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date: 04 March 2021

(p. 611) Subject Index

(p. 611) Subject Index

Tables and figures are indicated by an italic t and f following the page number.

abolitionist movements 154
accountability 30, 574–6, 578, 579
business actors 256, 262
external state actors 202, 204
non-governmental organizations 218, 219, 429, 451, 485, 575
violent non-state actors 283–4
Acholi people, Uganda 322
Afghanistan 7, 97, 121, 197, 198–9, 315
environmental governance 502
female engagement teams 96
foreign aid 406
governance perceptions 116
military intervention 171–4, 172t, 180–1, 588–9
neopatrimonialism 54, 55, 56
non-state justice institutions 320, 321–2, 323, 324
polio 448
security governance 262
warlords 220, 279, 314
Africa 50, 52, 71, 215
brokerage 336, 339, 340
business actors 258
Carthaginian traders 132
colonialism 153–4
conflicts in Great Lakes region 172t, 178–9, 180–1, 219
Congo Free State 148, 153–4
cross-border economy 172t, 178–9, 180–1
Ebola epidemic 438, 450
education 481–2, 483–4, 487–9
environmental governance 502
Equatorial Tradition 237
food insecurity 459, 460, 466–7, 467f, 468, 469–70, 471
good governance interventions 418, 421, 429
health governance 445
human rights 527
International Criminal Court and 550
intervention by invitation 552
land governance 239–40
local chiefs 176–7, 315
migration governance 529–31, 532
nation-building 364–5
neopatrimonialism 54, 55, 315
non-state justice institutions 320, 322, 323, 427
Pan-African identity 364, 365
peacekeeping missions 552–3
post-colonial bureaucracies 79
security governance 384, 387, 388
traditional authorities 232, 239–40, 241, 242–3
Africa Learning Barometer 488
African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights 529
African Medicines Regulatory Harmonisation Programme 445
African Union 193, 383, 482
Afrobarometer 108t
Agenda for Peace 198, 586
Agha Khan Foundation 484
aid agencies 319, 569
food security governance 463–4, 465, 471–2, 473–4
good governance interventions 418
health governance 444–5, 448, 569
aid effectiveness 394–409
aid characteristics 398–9, 406–8, 407f
(p. 612)
amount of aid received 399, 406, 407–8, 407f
in areas of limited statehood 399–408
budget aid versus project aid 398
conditional 396–9
delivery channels 398, 406–7, 407f, 408
donor characteristics and motives 397–8, 404–6, 404f, 405f
fragmentation of aid 398–9, 404f, 405
good policy model 396, 402, 403
medicine model 399, 407–8
multilateral aid 397–8, 405, 405f
politically motivated aid 397, 404–5, 404f
recipient characteristics 396–7, 401–4, 401f, 402f, 403f
AidData 108t, 119–20, 120f
Al-Qaeda 588
al-Shabaab 277, 470, 471, 473, 474
Albania 218
Algeria 53
Alien Tort Claim Act, US 259
aliocracy 280
Alma Ata Declaration 451
Amnesty International 419
anarchy 8–9, 13, 131, 294–5
shadow of 259, 260, 508, 511
AngloGold Ashanti 511
Angola 469, 488
Anthropocene 499
anthropology 68–84, 233
brokerage 335, 343–4
decolonizing political theory 72–5
limits of Western state power 81–3
magic of the state 76–7
margins and alterity 79–81
post-colonial bureaucracies 78–9
anti-slavery movements 154
appropriateness, logic of 11, 33, 255–6, 316, 317, 318, 419
Arab Barometer 108t
Araucania Province, Chile 141–2
areas of limited statehood 3–9
concepts 4–9, 7f, 74–5
functional conceptualizations 5–6
in the Global North 3–4, 17–18, 81–3
governance problem in 293, 294–6
institutional conceptualizations 6
in international law 545–6
Argentina 143, 338–9
arguing, logic of 419, 420
Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED) 108t, 114
armed conflicts see conflicts
armed groups see violent non-state actors
articulation, political 236, 239, 241–3, 245
Arusha Convention 482
Asia 56, 132
Central Asia 56, 57, 138, 446
environmental governance 502
food insecurity 466–7, 467f
food security governance 464
good governance interventions 418
human rights 527
migration governance 527–30, 532
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 467
Asian Barometer 108t, 119
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 195, 464, 524, 529–30
asylum 524, 528, 529
Australia 80–1, 313, 534
Austria 152–3
Austria-Hungarian Empire 154
autocratic rule 16–17
effects of aid 397, 403–4
automobile industry 257, 262
Bakassi Boys, Nigeria 381
Bangladesh 213, 322, 324, 427, 429
bankruptcies, national 152–3
Barza Inter-Communitaire, DRC 322
Belarus 502, 503f
Belgium 153
Belyuen community, Australia 80–1
Benin 232, 487
Berlin Africa Conference 153
Bertelsmann Transformation Index (BTI) 81, 107, 111, 400, 585
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 445, 448, 451
biodiversity 195, 449, 501, 513
biometric passports 534
biopolitics 83, 101
(p. 613) biosphere integrity 499–500
bison hunting 140
Blackhawk down incident 304
Boko Haram 470, 480
Bolivia 320, 513
Bologna Process 482
Bolsa Família programme, Brazil 215, 491
Bosnia-Herzegovina 197, 218, 303, 382
Bosnian war 587–8
Botswana 425, 488, 504, 569
bourgeois state 51
Brazil 8, 9, 17, 54, 193, 215, 491
Bretton Woods institutions 194–5
Brexit 298
BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) 8, 17, 193–4, 215
Britain see United Kingdom
British East India Trading Company 251
British Museum 151
British Nationality Act (1948) 162
brokerage 333–47
alignment 338, 339
approaches to 334–6
bias and cohesion 338, 346
conceptualization of 337–9
coordination 338–9
in international development 336, 343–4
itinerant brokers 337
knowledge brokers 344–5
liaison brokers 337
non-state justice institutions 323, 324
politics of appropriation 340–1
power-sharing arrangements 341
quality of governance 345–6
of state governance 339–42
translation 338, 427
in transnational governance 333, 336, 342–5
types of brokers 337
Brookings Institution 484
Bureaucracy Quality indicator 112
Burkina Faso 487, 531
Burundi 197, 489, 530
