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date: 30 November 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Given that populist forces maintain a difficult relationship with democracy, there is an open debate about how to respond to their rise. This contribution addresses this question by developing a framework for analysis that identifies who are the actors that at the domestic and external level can try to deal with the populist challenge. Moreover, different types of responses to the emergence of populism are depicted. In addition, this contribution maintains that advancing a radical approach against populism might generate more harm than good, since “fighting fire with fire” can end up giving more validity and visibility to the discourse advanced by populist forces.

Keywords: populism, democracy, authoritarianism, political extremism, Europe, Latin America

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