio, José 370
Arab Spring 316, 320
Arditi, Benjamin 559, 572, 632
Arendt, Hannah 517
Argentina
classical populism 209
Day of Loyalty 56
emergence of populism 4–5, 7, 56, 208
fascist Peronism 375–6
female populist leaders 436
female suffrage 428–9
gender 434, 438
Kirchnerismo 410
motherhood 438
Peronism 54, 56, 65–6, 205, 207, 296, 375–6, 389, 434, 437, 438, 538
Aristotle 578–9, 580, 585
Armenia 214
Aron, Raymond 450
articles, on populism 10–13, 19
Aspinall, E. 170
Atlantic bias of populist literature 136, 165
audience democracy 560
Australia 121–36
agrarian populism 123
antipodean populism 130–4
and asylum seekers 134
Australian Labor Party 126
and boat people 134
electoral system 126
elite groups 132–3
indigenous groups 132–3
Jacqui Lambie Network 125
Katter’s Australian Party 124
Liberal-National Coalition 126
Liberal Party 122, 392
mainstream populism 127, 134
migration/race issues 124–7, 132–4, 396, 397
One Nation Party 124, 392, 396, 471
overseas investment 135
Palmer United Party 125
people definition 131–2
the people groups 132–3, 135
populism as exclusive 131
populism in 123–7
populism style 122–3, 130–4
protectionism 135
Queensland authoritarianism 123–4
Queensland exceptionalism 123–4
refugee policies 394
as settler colonial states 133–4, 135
tall poppy syndrome 134
two-party system 126
urban/rural divide 131–2
white racial bias 131–2
see also New Zealand
Austria
Christian Social Party 366
FPÖ (Freedom) party 8, 251, 255, 349, 388, 392, 394, 398, 432, 440, 473, 648
immigration 648
ÖVP (Christian Democratic Party) 8
populism in 248
populist coalitions 8
authentic 29–30, 53, 76, 92, 93, 122, 131, 184, 192, 198, 289–90, 292, 299, 318, 326, 353, 591, 593, 596, 598, 600, 603
authenticity 29, 31, 131, 166, 180, 287, 417, 452, 457, 667
Azerbaijan 214
Baker, C. 167, 168
Bakhtin, Mikhail 239
Baldus 595
(p. 681) Bancroft, George 517–18
Bandaranaike, Sirimavo 181
Barrès, Maurice 369, 371
Bartolini, Stefano 289
Beetham, Bruce 127
Belarus 214, 221, 223–4, 229
Belgium
Flemish Block/Flemish Interest/Vlaams Belang party 253, 255, 349, 392, 401, 564
List Dedecker party 392
media coverage and right wing 473
sub-state nationalisms 353
Bellah, Robert 451
Berger, Peter L. 451
Berlet, Chip 232
Berlin, Isaiah 35
Berlusconi, Silvio 30, 64, 66, 75, 76, 78, 293, 328, 388, 392, 394, 396, 397, 399, 419, 474
Bernardi, Cory 127
Bernstein, Eduard 672–3, 675
Betz, Hans-Georg 271–2, 432
Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali 181
Bjelke-Petersen, Joh 123, 126, 133
Black Atlantic 653
Black Pacific 653
Blanqui, Auguste 668–9, 670, 672, 673
Blanquism 669–76
Bluntschli, Johan Kaspar 521–5
Bobbio, Norbert 37, 646
Bolivarian Alliance of the Peoples 209
Bolivar, Simón 458
Bolivia
Communal Councils 204
emancipation 416
emergence of populism 7, 208
feminist groups 435
gender 434, 438
grassroots movements 311
Indian/mestizo identity 206–7
MAS party 298, 300, 311, 414, 434
MNR party 210
people/elite conflict 33
populist constitutionalism 591, 599–600
populist organizations 204
reappearance of populism 207–9
revolution (1952) 206
social movements 66
uprisings 296
Urban Land Committees 204
Bolivian Circles 204
Bos, L. 472
Boulanger, General George 4, 366, 367, 368
see also France, Boulangism
boundary problem 610, 629, 640–1
Bourdieu, Pierre 77, 78–9, 93
Brandenburger, David 216
Brazil
classical populism 209
economic cycles 51
emergence of populism 5, 7, 208
female suffrage 428–9
reappearance of populism 207–9
V for Vinegar movement 309, 316
Breaugh, Martin 544, 653
Britain see United Kingdom
Brodsky, Clava 585
Bromwich, David 328
Brownson, Orsetes 524
Bryan, William Jennings 513–14, 515
Bucaram, Abdalá 91, 205–6, 207, 415
Buchanan, Pat 9, 234, 237, 239, 244
Burke, Edmund 517
Burkina Faso see Upper Volta
Bush, George H.W. 234, 239
Bush, George W. 53, 78, 243
Bush, Jed 416
Calhoun, Craig 317, 318
Calhoun, John C. 516
campaign approach 35
Canovan, Margaret 7, 29, 36, 42, 81, 92, 311, 415, 427, 453, 559, 578, 611, 618, 646
capitalism 77, 144, 157, 175, 228, 366, 367, 370, 374, 377, 586, 636, 639, 651, 661, 664, 667, 670, 675, 676
and Marx 664
Capoccia, Giovanni 497–8
Cardenas, Lázaro 429
Carlyle, Thomas 460
cartelization 291–2, 333–5
cartel party 333
Casula, P. 221
catch-all party 333, 334
(p. 682) causes of populism 267–81
anomie 269
causal arguments 268
collective consciousness 269
corruption 272, 279
democratic governance failures 272, 278, 279
Downsian theory 268–9, 270–1, 274–6, 277, 278, 279–80
Durkheimian theory 268–9, 270–1, 274–6, 277, 278, 279
economic crises 279
economic thesis 270–3
electoral opportunity structure 273
electoral systems 273
existing arguments 268–9
formal institutions 278
future research 279–81
globalization losers thesis 271–2
ideational theory of populism 276–9, 280
institutions and electoral space 273
mass society thesis 269–70, 276, 280