Busan Principles on Aid Effectiveness 217–18
business actors 10, 17, 55, 61, 250–64, 568, 570–1
actor characteristics 256
brokerage and 343
changing role of 251–2
corporate social responsibility 59, 253, 258
drivers of governance contributions 255–60, 506–8
education governance 486, 490
effectiveness 260–1
environmental governance 505–12, 509f, 510f, 513
food security governance 464
good governance interventions 419
home-country regulations 15, 203, 259
human rights and 574, 576–7
legitimacy 261–3
market environment 257–8
migration governance 533
modes of governance 255, 319
political environment 259–60
private military companies 253, 255, 343, 381, 382
product characteristics 256–7
self-regulation 254–5, 256, 261, 262–3, 506–8, 511
social environment 258–9
types of governance contributions 253–5
caciques 340, 341
cadastral records 112
Cambodia 44, 193, 589
Cameroon 79, 470, 569
camptown prostitution 89–90
Canada 83
capacity-based approach 574, 576
capitalism 58
car theft data, Nigeria 114
carbon taxes/trading 506
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety 548
Carter Center 214
Carthaginian traders 132
Catholic Church 295
Caucasus 57, 198, 318
Center for Global Development 397
Center for Universal Education 484
Central African Republic 121, 469, 552, 553
Central Asia 56, 57, 138, 446
Chad 336, 388, 405, 469, 487
chaos theorem 296, 297f
(p. 614) Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States 547
Cheyenne 140
child mortality 438
child stunting and wasting 459, 466–7, 468
Chile 141–2, 143, 418
China 8, 17, 33, 34, 52, 54, 59, 138, 221, 552
business actors 258
environmental governance 503f
famine 461
food security 463
harmonious society 258
Japanese invasion of 156–8
national bankruptcy 152
refugees 161–2
rule of law promotion 428
South–South cooperation 193
trust 359
Christian Action Research & Education (CARE) 464, 465, 473
Christian church 134–5, 136–7, 142, 232, 295, 301
Cisco Systems 486
citizenship 156, 160, 161, 162
civil liberties 525
civil society organizations (CSOs)
campaigns against companies 253, 258
democracy promotion 217–18, 429
food security governance 463, 464, 465, 471, 473–4
local 217–18, 221
non-state justice institutions and 323, 325, 427
civil wars 55, 274, 301
Afghanistan 171–4, 172t, 180–1, 588–9
Bosnian war 587–8
food insecurity and 469–70
international humanitarian law and 556–8
Somalia 587
Sri Lanka 172t, 174–5, 180–1, 301
clientelism 55, 315, 334, 345, 355
climate change 195, 472, 499–500, 505, 506, 513, 547–8
Clinton Foundation 445
club goods 18, 201, 261, 262, 263, 360
co-regulation, public-private 254
Cold War 55, 57, 159, 160, 161, 162, 418, 428, 584, 586
collective action, social trust and 353, 355, 356, 357, 359–60, 366, 367f
collective choice rules 505, 512, 513
collective goods 11–12, 15, 49–50, 138, 259, 441–2, 521
education as 482–3
social trust and 354
collectively binding rules 11–12, 15, 138, 259
Colombia 143, 276, 301, 314
colonialism 11, 52
brokerage and 340
citizenship and 162
concept of tradition 233–4, 235–6
Congo Free State 148, 153–4
early modern empires 137–44
global governance and 148–9, 151, 152–4, 155–8, 160
Latin America 139–44
League of Nations and 155–8
middle ground governance 140–4
nineteenth century 151, 152–4
public debate 154
security governance 385–6
Comanche Empire 140
Comcáac foragers, Mexico 358
Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG) 44
Committee on World Food Security (CFS) 463
common but differentiated responsibilities 547–8, 554
common goods see collective goods
common pool resources (CPRs) 356, 358, 359, 504–5, 511, 512, 513
companies see business actors
Comprehensive Plan for Action 528
conflict prevention 198, 214
conflicts 33, 39, 55, 274, 301
Afghanistan 171–4, 172t, 180–1, 588–9
Bosnian war 587–8
effects of aid 402, 402f, 404, 406
effects on statehood 58–9
environmental degradation and 501
(p. 615)
food insecurity and 469–70, 473
Great Lakes region, Africa 172t, 178–9, 180–1, 219
impacts of aid on 219, 220
international humanitarian law 556–8
Niger delta 55, 172t, 176–8, 180–1
Somalia 587
Sri Lanka 172t, 174–5, 180–1, 301
World Wars 158–9
Confucian universalism 157
Congo-Brazzaville 59, 405
Congo Conference 153
Congo Free State 148, 153–4
Congo Reform Association 154
consequentialism, logic of 11, 33, 255–6, 316, 317, 320, 419
consociationalism 299
consolidated statehood 7, 7f, 8, 10, 16–17, 312, 565
governance problem and 296–300
Roman Empire 133, 136
constitutional history 133
constructivism 91
contractual governance 135, 137
coordinators 337
corporate environmental responsibility 506–7, 512–13
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 59, 253, 258
corporations see business actors
corruption 55, 198, 346
cosmopolitanism 156
Côte d’Ivoire 235–6, 241, 502, 503f, 552, 569
Council of Europe 161
counterinsurgency (COIN) 173–4
counterterrorism 342–3, 471, 474, 549, 558
Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) 397, 400
criminal organizations 272–85
effectiveness 282–4
governance configurations 278–82
legitimacy 277–8, 283
migration governance 533
motives for governance provision 275–8
particularized trust 355, 359, 360
relationship with state 281–2
wildlife crime 501
Crisis Management Initiative 214
critical approaches 89–102
critical theorizing 90–4
decolonial/post-colonialism 89, 91, 94–5, 98–9
feminism 89–90, 91, 93, 94–8
in international law 546, 548, 549
post-structuralism 91, 94–5, 100–1
critical security studies (CSS) 91
crowd-seeding 121
customary land 239–40
cycling problem 296–9, 297f, 303
Czech Republic 57
Dakar Framework for Action 483
Data on Armed Conflict and Security (DACS) 108t
Dayton Accords 587–8
decolonialism 72–5, 89, 91, 94–5, 98–9, 160
decolonization 160, 162, 335, 339–40, 545, 558
deliberation 11, 299, 317–18
deliberative negotiations 317–18, 320–4, 325
democracy 30, 31, 36, 38, 110, 111