medium-term structural change 271–2
political mobilization coordination 277
populism at individual level 275
populism and policy crises 278–9
relative deprivation argument 272
role of populist ideas 268
Centeno, Miguel 328, 330, 331
Central/Eastern Europe 140–58
ANO party 149
ATAKA party 146
BBB party 149
BNRP party 146
centrist populism, and competence 143–4
centrist populism (in 1990s) 148–9, 157–8
centrist populism (in 2000s) 149–51, 152, 157–8
centrist populism, and newness 143–4, 149–51
centrist populism, and probity 143–4
centrist populist parties 152, 153, 154
contesting liberal democracy 144–8
corruption 144, 149, 151, 157
DP party 150
DPS party 149
electoral strength of populist parties 155–7
and end of Cold War 389
entrepreneurial strategy and populist ideology 141–2
ERSP party 146
ethnic nationalism 142
European integration 153
Fidesz party 148, 158
financial nationalism 142
GERB party 150
and hardships of transition 145–6
HZDS party 148–9
ideologies 141–2
immigration 147
integration/demarcation cleavage 142–3, 152, 153
JL party 150
Kukiz Movement 147
and liberal establishment 146–8
LMP party 151
LPR party 146, 147
MIÉP party 146
NDSV party 149
non-populist parties 152
non-populist parties electoral strength 155–7
OLaNO party 151
participation in government by populist parties 155–7
Party X 149
PiS party (Law and Justice) 147
political elites 151
political participation under Communism 143–4
political style approaches 141
politics of newness 149–51
politics of transition/globalization 142–3
populist parties electoral strength 155–7
populist parties and structure of political competition 151–4
PP-DD party 151
PRM party 145
PUNR party 146
radical left parties 146–7
radical populism (1990s) 145–6
radical populism (2000s) 146–8
radical populism fringes to mainstream 144–8
radical populism post-Communism 142–4, 157
radical right—wing populist parties 142, 145–7, 152–4
(p. 683) RP party 150
SMER party 147
SND party 146
SNS party 145
SOP party 149
SPR-RSČ party 145
SRP party 147
and Syrian refugee crisis 146–7
TB party 146
TKL party 149
2008 economic crisis 150
ÚSVIT party 147
vote share of populist parties 155–7
VV party 151
ZRS party 146
Ceresole, Norberto 54
chain of claim-making for inclusion 601
chain of equivalence 346, 356–7, 542, 548, 562
Chalcraft, J. 316
charisma. 50, 58, 59, 68, 90, 109, 191, 210, 273, 373, 470, 474, 480, 481, 598, 602
charisma of populist actors 481
charismatic leader/leadership 5, 7, 40, 50, 110, 115, 116, 117, 189, 204, 210–11, 217, 222, 226, 269, 270, 273, 276, 277, 293, 299, 300, 363, 364, 369, 373, 380, 429, 435, 453, 455–7, 458, 481, 560
Chávez, Hugo 7, 49, 51, 54, 56, 65, 66, 82, 91, 204, 206, 208, 209, 210, 275, 293, 294, 299, 300, 313, 332, 352, 358, 384, 393, 414, 427, 437, 438, 455, 457, 491, 492, 495, 499, 502, 564, 600
Chavismo 490, 502
Chen Shui-bian 164
Chile
emergence of populism 4–5
non-reappearance of populism 207–9
rule of law 208
Chiluba, Frederick 107
China, Democracy Movement 318
Christensen, George 127
Christodoulos, Archbishop 447
Ciccariello-Maher, G. 313
citizenship 5, 105–6, 201, 208, 239, 279, 290, 351, 515, 571, 575, 609, 616, 633, 637–8, 644, 650, 653, 673
Citizenship Amendment Act (Zimbabwe) 105
civic populism 36
The Civil War in France 666
Clark, Helen 130
classical populism 4–5, 7, 196–8, 209, 426
class-in-itself 665
Clay, Henry 518
clientelism 17, 58, 59, 183, 195, 199, 203–7, 279, 416, 585, 596–7
Clinton, Bill 234
Clinton, Hillary 417
Codreanu, Corneliu 369, 371
Collard, Gilbert 420
collective action frame 309–11, 314–16
Collor de Mello, Fernando 7, 49, 51, 66, 394, 474
Collovald, Annie 540
Colombia
emergence of populism 56
non-reappearance of populism 207–9
combative pleasure principle 240
common traits, in populism 7
communism 140–1, 142, 143–4, 157, 216, 217, 236, 366, 370, 372, 376, 379, 380, 389, 394, 451, 516, 522, 562, 639
The Communist Manifesto 319, 673
competitive authoritarianism 53, 214, 219, 492
complete/empty populism 454
concept, of populism 1–19
conceptual approaches to populism 12, 14, 345
confrontational textbook populism 173
Connolly, William 408
constituent moments 238, 631
constitutional democracy 578
constitutionalism
and definition of populism 592–6
popular constitutionalism 591, 600–2
and populism 590–603
populism in power; characteristics of 596–7
populist constitutionalism 591, 597–600
cooperation in American Populism 639
cordon sanitaire strategy 565, 568
core elements, populist strategy 57–8
core populist claim 591
(p. 684) Corradini, Enrico 370
Correa, Rafael 7, 51, 66, 206, 209, 210, 293, 294, 296, 299, 313, 328, 332, 393, 491, 494, 499, 596
corrupt elites 29–34, 39, 41, 91–2, 115, 161, 180, 306–7, 427, 490, 491, 526, 527
cosmopolitanism
anti-cosmopolitanism 79–81, 644, 647
cosmopolitan anti-populism 79–81, 648–52
cosmopolitan populism 652–6
and populism 81, 644–57