aid effectiveness and 397, 402–4, 403f
brokerage and 346
conceptualizations of 417, 422
post-socialist states 57
traditional authorities and 240
and wealth 40–3, 41t, 42t
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) 7, 121, 197, 219, 281–2, 319
business actors 262
cross-border economy 172t, 178–9, 180–1
education 482
environmental governance 511
food insecurity 460, 470
good governance interventions 418
migration governance 532
neopatrimonialism 54, 55, 56
non-state justice institutions 322
peacekeeping mission 552
(p. 616)
security governance 387
state-building 589
denaturalization 158, 160, 161
Denmark 356, 502
Department for International Development (DfID), UK 418, 444
dependency theory 203
Development Assistance Committee (DAC) 195–6, 211–12, 394, 450
development theories see theories of development
developmental states 48, 53–4
post-soviet 57
disaster law 553–4
displaced persons 159, 161–2, 196, 526, 529
distributive politics 417
domestic sovereignty 6–7, 8
droughts 470
early modern empires 137–44
East Timor 197, 198, 382, 385, 552, 570, 589
Eastern Europe 57, 318
Ebola epidemic 438, 450
eco-labelling 506
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 195, 383, 524, 529, 531, 534
ECOWAS Cease-fire Monitoring Group 529
ECOWAS Court of Justice (ECJ) 529
Social and Cultural Affairs Commission 530
economic development see aid effectiveness
economic growth 31, 34, 38
developmental states 54
foreign aid and 396, 398, 403
Ecuador 114
education governance 479–92
business actors 486, 490
education as public good 482–3
effectiveness 487–90
enrolment ratios 484, 486, 487–8
informal education 488–9
internationalization of education 482
key issues 480–2
marketization of education 481
modes of governance 483–6
non-state actors 480–1, 483–6, 489–90, 491
policy implications 490–2
tertiary education 481–2, 483, 486, 488
universal primary education 479, 481, 482–3, 487–8
effectiveness 12, 13, 15f
business actors 260–1
education governance 487–90
environmental governance 501–2, 512–14
external actors 200–3
food security governance 465–74
health governance 446–7, 449–51
of hierarchical rule 316–17
international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) 214–18
multi-stakeholder partnerships 214–18
non-hierarchical governance 324–5
security governance 386–8
violent non-state actors 282–4
Egypt 54, 59, 152–3, 221
El Niño 472
El Salvador 198
elections 417, 422, 430
Elgin marbles 151
Enlightenment 137
environmental and natural resource governance 498–514
community self-organizing 504–5, 511, 512, 513
complexity and urgency of 499–501
effectiveness 501–2, 512–14
market incentives 505–8, 511
mixed governance 508–12, 509f, 510f, 513
relationship with statehood 501–4, 503f, 510–11, 510f, 512–14
voluntary action by business actors 506–8, 511
environmental degradation 55
conflicts and 501
food insecurity and 470, 472
environmental law 547–8
Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 502, 503, 503f
environmental responsibility 506–7, 512–13
Equatorial Tradition 237
(p. 617) equity
in health systems 449, 451
non-state justice institutions 321
Eritrea 502
Ethiopia 55, 302, 388, 469, 487, 489
ethnogenesis 140
ethnography see anthropology
Eurobarometer 108t
Eurocentrism 5–6, 95, 137, 148, 161–2, 169
Europe 54, 154, 340
citizenship 161, 162
democracy promotion 428
famines 461
good governance interventions 418
migrant ‘crisis’ 83
national bankruptcies 152–3
passports 161
state formation 50, 51, 52, 55, 295, 300–1
European Coal and Steel Community 161
European Court of Human Rights (ECrtHR) 554, 555
European Economic Community 161
European Union 74, 195–6, 198
citizenship 161, 162
good governance interventions 318, 427
migration governance 524, 534
post-socialist states 57
public-private partnerships 213
security governance 383
state-building 587–8
trusteeship 303
Event Data on Armed Conflict and Security (EDACS) 119
Expatriation Act (1868), United States 523
external actors 15, 16, 17, 43, 44, 191–204
ambitions 198–9
brokerage and 342–4
education governance 481, 483–6
effectiveness 200–3
effects on statehood 48, 52, 56–7, 58, 59
food security governance 463–5, 471–2, 473–4
foreign governments 192–4
governance delegation agreements 16, 194, 313–14, 316–17, 319–20
health governance 444–5, 569
impacts of 203–4
legitimacy 202–3
measurement of governance provision by 110, 119–20, 120f
modes of governance 197–8, 318–19, 324–5
motivations 196–7, 200
non-hierarchical governance 197–8, 318–19, 324–5
regional organizations 195–6, 198, 383–4, 464, 465, 524, 529–30
security governance 382–3, 385–6
trusteeships 194, 293–4, 302–7, 423
types of governance contributions 199–200
extractive industries 55, 59, 176–8, 214, 258, 262, 336
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) 250, 254, 508–9
extraterritoriality 149, 155, 158, 554–6
Fabian society 154
failed states 3–4, 7, 7f, 54–7, 584–5
in international law 545–6
and transnational security risks 378–9, 584–5
Failed States Index 585
fairness
non-state justice institutions 322–3
social trust and 365–6
faith-based organizations (FBOs) 141, 142, 154, 213, 419, 480
familism 355, 359
famines 459, 461, 468, 471
FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) 276, 301, 314
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan 315, 320, 321–2, 323
female engagement teams (FETs) 96
feminism 89–90, 91, 93, 94–8
Finland 502
first-order governance 11, 13, 14, 198, 199, 201, 202
fisheries 358, 472, 505
(p. 618) food access 460, 462, 466, 467f
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 17, 194, 459, 460, 461, 463, 467, 471, 472, 474
food assistance 462, 463, 464, 465, 469–70, 471
food availability 460, 462
food prices 461, 470
food security governance 459–75
causes of food insecurity 467f, 468–74
concept 460, 461–2
effectiveness 465–74
governance failure 470–2