populist anti-cosmopolitanism 645–8
cosmopolitanism-from-below 653
cosmopolitan utopias 651
Costa Rica
non-appearance of populism 207–9
rule of law 208
Côte d’Ivoire
Ivoirité 105
labor scarcity/migration 105
PDCI 105, 117
see also Africa
Coughlin, Father 376
Cranmer, M. 472
Craven, Herman 28
crisis
characteristics of 545–6
of representation 289–90, 535, 546, 546–7, 548–9
The Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy 633
Critchley, Simon 548
crop-lien system 635
crowd mobilization 56
Cruz, Ted 312, 415
Culpepper, P.D. 330, 337
cultural capital 77–8
cultural definition of populism 12
cultural nativism 81
cumulative conceptual approach 102–17
Curti, Merle 515–16
Czech Republic 145, 147, 151, 155, 156
Beneš Decrees 394
Dahl, Robert 6, 37, 82, 500, 501
Dalmau, Rubén Martinez 600
Dargent, Eduardo 332
Day, Richard 549
Declaration of the Occupation of NYC 548
Deegan-Krause, Kevin 150
definitions, of populism 12, 13–14, 18, 19, 27, 28–30, 35, 38, 40, 41, 42, 50, 52–5, 58–68, 74, 89, 161, 327–8, 347, 427, 472, 482, 559, 571, 574, 592–6, 621, 646, 663
de la Torre, Carlos 272, 328, 425, 574
Deleuze, Gilles 549
Della Porta, D. 318
demagogical democracy 578
demagoguery
and democracy 578–86
and tyranny 582
demarcation-integration cleavage, foreign policy 391
democracy
as institutionalized uncertainty 603
as mirror of populism 34
and populism 622–4
representative government as 611
subjective nature of 561
two dimensions of 501
Democratic Legitimacy 336
democratic legitimacy, and self-limitation 622–4
democratic mysticism 634
democratic self-destruction 497
democratic theory
post-Cold War 609
and the problem of the people 608–12
democratic wish 629
democratization, and social movements 306, 317–19
Denmark
DFP (Danish People’s Party) 392, 432, 436, 439–40
female populist leaders 435–6
gender issues 432, 439–40
migration 396
populism 248
Progress Party 252
dependency theory 6
depoliticization of politics 566
Derrida, Jacques 586
(p. 685) descriptor, populism as 216
desperate inventions 640
Desroche, Henri 460
de Vreese, C.H. 472
Diamandouros, Nikiforos 540
Dieterich, Heinz 54
differencialism term 378
Diogenes the Cynic 645, 648–51, 656, 658
discriminatory legalism 596–7
discursive antagonism 92
discursive approach (Laclau) 35, 39, 40, 52–3
discursive infrastructures of populism 541–5
discursive institutionalism 171
discursive socialist populism 182, 224
Disquisition on Government 516
disruption of democracy 320
Di Tella, Torcuato 272
domestic politics, and globalization 390
Donnelly, Ignatius 514, 635
Dornbusch, Rüdiger 14, 51
Dotcom, Kim 130
double criterion of evaluation 573–6
Downs, Anthony 268–9, 270–1, 274–6, 277, 278, 279–80
down-up structure of populism 346
dual character of dislocation 547
Duhalde, Eduardo 66
Durkheim, Emile 268–9, 270–1, 274–6, 277, 278, 279
East Asia
agrarian populism 162, 165, 166–9, 171, 175
dearth of populism 171–4
exclusionary populism 165
failing populism 162–4
inclusionary populism 165
movie hero populism 162, 165–6, 171, 173
nationalist populism 162, 165, 169–70, 171
populist politicians 162–4
socioeconomic populism 165, 173
xenophobic populism 165, 173
Eastern Europe see Central/Eastern Europe
Eastwood, Clint 241
economic approach, to populism 14, 50–2
economic definition of populism 12
economic multilateralism 394
Eco, U. 437
Ecuador
collective identity 313
corruption 293
emergence of populism 5, 7, 208
National Assembly 596
political polarization 207
populist constitutionalism 591, 599–600
reappearance of populism 207–9
Edelstein, Dan 599
Eder, Klaus 320
Edwards, Sebastian 14, 51
Egypt
April 6 Youth Movement 310
Egyptian Revolution 310
Muslim Brotherhood 310, 312, 602
Tahrir Square protests 601, 602
1848 legacies, and popular sovereignty 515–20
The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte 665
Elchibey, Abulfaz 222
electoral opportunity structure 273
electoral-professional party 333, 334
Elias, Norbert 79
the elite, in populism 32–3
elitism 34–5, 56, 112, 215, 221, 527–8, 563, 591, 644
emancipatory politics 654
emancipatory promise of populism 415
empowerment populism 190
empty signifier 32, 40, 84, 238, 270, 277, 292, 311, 410, 421, 437, 563, 632, 655
hegemony and populist politics 537–41, 542, 547, 550
populism as 562
enactment problem 629
Engels, Friedrich 671
Errors of Populism 28
Essex School 343, 539, 545
Estrada, Joseph 162, 165–6, 170, 171, 173–5, 474
ethnopluralism 33
ethnopopulism/ethno-populism 33, 48, 49, 114, 207
European integration, and foreign policy 388
European populism extension 61–4
European Union, austerity policies 8
(p. 686) Euroscepticism 256–7, 258, 259, 260
evaluation, of populism 573–6
EVI (emancipative values index) 172
exclusionary populism 14, 17, 37, 104–6, 165, 169, 348–52, 544, 563, 564, 645, 648, 657
falling populism 162–4
Falconer, Lord 328
Farage, Nigel 419, 471, 593
Farmers Alliance 635–7, 638
fascism
corrupt/self-serving elites 364, 367–8
and democracy 595
developmental dictatorship 364
economic policy 373
eugenics 370
Europe case study 378–9
foundational fascism 368–81
foundational populism 365–8
generic ideology 364
holistic nation 365, 369–71
Holohoax 380
and immigration 395–7
Islamofascism 370–1
Latin America case study 375–6
new man 365, 371–2
plain people 364, 366–7
and popular will 364, 368
and populism 5, 363–81
social movements/regime classifications 374–9
structural-development theories 364
third way authoritarian state 365, 372–4
totalitarianism term 372
as ultra-nationalism 364
United States case study 376–8
Feder, Goffried 373
Fernandes, S. 434
Ferrero, Juan Pablo 410
Filc, Dani 37
Finland, Finns/True Finns party 252
Five Star Movement 252, 255, 255, 298, 311–12, 476, 493, 495–6
flexible mode of persuasion 630
floating signifiers 410
folk democracy 571
foreign policy 384–401
actors in 385–6, 390
comparative politics approach 384, 387
and corrupt elite 400
demarcation-integration cleavage 391
domestic/international spheres 385
and end of Cold War 385, 388, 389, 400
and European integration 388
and globalization 389–90, 400
humanitarian intervention 385
international politics and populism 387–8, 393–5
IR (international relations) approach 384, 388
and migration 395–7
and nationalism 386–7
populist left-wing attitudes 395
populist market liberal attitudes 395
populist parties categorization 392–3
populist radical right attitudes 395
populist regionalist attitudes 395
and regional integration 388, 389–91
sovereign states as actors 385
subnational entities 385
trade and finance 397–8
transborder migration 395–7
Fortuyn, Pim 41, 55, 251, 386, 419
Foucault, Michel 651
Frame Analysis 309
France
Boulangism 4, 365, 366–8
1848 legacies, and popular sovereignty 515–20
emergence of populism 4, 5
Faisceau party 373
FN (Front National) party 5, 8, 40, 251, 257, 258, 260, 274, 298, 332, 348, 365, 378–9, 392, 420, 432, 455, 458, 459, 490, 495, 525, 564, 644, 647
gender issues 439
Islamophobia 252
migration 367, 396, 420, 648
Nouvelle Droite group 378
populism in 248
Poujadism 5, 389
revolutionary 516, 661–76
UDCA 5
Frank, Jason 238
(p. 687) Freeden, Michael 30, 41
FSU (former Soviet Union) see post-Soviet states
Fujimori, Alberto 7, 49, 51, 66, 206, 207, 209, 293, 296, 299, 332, 392, 394, 474, 499
fusion, leadership and masses 83, 94
The Future of Democracy 512
future research, on populism 16–19
Gaitán, Jorge Eliécer 5, 55, 207–8
Gamsakhurdia, Zviad 222
Gandhi, Indira 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 186, 188, 192
García, Alan 66
Gardner, Howard 457
Gebh, Sara 651
Gellner, Ernest 6, 7, 28, 248, 342
gender 426–41
female enfranchisement 428
female populist leaders 435–7
feminist/feminine in populist discourse/policies 437–9
and political representation 433–7
and populism 428–31
and populist supporters 431–2
subordination of personal identity 437–40
xenophobic discourse 439
gender dimension 428
gendered representation in populist politics 433–5
general will 33–4, 115, 161, 163, 164, 622, 646
Gentile, Giovanni 372, 595
genuine populism 380
Georgia 214, 217, 218, 219, 221, 224, 228
Germani, Gino 5, 6, 538, 540
Germany
Alternative for Germany party 257, 312
Constitution 516
1848 legacies, and popular sovereignty 515–22
eugenics 370
Euroscepticism 257
indeterminate populist discourse 317
Jewish policy 373
Left Party 8, 254, 397
migration 307, 396, 397
National Socialism (Nazis) 50, 53, 363–4, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373–4
Nazi racism 369
PEGIDA 307, 312, 318, 396
The Left party 393
Völkisch movement 366
Ghana
Economic Recovery Plan 104
and IMF 104
military coup 102–4
PNDC 103, 104
see also Africa
Ghonim, W. 316
Gibson, Edward 38
Gilroy, Paul 653
globalization
and foreign policy 389–90
and political parties 333
globalization losers thesis 271–2
Glynos, Jason 346
Goebbels, Josef 369
Goffman, Erving 309
Goodwyn, Lawrence 3, 232, 514, 635, 639, 640
Gore, Al 78
Goulard, Sylvie 332
government populist parties 8
Gramsci, Antonio 6, 535–50, 654
grassroots/electoral populism 311
Grattan, Laura 245
Great Depression 5, 233, 291, 372
Great Recession 8–9, 234, 278, 307, 308, 307, 308, 310, 314, 316, 318, 320, 420, 493, 500, 502
Greece
ANEL party 495, 502
anti-austerity 512
ethnic purity 379
Golden Dawn party 378, 379
Greek Orthodox Church 447
PASOK 6, 67
populism in 248
SYRIZA-ANEL coalition 495, 502
SYRIZA party 8, 49, 255, 298, 306, 312, 319, 352, 354, 357, 392, 393, 397, 398, 399, 411, 493, 495, 502, 512, 539–40, 542, 549
Griffin, Nick 380
Grillo, Beppe 255, 312, 332, 476, 477, 481
(p. 688) Grim, Priscilla 238
Groppo, Alejandro 413
growth of populism 1
Gustafson, B. 127
Habermas, Jürgen 555, 556–7, 558, 561
Haeg, G.C. 133
Haggard, Merle 240
Haider, Jorg 60, 63, 64, 67, 251
Hallin, D.C. 471
Hannity, Sean 241