implications of limited statehood for 460, 467f, 468, 472–4
issue linkage 472
modes of governance 464–5
policy field 461, 472
prevalence of food insecurity 466–7, 467f
food stability 460, 462
food utilization 460, 462, 466–7
forced labour 153–4
Ford Foundation 428
foreign aid 59, 193, 211–12
amounts of 394, 439
brokerage and 342, 343–4
education governance 483–4
food assistance 462, 463, 464, 465, 469–70, 471
for health governance 439
Nigeria 119–20, 120f
foreign direct investment 59
Forestry Stewardship Council 506, 508–9
Fragile States Index 107, 111, 585
Framework of Engagement with Non-state Actors (FENSA) 451
France 161, 235–6, 552, 590
free trade agreements (FTAs) 195, 196, 524
Freedom from Hunger Campaign 461
French Constitution 523
functionalist governance 49–50
G 77/China 193
Gacaca courts, Rwanda 322, 323
Gambia 487
gatekeepers 337, 346
Gates Foundation 445, 448, 451
GAVI 448
Gaza 314, 315
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) 524
generalized trust 353, 355, 361–2
Geneva Call 214, 557, 558
Geneva Conventions 214, 421, 464, 523–4, 556, 558
Geneva Refugee Convention (1951) 528, 529
genocide 219, 551, 587
geographies of limited statehood 167–81
Afghanistan 171–4, 172t, 180–1
Great Lakes region, Africa 172t, 178–9, 180–1
networks 171, 172t, 178–9
Nigeria 172t, 176–8, 180–1
place 171, 172t, 174–5
scale 171, 172t, 176–8
spatial grammar 167–8, 170–1, 172t
spatial turn 168–70, 181
Sri Lanka 172t, 174–5, 180–1
territory 171–4, 172t
George Soros Foundation 428
Germany 3, 33, 76, 82, 418, 442, 513
Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Germany 418, 444
Ghana 214, 489, 531
Gini index 395
Global Barometer 108t
Global Commission on International Migration 526
Global Compact 250, 254
Global Fund 217, 450
global governance 148–64, 221
brokerage in 333, 336, 342–5
global wars and periods of crises 158–60
historiographical research 149–52
League of Nations 149, 154–8, 159
nineteenth century 151, 152–4
security governance 382–3, 385–6, 387–8
subjects, citizens and aliens 160–2
global health initiatives (GHIs) 442, 444–5, 446, 447–8, 450–1
Global Hunger Index (GHI) 459, 466–7, 467f, 468, 469–70
global memory 158–9
Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict 214
Global Policy Forum 219
Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 448
Global Risk Map on Food Security 459, 460
GlobalGap 507
globalization 82, 83, 151, 252
Glorious Revolution 39–40
Golan heights 382
good governance interventions 197, 200, 214, 304–5, 318, 416–31, 570
actors 418–19
critical perspectives 420–1
democracy promotion 428–30
human rights promotion 422–4
modes of engagement 419–20
rule of law promotion 424–8
in twentieth century 417–18
Görlitzer Park, Berlin 3
governance 49–50, 61
concepts 9–12
perceptions versus actual provision 115–18, 117f, 118f
social trust and 355–6, 367f
Governance and Economic Management Assistance Program (GEMAP) 44
governance-building 15, 594–6, 597–8
social trust and 367
traditional authorities 231, 238, 244–5
governance delegation agreements (GDAs) 16, 194, 313–14, 316–17, 319–20
governance managers 320
governance perceptions 115–18, 117f, 118f, 345
governance problem 293, 294–6, 297f
coercion as solution 293–4, 300–2, 307–8
in consolidated states 296–300
deliberation as solution 299
social trust as solution 13, 299–300
trusteeship as solution 293–4, 302–7
vested interests and 298–9, 302
governmentality 91, 101
Great Lakes region, Africa 52, 172t, 178–9, 180–1, 219
Greece 31, 75, 151, 152–3, 156, 340, 452, 534
greenwashing 507, 508
Grenada 197
group identity 140, 364
Guatemala 44, 427
Guinea 487
Haiti 193, 219, 473, 584
Hajj 153
Hamas 277, 280, 282, 314, 315
harmonious society 258
hawala banking 360
health governance 217, 438–52
actors 438, 443–5, 448, 450, 451, 569
boundaries of 440–2
brokerage 342
defined 440–2
effectiveness 446–7, 449–51
implications of limited statehood for 445–8
legitimacy 446–7, 449–51
modes of governance 443–5
perceptions versus actual provision 115–18, 117f, 118f
polio eradication 438, 447–8
heresthetics 299
Hezbollah 277, 279, 280, 281, 282, 314
hierarchical rule 6, 8, 10, 295, 312, 313–17
business actors 255
effectiveness 316–17
external actors 197–8
governance delegation agreements 16, 194, 313–14, 316–17, 319–20
legitimacy 314, 315–17
local chiefs 315–16, 317
(p. 620)
trusteeships 194, 293–4, 302–7, 423
violent non-state actors 301, 314–15, 316
hierarchy, shadow of 198, 202, 259–60, 261, 312, 313, 314, 320, 508, 509–11
High Level Fora on Aid Effectiveness 408
historical modes of governance 131–44
early modern empires 137–44
Middle Ages 133–7
middle ground governance 140–4
Roman Empire 133–4, 136
historical sociology 48, 49, 50–61
HIV/AIDS 3, 8, 260, 262, 319, 438, 442, 450
Holocaust 161
horses 138, 140, 142
House of Lords, United Kingdom 522, 523
Human Development Index (HDI) 107, 395
human development paradigm 439
human rights 197, 263
conceptualizations of 417, 422
extraterritorial application of 554–6
marketization of 421
migration governance and 523–4, 525, 527–9
non-refoulement principle 523–4, 533
non-state justice institutions 324, 325
promotion 197, 200, 214, 304–5, 416–24
right to education 482–3
right to family reunification 524
right to food 463
right to leave 523
Human Rights Watch 419
human security 377, 379, 546
humanitarian interventions 193, 197, 301–2, 382–3
international law 550–2
intervention by invitation 551–2
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 197, 302, 546, 551
Somalia 306, 552, 587
Hungary 43
Hurricane Katrina 3
hybrid environmental governance 508–12, 509f, 510f, 513
hybrid security governance 384, 387
hypercomplex space 176
Iceland 502
impartiality, social trust and 365–6
imperialism see colonialism
in-group mediators 337
inclusive nation-building 364
inclusiveness, problem of 573–4
income per capita 40–3, 41t, 42t