Hansen, David 204
Hanson, Pauline 121, 124–6, 127, 130, 132, 133, 134, 471
Hansson, Per Albin 674, 676
Harteveld, E. 432
Haughton, Tim 150
Hawkins, Kirk 38, 48, 52, 53, 67, 69, 204, 208, 272, 501
Haya de la Torre, Victor Raúl 5, 300
Hay, Colin 546
Hayek, Friedrich 527
heartland 7, 32, 81, 92, 172, 250, 299, 495
hegemonic articulation 634
hegemonic unity 581
hegemony and populist politics
conceptual frameworks 536–7
discourse theory (Laclau) 536–50
discourse theory (Mouffe) 536–50
empty signifiers 537–41, 547
equivalence vs difference 541–5
identity-difference dialectic 539
linguistic representation theory (Gramsci) 536–50
national-popular dimension 538
oligarchic tendencies 544
plebian experience 544
and populism 535–50
populism as articulatory practice 537–41
representational mechanisms 535
and socio-symbolic/psycho-social infrastructures 543
heterodox democratic project 4
Hichilema, Hakainde 110
Hicks, John 514
hierarchical authority, in politics 85
history, of populism 2–10
History of the United States 517
Hitler, Adolf 50, 363, 366, 369, 371, 373, 374
Hobbes, Thomas 620
Hofstadter, Richard 3, 232, 451, 513–14, 540, 638
holistic grading 48, 52, 53
Hong Kong, Umbrella Revolution 316, 318, 320
Howard, John 124, 126–7, 392, 394, 397
Howarth, David 346
Howe, Daniel 519
Hug, Simon 297
Hungary 145–8, 151, 156, 157, 158
Arrow Cross 369, 370, 373
fascism 364, 369, 370
FIDESZ party 384, 394, 399, 490, 496, 573, 585
Fundamental Law constitution 599
Jobbik party 392, 394
migration 396
populist constitutionalism 591, 599–600
revolt of 1848 516–17
Hungate, A.P. 638
idea of the people see people
ideational approach
categorizability 28, 36–8
the corrupt elite 29–34, 39, 41, 115
definition 29–30
distinguishability 28, 34–6
general will 33–4, 115
homogenous/antagonistic groups in 29–34, 41
ideational theory of populism 276–9, 280
ideology 30–1, 41, 42
and Laclau’s discursive approach 39, 40, 68
and Ostiguy’s performative/cultural approach 39, 40–1
the pure people 29–34, 41, 115, 116
strengths of the approach 34–9
to populism 14, 28–34
travelability 28, 38
versatility 28, 39
and Weyland’s organizational approach 39, 40
identification
collective identities 408
(p. 689) insiders/outsiders 409–10
motherhood as social identity 408–9
political identities 407–9
and populism 406–22
populist gaze 414–17
populist interventions 418–20
populist leaders 411–14
populist mainstreaming 418–20
populist mode of 409–11
post-structuralism 408
social identities 408
identity entrepreneurs 311
identity mobilization 320
identity politics 8, 309–11
identity to praxis 630–4
ideological populism 12, 53, 122, 161, 215–16, 560
ideology
in ideational approach 30–1
and populism 618–19
Iglesias, Pablo 64, 67, 330, 332, 476
imagined communities 32
inclusionary populism 8, 14, 17, 37, 165, 169, 195, 351–2, 375, 392, 502, 563, 564–5, 653–4
India 179–93
ADMK party 189–90
agrarian populism 182, 192
AIADMK party 189–91
Andhra Pradesh (1980s) 180, 189, 191
anti-establishment politics (1960s) 181–3
assertive populism 190
Bharatiya Janata party 313
Bharatiya Kranto Dal party 182
Bharatiya Lok Dal party 182
BJP party 179, 180, 184, 186, 188
charismatic leadership 189
Congress Party 180, 181, 182, 189, 190, 191, 192
corrupt elites 180
DMK party 189–90
elections (1971) 181
elections (2007) 185
elections communications technology 186
empowerment populism 190
film star politicians 188–91, 192
Grand Alliance 182
Hindu-Muslim violence 184–5
Hindu nationalism 180, 183–8
Hindutva movement 184
jan andolan movement 313
Jana Sangh party 182
majoritarianism 188
mass movements organization 188
Muslim appeasement 184
protection populism 190
regional nationalism 188–91
riots post-independence 185
RJD party 181
RSS party 184
rural/urban divide 182–3, 192
Sadbhavana Mission 187
Sangh Parivar 184
socialist populism 182
structural inequalities 189, 192
Swatantra party 182
Tamil Nadu (1970s–1980s) 180, 188, 189–91
TDP party 189, 191
welfare populism 188–91
Youth Development March 185
individualization 333
Indonesia
Gerinda party 170
national populism 169–70
populist politicians 162–4
industrial capitalism 664
Inglehart, Ronald 75, 77, 86, 172
institutional populism 90–1, 245
international politics, populist position on 393–5
Inventing the People: The Rise of Popular Sovereignty in England and America 406
invocation of a majority 579
Ionescu, Ghita 6, 7, 28, 248, 342
ISI (import-substituting industrialization) 38, 104
Islamofascism 380
Israel
J 14 movement 312, 314
Labor party 312
Yesh Atid party 313
(p. 690) issue mobilization 320
Italy
anti-corruption 255
corruption 293
Fascist movement 50, 53, 364, 369–70, 372
Five Star Movement 252, 255, 311–12, 476, 493, 495
Girotondi movement 573
Go Italy! party (Forza Italia) 392, 394, 397
Lega Nord movement 332, 473
and migration 396
MSI (Italian Social Movement) 378
Northern League party 253, 392, 394, 397, 398, 399, 401