aid effectiveness and 401–2, 401f
Index of State Weakness in the Developing World 107
India 52, 53, 54, 72, 151, 221
brokerage 340
humanitarian intervention 193
migration governance 528
South–South cooperation 193
state bureaucracy 78–9
indigenous peoples
Australia 80–1
Latin America 139–44, 425
North America 140, 143
indirect rule 384
Indonesia 335, 359, 362, 426
institution-building 201–2
institutional capacity 29, 30, 32–3, 36–7, 38–9
institutional design 14, 201–2, 313, 324–5, 326
Institutional Profiles Database (IPD) 112
institutions 14, 15f, 31
aid effectiveness and 397, 402–4, 403f
cycling problem 297–9
developmental states 54
non-state justice institutions 320–4, 325, 425, 426–7
social trust and 355–6, 365–6
universalistic values 365–6
violent non-state actors 280
insurgency 274, 277
defined 285
Niger delta 55, 172t, 176–8, 180–1
see also civil wars
Integrated Food Security Framework (AIFS) 464
interest-based bargaining 317–18
intermediation see brokerage
(p. 621) internally displaced persons (IDPs) 159, 161–2, 196, 526, 529
International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) 254
International Association of the Congo 153
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 463
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty 551
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 213, 214, 218, 464, 465, 556–7, 558
International Convention on the Rights of the Child 483
International Country Risk Guide (ICRG) 112
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 417, 523, 524
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 462
International Criminal Court (ICC) 195, 544, 550
international development
brokerage in 336, 343–4
International Development Association (IDA) 463
International Foundation for Election Systems 428
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) 463, 471
International Health Partnership 445
international humanitarian law (IHL) 556–8
International Institute of Agriculture 461
International Labour Organization (ILO) 548
international law 15, 16, 543–59
armed groups and 549, 556–8
common but differentiated responsibilities 547–8, 554
compensatory efforts 547–8
environmental law 547–8
erosion of sovereign equality 546–50
extraterritorial application of human rights 554–8
international humanitarian law (IHL) 549
intervention by invitation 551–2
legal discourses on statehood 545–6
migration governance 523–4
military interventions 550–2
natural disasters 553–4
peacekeeping missions 552–3
reciprocity 546–7, 548
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 197, 302, 546, 551
right to self-defence 549
state consent 550–4
‘unwilling and unable state’ concept 548–50, 551, 554
wildlife crime 501
International Law Commission (ILC) 553–4
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 17, 75, 194–5, 344, 418, 470
international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) 10, 15, 17, 161, 211–21, 568
defined 212
effectiveness 214–18
effects on statehood 218–20
food security governance 463, 464, 465, 471, 473–4
good governance interventions 214, 419
internal success conditions 216
legitimacy 216–17
meta-governance for 220–1
migration governance 532–3
motivations 211, 213
non-hierarchical governance 319
participatory approaches 217–18
policy implications 220–1
types of governance contributions 213–14
International Organization for Migration 534
international organizations (IOs) 17, 61, 194–5, 568
ambitions 198–9
brokerage and 343–4
effectiveness 200–3
effects on statehood 48, 56, 59
food security governance 463–4, 465, 471–2, 473–4
good governance interventions 418, 570
impacts of 203–4
League of Nations 149, 154–8, 159
legitimacy 202–3
migration governance 532–3
modes of governance 198, 319
(p. 622)
motivations 196–7, 200
nineteenth century 152, 153
post-World War II 159, 161
security governance 382–3
types of governance contributions 199–200
international peacekeeping see peacekeeping
international public sphere 153–4, 160
International Refugee Organization (IRO) 159
international relations perspective 49
international sanitary councils 153
International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) 570
international women’s organizations 154
internationalization of education 482
internationalized security governance 382–3, 385–6, 387–8
internationalized states 48, 56–7, 59, 61
Internet Cooperation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) 254
Iraq 7, 196, 198–9, 301, 593
food insecurity 460
foreign aid 406
security governance 262
trusteeship 302, 305
Yazidi minority 552
Iroquois Confederacy 83
ISEAL Alliance 221
ISIS 301, 552
Islam 335, 360, 427
Islamic pilgrimage 153
Island of Palmas case 554
islands of excellence 12, 16, 17, 18, 29, 33, 34, 35, 37, 40, 43, 44
ISO14001 environmental management standard 506, 507
Istanbul Principles for CSO Development Effectiveness 221
Italy 31, 152–3, 340
Japan 82, 138, 155, 156–8, 528
Java 335
Jirgas, Pakistan 321–2, 323
Jordan 471
juridical equality 546, 547
Justice for the Poor (J4P) Programme 425, 426
justice provision
non-state justice institutions 320–4, 325, 425, 426–7
by rebel groups 279–81
Kampala Convention 529, 531
Kazakhstan 57
Kenya 214
education 481–2, 487, 491
humanitarian intervention 193
intervention by invitation 552
land governance 239
migration governance 530, 532
nation-building 364
personalized trust 357
security governance 384
traditional authorities 239
kijaji 335
knowledge economy 481
Korea 157
Kosovo 57, 197, 551, 552, 570, 589
Kyoto Protocol 547–8
Kyrgyzstan 57
labour remittances 59
land governance 239–40
Laos 528
Latin America 53, 60, 363, 428
brokerage 338–9, 340, 341
business actors 258
colonialism 139–44
food insecurity 466, 467f
good governance interventions 418
indigenous legal systems 425
magic of the state 76–7
middle ground governance 140–4
non-state justice institutions 320, 427
Latinobarómetro 108t, 119
law
legal pluralism 134–5, 136–7, 239–41, 424–5
legalization of traditional authorities 238–41
Middle Ages 134–5, 136–7
non-state justice institutions 320–4, 325, 425, 426–7
Roman Empire 134, 136
League of Nations 149, 154–8, 159
Lebanese Armed Forces 281
legal pluralism 134–5, 136–7, 239–41, 424–5
legitimacy 12–13, 14, 15f, 17, 48, 52
business actors 261–3
external actors 202–3
good governance interventions 420
governance delegation agreements 314, 316
health governance 446–7, 449–51
hierarchical rule 314, 315–17
international non-governmental organizations 216–17
local chiefs 315–16, 317
multi-stakeholder partnerships 216–17
non-hierarchical governance 322–3, 324–5
non-state justice institutions 322–3, 324
security governance 386–8
statist view of 565
violent non-state actors 276–8, 283, 314, 315, 316
Lesotho 471
liberal internationalism 150, 153, 154, 160
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 174–5, 180–1, 280–1, 301
Liberia 44, 54, 55, 56, 197, 385, 484, 531
Libya 7, 203, 551
life expectancy 438
limited statehood
concepts 4–9, 7f, 74–5
global degree of 112–13, 113f
local chiefs 10, 595
brokerage 323, 324, 335, 340
colonial Latin America 140, 141–2
hierarchical rule 315–16, 317
Niger delta 176–7
security governance 380, 381–2, 384
London School of Economics (LSE) 450
Lytton Commission 156–7
Madagascar 502, 503f
mafia-style organizations 355, 359, 360
MAGAREA variable 112
MAGFAIL variable 112
magic of the state 76–7
Magna Carta 523
malaria 450
Malawi 239, 421, 471, 487, 488, 502, 503f
Malaysia 528
Mali 484, 487, 488, 531, 552, 553, 590–1
Manchester School 70, 335
Manchukuo 157–8
Mapuche people, Chile 141–2
Marine Stewardship Council 506, 508–9
marketization
of education 481
of human rights 421
Marxism 50
Marxist anthropology 71, 72
Marxist critical theory 91, 93
maternal mortality 107, 438
Mato Oput procedure, Uganda 322
Mauritius 488
means of violence 4, 6–7, 8, 15, 51
measurements of statehood and governance 106–22, 122t
conceptual problems 110–11
data sources 107–9, 108t
governance perceptions versus actual provision 115–18, 117f, 118f
national data 111–13, 113f
non-state and external governance 110, 119–20, 120f
statistical capacity building 121, 122
subnational data 109, 114, 115f, 116–18, 117f, 118f
tools and strategies for data collection 120–1
Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) 213, 464, 465, 473, 569, 574
medieval statehood 133–7
Mercosur 524
meta-capital 76
meta-databases 108t, 109
meta-governance 12, 16, 191, 195, 200, 201, 202, 203–4, 220–1, 445, 579
methodological nationalism 109
Mexico 42, 53, 195
brokerage 341
colonialism 142, 143
common pool resources 358
(p. 624)
personalized trust 357, 358
Zetas 277
Middle Ages 133–7
middle classes 30, 31, 33
Middle East and North Africa 466, 467f
middle ground governance 140–4
migration governance 83, 520–36
Africa 529–31, 532
asylum 524, 528, 529
bargained conditionality 534
commitment-implementation gap 530–1
economic migrants 529–30, 531
evolution of 521–6
external governance promotion 533–4
free movement 522
human rights and 523–4, 525, 527–9
implications of limited statehood for 526–34
informal governance 531–3
non-refoulement principle 523–4, 533
pushing back strategies 533–4
readmission agreements 534
refugee camps 531–3
refugee rights 524, 528–9, 530–1, 533
relationship with statehood 521–6
right to family reunification 524
right to leave 523
military interventions 303–4
Afghanistan 171–4, 172t, 180–1, 588–9
international law 550–2
intervention by invitation 551–2
Mali 590–1
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 197, 302, 546, 551
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 199, 439, 450, 463, 466, 483
missionary organizations 141, 142, 154, 213
modernization theory 29, 30–1, 33, 36–8, 41, 335
modes of governance 10–11, 131–44
business actors 255, 319
early modern empires 137–44
in education governance 483–6
external actors 197–8, 318–19, 324–5
in food security governance 464–5
good governance interventions 419–20
governance delegation agreements 16, 194, 313–14, 316–17, 319–20
in health governance 443–5
international organizations 198, 319
Middle Ages 133–7
middle ground governance 140–4
Roman Empire 133–4, 136
trusteeships 194, 293–4, 302–7, 423
Mogul Empire, India 52
monetary fines 134
Mongol Empire 138
Montevideo Convention of the Rights and Duties of States 549
Montreal protocol 499
moral trust 355
Movement of Concerned Kono Youth 381
Mozambique 55, 59, 471, 487, 502, 503f, 530
multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) 10, 15, 17, 211–21, 254
defined 212–13
education governance 486, 490
effectiveness 214–18
effects on statehood 218–20
food security governance 463
health governance 445, 450, 451
internal success conditions 216
legitimacy 216–17
meta-governance for 220–1
motivations 211, 213
non-hierarchical governance 319
participatory approaches 217–18
policy implications 220–1
types of governance contributions 213–14
multiculturalism 81
multinational companies (MNCs) see business actors
Myanmar 56, 195, 553
Namibia 198
naming and shaming 258, 358, 464, 574, 579
Nansen passports 156
(p. 625) nation-building 70, 201
brokerage and 335, 339–40
social trust and 353, 360, 362, 364–5
nation-state, as reference point 18
national bankruptcies 152–3
National Environmental Act (1998), South Africa 500
National Resistance Army (NRA), Uganda 314
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, India 78–9
national statehood data 111–13, 113f
National Title Act (1993), Australia 81
nationalism 150, 360, 365
NATO 171–4, 383
natural disasters 553–4
negotiations 255, 317–18, 320–4, 325
neo-Orientalism 99
neoliberalism 54
neopatrimonialism 54–7, 315, 346, 471
Nepal 116, 220
networked governance 148
global wars and periods of crises 158–60
League of Nations and 154–8, 159