populism in 248
Salò Republic 373, 378
Jackson, Andrew 232, 243
Jackson, Jesse 235, 237
Japan
LDP party 163
populist politicians 162–4
Jayalalithaa 188–9
Johnson, C. 135
Joko Widodo (Jokowi) 162, 164
Jones, Bob 127
Jones, Evan 638
Joyce, Barnaby 127
Kampwirth, Karen 426
Katter, Bob 124–6, 127, 133, 134
Katz, Richard S. 291, 333–4, 335
Kaunda, Kenneth 107
Kazakhstan 214, 219, 220, 221
Kazin, Michael 9, 237, 245, 407, 417, 420, 513, 646
Kelly, Megyn 415
Kelsen, Hans 595
Kenya
evictions 109
KANU 107
NARC 107, 111
ODM 106, 113
see also Africa
Kerry, John 78
Key, John 128
Khrushchev, Nikita 217
Kibaki, Mwai 107
Kirchner, Cristina 411, 434
Kirchner, Néstor 410, 411, 434, 540
Kitschelt, Herbert 143
Kjaersgaard, Pia 419, 426, 435–6, 437
Klein, Melanie 240
Kofman, E. 439
Koizumi, Junichiro 162, 163, 172
Kornhauser, William 6
Kossuth, Lajos 516, 517
Krastev, Ivan 320
Kravchuk, Leonid 222
Kriesi, Hanspeter 142, 260, 298, 299, 391, 491–2
Kyrgyzstan 214, 221, 224
Laclau, Ernesto 6, 19, 27, 29, 32, 35, 39, 40, 49, 68, 74, 93, 206, 238, 270, 289, 296, 306–9, 312, 327, 329, 330, 336, 343, 346, 407, 410, 412, 413, 418, 421, 437, 535–50, 562–3, 574, 577, 629, 630, 632, 634, 647, 654, 655, 657
ladder of abstraction 37
Lambie, Jacqui 125–6, 127, 136
Lapid, Yar 313
Laski, Harold 525
Latin America 195–211
Bolivarian nations 209, 398
brokers 205
Chávez’s model of political transformation 209
classical populism 196–8
corruption 205
democracy in 208
emergence of populism 4–5, 290, 574
and end of Cold War 389
fascism 375–6
feminist groups 435
gender and populism 426, 428–31, 432
historical waves of populism 209
leaders and followers 203–7
and left-wing populism 564
migration 397
and neoliberalism 397
neoliberal populism 198–9
political incorporation form 208
political polarization 207
political representation and populism 208
populism conceptualizations 375–6
populism success 567
populist constitutionalism 591
post-structuralism 206
(p. 691) poverty levels 205
radical populism 199–203
reappearance of populism 207–9
regional integration 398, 399
rule of law 208
social movements 375–6
leadership 40, 50, 54, 55–6, 65–8, 73, 81–4, 92, 102, 110, 115, 189, 210–11, 222, 269, 293, 373, 455–7
personalistic leadership 81–3, 92, 102, 116
leader types 455–6
Le Bon, Gustave 370, 672
Le Choc du Mois magazine 380–1
Lefort, Claude 555, 556, 557–8, 567, 582, 601, 603, 632, 646
left-wing populism 8, 37, 38, 351, 393, 564
legitimacy of the people 631
Leighton, John 667–8
Le Pen, Jean-Marie 5, 258, 378–9, 455, 457, 459
Le Pen, Marine 251, 258, 337, 379, 420, 426
Levi-Strauss, Claude 543
liberal constitutionalism 632
liberal democracy
as agonism 563
antagonism with populism 561, 562, 568
as autonomous regime 556
co-originality of liberalism and populism 555–9
dealing with populism 564–6
democratic dimension 561
liberal dimension of 561
as paradoxical mixture 555–6
populism as closure of empty place of power 559–62
populism as empty signifier 562
populism as symptom 555, 562–4
populism as threat 554–68
technocracy and populism as opposite threats 566–7, 568
unity-in-diversity 558
liberalism, and populism 82, 503, 554–68
Liberalism Against Populism 7
libertarian-authoritarian divide 75
Lieber, Francis 520–3
Linmann, Hilla 102
Linz, Juan 498
Lipset, Seymour Martin 6, 289, 291, 298
literature, on populism 1–2
Lizza, Ryan 415
logic of difference 308, 329, 541
logic of equivalence 329, 409, 421, 541–2, 550
logic of populism 632
London School of Economics conference 6
Long, Huey 9, 91, 233, 376
Loughlin, Martin 598
the low (in populism/politics) 101, 110, 117, 122–5, 128–9, 134–5, 184, 236–40, 242, 244, 249, 255, 260, 345–6, 414–17, 421, 452, 619–20
Lueger, Karl 366
Lukashenka, Alyaksandr 223–4
Lupu, Noam 294
Lyashko, Oleh 226
Lyons, Matthew N. 232
Maastricht Treaty 256
McDonnell, D. 122
McGuire, James W. 296, 299–300
Machiavelli, Niccolò 584, 585
Maduro, Nicolás 210, 414, 492, 502
Maeckelbergh, Marianne 639–40
Mair, Peter 289, 291, 292, 328, 333–4, 335, 544, 584
majoritarianism 16, 188, 572, 578, 585–6, 590
majority principle, and populism 571–86
Malema, Julius 106, 109, 110–11, 112, 113
managed democracy 511
managerial view, of political action 328
Mancini, P. 471
(p. 692) marginalized groups, and populism 561
market liberal parties 392, 394, 397
market populists 394
martyr, leader as 456
Marxism/Marxist 6, 40, 51, 91, 128, , 162, 171, 216–17, 226–7, 237, 270, 306, 343, 363–4, 365, 451, 511, 527–8, 535, 536, 538, 662, 669, 671–3
Marx, Karl 662, 664–8
mass clientelism 596
mass media, and leaders/followers 203–7
mass of the people 664
material interests 665
Mazzoleni, O. 469
Mazzolini, G. 480, 481
Mbeki, Thabo 107–8
Meckstroth, Christopher 621
media
charisma of populist actors 481
direct interactions with political actors 479–80
and electoral success 473, 475
elite goals 478