nineteenth century 151, 152–4
post-Cold War era 162
Networking Academy Programme 486
networks 171, 172t, 178–9
New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States 217–18
New Development Bank 194
New International Economic Order 547
new medievalism 135–7
New Orleans 3
Nicaragua 55
Niger 487, 488, 502, 531
Niger delta 55, 172t, 176–8, 180–1, 262
Nigeria 59, 180–1, 381, 531
Boko Haram 470, 480
business actors 262
conflict in Niger delta 55, 172t, 176–8, 180–1
education 488
food insecurity 459, 460, 470, 474
foreign aid 119–20, 120f
governance perceptions 116–18, 117f, 118f
security governance 387
subnational data 114, 115f, 116–18, 117f, 118f
traditional authorities 232
Nigerian National Bureau of Statistics 114
Non-Aligned Movement 160
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 10, 15, 17, 48, 56, 57, 161, 211–21, 318, 568
aid effectiveness and 398, 406–7, 407f
defined 212
education governance 485–6, 489–90, 491
effectiveness 214–18
effects on statehood 218–20
environmental governance 508–12, 509f, 510f
food security governance 463, 464, 465, 471, 473–4
good governance interventions 214, 419, 429
health governance 438, 444, 448, 451, 569
internal success conditions 216
international humanitarian law and 557, 558
local 217–18, 221
meta-governance for 220–1
migration governance 532–3
non-hierarchical governance 319
non-state justice institutions and 323, 325, 427
policy implications 220–1
types of governance contributions 213–14
non-hierarchical governance 10–11, 312, 317–26
brokerage and 338–9
deliberative negotiations 317–18, 320–4, 325
effectiveness 324–5
external actors 197–8, 318–19, 324–5
food security governance 464–5, 474
health governance 444
legitimacy 322–3, 324–5
non-state justice institutions 320–4, 325, 425, 426–7
state actors 319–20
non-refoulement principle 523–4, 533
non-state actors 10, 15
coercion 301, 316
education governance 480–1, 483–6, 489–90, 491
food security governance 463–4, 465, 471–2, 473–4
good governance interventions 214, 419, 429, 570
(p. 626)
governance problem and 294–5, 301
health governance 438, 444, 445, 448, 451, 569
hierarchical rule 301, 314–15, 316
measurement of governance provision by 110, 119–20, 120f
migration governance 532–3
non-hierarchical governance 318–19
security governance 279–81, 381–2, 383–5, 386–7
non-state justice institutions (NSJIs) 320–4, 325, 425, 426–7
normative implications of non-state governance 564–80
ambivalences of statehood 565, 567–8, 578
human rights and statism 565–8
instrumental case for legitimate non-state governance 568–71, 569t
limits of instrumental justifications 571–7
limits of statism 565–8
problem of accountability 574–6, 578, 579
problem of assigning responsibilities 576–7
problem of definition of goods 572–3
problem of inclusiveness 573–4
transformation of non-state actors into public agents 577–80
normative political theory 564–5
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 195, 524
North Korea 428, 461
Norway 504
Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) 444
oaths of promise 134–5, 136–7
Obama Global Health initiative 444
official development assistance (ODA) 59, 193, 211–12, 394, 439, 483–4
oil and gas production see extractive industries
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 42, 120, 195, 213, 215, 251–2, 362, 442, 589
Development Assistance Committee (DAC) 195–6, 211–12, 394, 450
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) 383, 428
Organization of African Unity (OAU) 529
organized crime see criminal organizations
Orientalism 98–9
Ottoman Empire 152–3, 154
Oxfam 464, 465
ozone layer 499
Pakistan 60, 76, 78, 315
humanitarian intervention 193
migration governance 528
non-state justice institutions 320, 321–2, 323
polio 448
warlords 279
Palestinian Territories 277, 382, 385
Pan-African identity 364, 365
pandemic surveys 153
Papua-New Guinea 55
paradox of the state 380–1
parallel governance 320
parchis 78
Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005) 199
Paris Peace Conference (1919) 154, 155
particularized trust 353, 355, 359–61
Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 445
passports 156, 158, 161, 162, 522
biometric 534
Nansen 156
patrimonial domination 54
pax mongolica 138
(p. 627) peace-building 59, 198, 214, 587
peace-making 15
peace of God movement 135
peacekeeping 15, 193, 194, 302, 303, 304, 306, 382, 385, 387–8, 552–3, 587, 590–1
perceptions of governance 115–18, 117f, 118f, 345
performativity 91, 101
personalized trust 200–1, 353, 354–5, 357–9, 362–3
Peru 314
philanthropic organizations 17
democracy promotion 428
food security governance 463
health governance 445, 448, 451
Philippines 55, 528
piracy 465
place 171, 172t, 174–5
planetary boundaries 499–500
pluralist theory 566–8
Poland 33, 43
policy 584–98
development of state-building policies 586–91
governance-building 594–6, 597–8
liberal state-building 591–2, 597
stabilization 592–4, 597
policymaking, brokerage and 344–5
polio 438, 447–8
political articulation 236, 239, 241–3, 245
political instability, aid effectiveness and 402, 402f
Political Instability Task Force (PITF) 112
political sociology 48, 50
politics of appropriation 340–1
polity scores 40–3, 41t, 42t
population exchange 156
Portugal 340, 452
post-colonial states 296
brokerage 335, 339–40
security governance 380
state bureaucracy 78–9
state formation 52, 53–60, 340, 380
post-colonialism 52, 72, 89, 91, 94–5, 98–9, 169, 233–4
post-socialist states 57
post-structuralism 91, 94–5, 100–1, 245
post-war situations 56, 59
poverty 54, 463
food insecurity and 468–9, 472
power
in governance 97–8
non-state justice institutions 321
power-to 97
power-with 97–8
pre-colonial centralizations of power 52, 55
President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) 444
private military companies (PMCs) 253, 255, 343, 381, 382