empirical results/theoretical expectations 472–3
future research 482–3
indirect interactions with political actors 479–80
infotainment 470
interaction with political actors 477–80
marketization of 469
mediatization and democracy 473–5
mediatization of politics 469–72, 480
mixed interactions with political actors 479–80
and political actors 468, 473
political communication ecosystem 477–80
and political logic 477–8
and populism 467–83
populism and new media 475–7
and populist actors 468, 470, 480–1
and populist discourse 467, 468, 482
relationship with populism 477–81
response to populism 495
social/traditional 481
and threat to democracy 467
video-malaise 474
mediated representation 590
mediation, and political authority 83
Mein Kampf 370, 371, 373
Menem, Carlos 7, 49, 51, 65, 66, 84, 205–6, 332, 394, 434
Menger, Carl 527
Mény, Yves 329, 471, 576
Menzies, Robert 123
Meret, Susi 436, 437
meta-populism 356
Metaxas, Ioannis 379
methodological approach to populism 13
Mexico
classical populism 209
emergence of populism 208
female suffrage 428–9
MGR see Ramachandran
Michalokiaskos, Nikolaos 379
Michels, Robert 371, 544
militant democracy 497, 498, 503, 504
millenarian politics 450
Miller, David 650
Milošević , Slobodan 227
Miorelli, Romina 285
Mises, Ludwig von 5 127
missionary, leader as 456
missionary politics 453
Mitchell, Theodore 637
mobilizational presidents 222–4
mobilized outsiders 600
mode of representation 559
Modi, Narendra 179, 180, 184, 185–8, 192–3
Moffitt, Benjamin 31, 54, 165, 345, 446, 460, 471, 545–6, 560, 619, 620
Moldova 214, 218, 219, 227, 228
Monti, Mario 330, 332
moral archetype, leader as 456
moral divide, and populism 32
Morales, Evo 7, 33, 49, 51, 65, 66, 207, 210, 294, 311, 352, 393, 414, 416, 435, 437, 438, 491, 499
moral representation 594–6
Morgan, Edmund S. 406
Morone, James 629
Mouffe, Chantal 6, 35, 343, 346, 535–50, 555, 562, 565, 634
Mouzelis, Nikos 6
movement culture 635–41
(p. 693) movie hero populism 162, 165–6, 171, 173, 175, 188–91, 192
Mudde, Cas 14, 38, 68, 73, 90, 91–2, 102, 105, 106, 116, 122, 180, 249, 253, 268, 288, 297, 317, 320, 327, 345, 349, 352, 364, 385, 392, 397, 427, 430, 440, 490, 559, 560, 563, 567, 585, 618, 622, 646
Mueller, Sean 565
Mugabe, Robert 105
Mujica, José 416
Mukhopadhyay, Nilanjan 186
Muldoon, Rob 127
Müller, Jan-Werner 326, 646
Museveni, Yoweri 103, 104
Mussolini, Benito 50, 369, 370, 373, 376, 595
Musso, Pierre 328
Myers, Ella 654
The Myth of the Twentieth Century 370
Näsström, Sophia 631
nationalism
articulation 343
constructionist theory 344
definition 343–5
discursive definition 344–5, 359
distinction from populism 343–7
elitist-supra-national antagonisms 354
exclusionary definition of the nation 349–50
exclusionary ethnic-cultural 349–50
exclusionary/inclusionary distinction 351–2
exclusionary nationalism 348–52, 358
fascism as ultra-nationalism 364
foreign elites 354
and foreign policy 386–7
and immigration 358
impact of 491
in-out relation 344
international/transnational populism 355–8
LGBT populations 352
and multiculturalist/multicultural elite 350–1
national cultural identity 354
nation as imagined community 344
nativism 349
people-as-underdog 347, 349–50, 352, 355, 357
and populism 37, 162, 165, 169–70, 171, 342–59
populism and exclusionary nationalism 348–52
populism and the nation-state 347–8
in populist politics 346–8
PRR (popular radical right), rise of 348–52, 355, 358, 395
religious minorities 352
sovereignty of nation 344, 353–5
sub-state nationalisms 353
transnational populism 355–8
national sovereignty 353–5
nativism 33, 81, 125, 129, 147, 165, 349, 386, 644, 646
Naval’nyi, Aleksei 225
nefarious elite 92
nefarious minority 77
negative constitutionalism 598
Negri, Antonio 549
Nehru, Jawaharlal 179, 180, 183
neoliberal/neoliberalism 7, 37, 38, 48–9, 51, 61, 104, 108, 128, 135, 149, 150, 195, 198–201, 202, 207, 209–11, 216, 235, 244, 297, 299, 300, 317, 354, 356, 376, 394, 397–9, 410, 411, 431, 567, 592
neoliberal populism 37, 48, 49, 198–9, 209–10
neopopulism 38, 329, 426
political core of 329
Netherlands
Freedom Party (PVV) 255, 392, 394, 398, 564, 648
immigration 648
Islamophobia 252, 386–7
List Pim Fortuyn party 392, 401
populism in 248, 251
Socialist Party 8, 393, 397
new media 333
New Social Movements 307
New Zealand 121–36
antipodean populism 130–4
and asylum seekers 134
and boat people 134
electoral systems 129
elite groups 132–3
(p. 694) FPTP electoral system 129
immigration/race issues 128, 132–4
indigenous groups 128, 132–3
Internet Party 130
mainstream populism 134
Mana Movement Coalition 130
MMP electoral system 129, 135
National Party 130
New Labour Party 127
New Zealand First 128, 129
New Zealand Party 127
overseas investment 135
people definition 131–2
the people groups 132–3, 135
populism as exclusive 131
populism in 127–30
populism style 122–3, 130–4
protectionism 135
as settler colonial states 133–4, 135
Social Credit Party 127
tall poppy syndrome 134
urban/rural divide 131–2
white racial bias 131–2
see also Australia
NGOs and populist governments 597
NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) 307
Nixon, Richard 233, 237, 241, 243, 595
Niyazov, Saparmurat 220–1
Norris, P. 129, 474
Norval, Aletta J. 418, 420
Norway
gender issues 440
Progress Party 252
NTR see Rama Rao
nucleus of populism 68
numbers and organization, and populism 90–1
Nussbaum, Martha 650
Oakeshott, Michael 452
Obama, Barack 241, 314, 328
Obote, Milton 103
Occupy Movement 355
Ochoa Espejo, Paulina 586
Odinga, Raila 106, 109, 110, 111, 114
O’Donnell, Guillermo 492, 498
oligarchy 55, 76, 151, 162, 166, 169, 195–6, 198, 199, 220, 221, 226, 227, 290–1, 375, 409–10, 417, 458, 497, 527, 544, 547, 582, 652, 669
O’Malley, Martin 240
On Populist Reason 336
opportunistic populism 65–7
oppositional logic 629
Orban, Viktor 275, 490, 496, 597
organization, of book 13–16
organizational approach (Weyland) 39, 40, 101
Organization of American States (OAS) 393, 496
organization of populism 90–1
orgies of feeling 244
Osborne, Peter 656
Ostiguy, Pierre 14, 39, 40–1, 101, 110, 117, 121, 122–3, 125, 127, 131, 134, 135, 179, 184, 186, 187, 192, 236, 240, 242, 249, 253, 260, 327, 345–346, 407, 408, 414, 416, 421, 452, 500, 617, 619, 620
Ouattara, Alassane 105
Ouédraogo, Jean-Baptiste 103
outsiders 175
Palenque, Carlos 55
Palin, Sarah 9, 241, 417
Palmer, Clive 124, 125–6, 127, 133, 134
Panizza, Francisco 29, 52, 268, 272, 278, 306, 427, 434, 437, 452, 575
Papandreou, Andreas 6
Papini, Giovanni 372
Pareto, Vilfredo 371, 527
parliamentary politics, criticism of 612
pars-pro-toto 573, 601
participatory component, in populism 82
partidocracia 332
party, leader as 456
party democracy 331, 332–6, 560–1
partyless democracy, and populist constitution 583–6
Pastor, Roberto Viciano 599–600
Pasuk, P. 167, 168
Patterns of Prejudice (journal) 426
Patterson, Joanna 415
Pauwels, Teun 249, 501
pejorative connotation, of populism term 3
(p. 695) Pelley, William 377
the people
in American grassroots 613
in categorisms of populism 616–22
as ethnic nation 611
as existential reality 595
historical account of 613
hypothetical/historical versions of 612–16
idea of 607–24
identity of 663
leader is 456
nature of 623
as permanent principle of revolution 613
as political actors 406, 410
and populism 31–2, 346, 410, 607–24
problem of the people in democratic theory 608–12
as process 612–16, 624
revised concept of 616
as signifier 411
sociocultural level of 620
sovereignty of 2, 609
as unlimitable 623–4
people-as-one 561
people power 601
people’s will 594
Pérez, Carlos Andrés 313
performative/cultural approach (Ostiguy) 39, 40–1, 74, 101, 121–2
Péron, Eva 94, 205, 375, 426
Peronism 54, 56, 65–6, 196–9, 205, 207, 296, 364, 375–6, 389, 434, 437, 438, 498, 538, 574, 632
Péron, Juan Domingo 5, 51, 56–7, 84, 195–8, 205, 209, 216, 296, 375–6, 429
Perot, Ross 9, 78, 234
Peru
APRA 66, 300
corruption 293
economic cycles 51
emergence of populism 5, 7, 208
neoliberal populism 209–10
political polarization 207
reappearance of populism 207–9
Peters, Winston 121, 128–30, 132, 134
Pfaff, S. 317–18
Philippines
movie hero populism 165–6, 173, 175
populist politicians 162–4
Pisistratus 578, 583
Pitkin, Hanna 433, 441, 620
plebian grammar 179, 192
plebian politics 653
Plebian Secession 652
pluralism
in democracy 603
and populism 34–5
PODEMOS 8, 49, 67, 252, 298, 306, 319, 330, 352, 354, 392, 393, 397, 399, 411, 476, 493, 512, 541
Poland 146–7, 149, 156, 157, 158
migration 396
PiS (Law and Justice) party 384, 399
polarization, and demagoguery 580
political agency 418
political collectivity 661
political cultural 187
political education 637–8
political legitimacy 331
political logic, and populist politics 346, 647
political mediation 329, 330
political parallelism 471
political participation, right to 609
political parties
anti-establishment appeal 288–9
cartelization 291–2, 333–5
catch-all party 333–4
constituency linkages 293
corruption 293
crisis of representation 289–90
and economic crises 293
electoral competition 289
electoral-professional party 333–4
embeddedness of parties 291
freezing/thawing metaphor 291, 294, 298
mass political incorporation 290–1
as mediating bodies 331
new party formation model 297–8
oligarchic political domination 290–1
outsider challenges 289
(p. 696) party building 295–300
party system transformation 295–300
performance failures 292–3
political exclusion 290–1
and political legitimacy 331
and populism 287–301
populist challengers 288–95
and present-day society problems 333
programmatic convergence 293–5
programmic linkages 293
PRR parties 348–52
and representational deficiences 288–95
structural adjustments 294
third wave democratization 291
welfare chauvinism 297
political polarization