procedural fairness, non-state justice institutions 322–3
promissory oaths 134–5, 136–7
property rights 298
Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs), Afghanistan 173
public goods see collective goods
Public International Unions 152, 159
public-private co-regulation 254
public-private partnerships (PPPs) 211, 212, 213, 254
education governance 486, 490
effectiveness 215, 216
food security governance 463
health governance 445, 450, 451
Puntland 360, 587
Quality of Government Institute (QOG) 108t, 109
quantitative measurements see measurements of statehood and governance
quasi-welfare states 60
queer theory 100
rational choice institutionalism 29, 30, 34–7, 39–40, 43
rebel groups 10, 15, 272–85, 571
effectiveness 282–4
governance configurations 278–82
hierarchical rule 301, 314–15, 316
legitimacy 276–7, 283, 314, 315, 316
motives for governance provision 275–8
relationship with state 281–2
(p. 628)
security governance 279–81, 381–2
Tamil Tigers 174–5, 180–1, 280–1, 301
rebelocracy 280
reciprocal justice, non-state justice institutions 322–3
reciprocity 132, 133, 140, 144, 170, 237, 354, 357–8, 362, 364, 365, 546–7, 548
redistribution 54
refugee camps 531–3
Refugee Convention of the Organization of African Unity 529
refugees 83, 156, 521
China 161–2
post-World War II 159, 161–2
pushing back strategies 533–4
rights of 524, 528–9, 530–1, 533
Syrian 471
Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI) 194, 313
religion 134–5, 136–7, 295, 301, 353
religious organizations 141, 142, 154, 213, 419, 480
Renaissance 31, 33
rent-seeking 16, 34, 43, 60, 176–7, 319
representatives 337
Republic of the Congo 59, 405
reputation building 362–3
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 197, 302, 546, 551
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) 276, 301, 314
right to education 482–3
right to family reunification 524
right to food 463
right to leave 523
right to self-defence 549
Rio Conference on Environment and Development (1992) 195
Rio Declaration 547
rituals of entrustment 357, 363
Rockefeller Foundation 428, 445
‘rogue states’ concept 549
Roman Empire 133–4, 136
rule of law 30
conceptualizations of 417, 422
promotion 200, 416–22, 424–8
Russia 152–3, 221, 359, 552
Rwanda 55, 56, 195, 197, 584
education 484
food insecurity 469
genocide 219, 551, 587
nation-building 364
non-state justice institutions 322, 323
security governance 388
Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) 219
Saudi Arabia 221, 590
Save the Children 213
scale 171, 172t, 176–8
second-order governance 12, 13, 14, 191, 195, 199–200, 201, 202
security governance 262, 375–89
brokerage 342–3
concepts 376–8
effectiveness 386–8
external actors 382–3, 385–6
human security challenges 379
hybrid 384, 387
insecurity dynamics 378–9
internationalized 382–3, 385–6, 387–8
legitimacy 386–8
local and grass-roots provision 384–5, 386–7
negotiated 383–4
non-state actors 279–81, 381–2, 383–5, 386–7
policy implications 388–9
state actors 380–1, 383–4
transnational security risks 378–9
self-determination 157, 545, 558
self-governance 131, 143, 358, 360
self-interest motivations 196–7
self-regulation, business actors 254–5, 256, 261, 262–3, 506–8, 511
Senegal 489
shadow of anarchy 259, 260, 508, 511
(p. 629) shadow of hierarchy 198, 202, 259–60, 261, 312, 313, 314, 320, 508, 509–11
sharia courts 360
Shining Path 314
Shuras, Afghanistan 321–2
Sicilian mafia 355, 359
Sierra Leone 197, 359, 381, 426, 503f
Singapore 36, 428, 528
slavery 39
Slovenia 57
smugglers 533
social capital 299–300, 354
social choice theory 296
social constructivism 91
social democracy 61
social trust 13–14, 15f, 299–300, 316, 353–67
in areas of limited statehood 356–62
common pool resources and 356, 358, 359
concepts 354
generalized trust 353, 355, 361–2
governance and 355–6, 367f
moral trust 355
nation-building and 353, 360, 362, 364–5
particularized trust 353, 355, 359–61
personalized trust 200–1, 353, 354–5, 357–9, 362–3
reciprocal trade 132
reputation building 362–3
strengthening 362–6
symbolic interaction 362–3
types of 353, 354–5
universal values 362, 365–6, 367f
Socialist International 153
socio-spatial relations 167–8
Solomon Islands 194, 313, 589
Somalia 3, 7, 197, 198–9, 299, 360, 584
al-Shabaab 277, 470, 471, 473, 474
environmental governance 502
food assistance 465, 471
food insecurity 459, 460, 468, 470, 471, 473
food security governance 473–4
health governance 217
humanitarian interventions 193, 306, 552, 587
intervention by invitation 552
neopatrimonialism 54, 55, 56
refugees 530
security governance 384
trusteeship in 302, 304, 306
warlords 220
Somaliland 3, 294, 299, 314, 360, 384, 587
Sonora, Mexico 142, 358
South Africa 8, 59, 214, 319
automobile industry 257, 262
education 488, 489
environmental governance 503f, 508, 511, 513
non-state justice institutions 320
rule of law promotion 428
South–South cooperation 193
trust 364
South African Association of Automobile Manufacturers (NAAMSA) 257
South Korea 59, 89–90
South–South cooperation 193
South Sudan 323, 459, 460, 552, 553
Southern African Development Community (SADC) 195
sovereignty 8, 69, 74–5, 83, 343, 521–3
erosion of sovereign equality 546–50
legal discourses on 545–6
Soviet Union 197
Spain 340
Spanish Empire 139–44
spatial grammar 167–8, 170–1, 172t
spatial turn 168–70, 181
Srebrenica massacre 587
Sri Lanka 172t, 174–5, 180–1, 280–1, 301
state
functions of 32
magic of 76–7
see also statehood
state actors 10, 15, 17, 191–204, 319
ambitions 198–9
effectiveness 200–3
environmental governance 501–2, 504, 508–12, 509f, 510f, 513
foreign governments 192–4
good governance interventions 304–5, 418, 428
governance delegation agreements 16, 194, 313–14, 316–17, 319–20
health governance 443–5, 448
impacts of 203–4
legitimacy 202–3
(p. 630)
modes of governance 197–8
motivations 196–7, 200
non-hierarchical governance