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date: 18 February 2020

(p. 1229) Subject Index

(p. 1229) Subject Index

Introductory Note

References such as ‘178–9’ indicate (not necessarily continuous) discussion of a topic across a range of pages. Wherever possible in the case of topics with many references, these have either been divided into sub-topics or only the most significant discussions of the topic are listed. Because the entire work is about ‘expertise’, the use of this term (and certain others which occur constantly throughout the book) as an entry point has been minimised. Information will be found under the corresponding detailed topics.

10,000 hour rule485, 927
abductive reasoning205, 623
ability12–13, 109, 119–20, 228–30, 245–8, 262–5, 582–6, 610–12, 780–3, 903–4, 984–6, 1061–4, 1199–201
decision-making771, 777
groups69, 576
mental6, 68, 993, 1058, 1062–4, 1094
musical574–6, 579–80
psychomotor670, 672
spatial676, 680, 1073
abridged introspective method398
abridged retrospective method399
abstraction182, 186, 383, 385, 387, 623–4, 983, 987
hierarchy185, 187, 451–5, 462
mental182–3
upward436, 447
academies300–301, 486, 766, 771, 993
accelerated expertise767, 826, 930, 932, 940, 1184
acceleration955, 957, 964, 967, 970, 1184
expertise24, 485, 955, 965
accidents664, 668–70, 690, 693, 695, 1111–12, 1115–16, 1118, 1123–4
nuclear859
accommodation177, 179–80, 1062
accountability412, 822–3, 909, 917, 970, 1034
accountants221, 416, 1061, 1064, 1182
accreditations1142–3
accuracy152–3, 272–3, 279–80, 397–8, 651–2, 676, 835, 1168, 1176–7, 1182–3
anticipation605, 609
diagnostic632, 634
levels603
predictions600, 777
recall434, 448
scores606, 609
shooting771, 779
ACM (applied concept mapping)473, 475–6, 478, 481, 483–5, 487
ACPT (American Crossword Puzzle Tournament)556, 566–8
acquired knowledge625, 1042, 1061, 1096
formally625
informally625
acquired skills180, 277, 1093
acquisition
cognitive skills18, 20, 313–14, 316, 1206
expert performance114, 626
expertise15–16, 74, 130–2, 142, 334, 343, 345, 347
interventions1095–6
knowledge271, 318–19, 878, 965, 1065, 1076
phase1087, 1089–90
psychomotor skill932, 937
(p. 1230) ACTA (applied cognitive task analysis)743, 1044
action scripts985
action sequences459, 595–6, 600
action tendencies605, 609, 611
activity theory415, 420–1
Actormap369
actors86, 90, 193, 220–3, 226–38, 369, 773–4
interacting220, 227, 234–5
in sociotechnical systems221–2, 228–9
ACT-R155, 175, 338–44, 350, 498, 1207
adaptability225–6, 774–5, 778, 781, 802, 854, 856, 1096–7
adaptation135, 139, 209, 225–7, 229–30, 237, 245–6, 280, 386, 652–3, 1044–5, 1195–7, 1201–2
cognitive213, 1207–8
local1123–4
skilled1045, 1136, 1196
in the workplace223–6
adaptations, sensorimotor139–40
adaptive capability1112, 1196, 1199, 1204
adaptive capacities387, 1110, 1112, 1203
adaptive control
model179–82
system16, 178–9
adaptive expertise13, 17, 200, 262–80, 652–3, 767–8, 854–5, 859
attitudes274, 279
definition262–9
development in informal settings269–71
measuring271–4
and related concepts267–9
teaching for275–9
adaptive experts17, 263–5, 267–9, 272–3, 279, 783–4
adaptive flexibility952, 955, 957
adaptive performance953, 963, 965–6, 970–1, 1098, 1102
adaptive readiness24, 959, 963, 965–6, 968, 970–1
adaptive replanning10, 196, 387, 1197
adaptive responses24, 498, 953–4, 956, 966, 972
adaptive skill952–6, 959, 962, 965–7, 970–2, 1195–7, 1199–200, 1202–3
deliberate practice and acceleration in fostering964–71
development968, 1204
expertise as1195–9
framework24, 955, 962
adaptive strategies881, 1072, 1111
adaptive systems175, 179, 263, 915, 1122
adaptive toolbox154–5, 165, 167
adaptive worldview957–9, 962–3, 967, 969
adaptiveness797, 953, 1113
adaptivity13, 1196, 1204
ad-hoc teams1002, 1012
administration318, 320, 630, 722, 1141
administrators918, 937, 1141
adolescence111, 133, 570
adulthood64, 1058, 1060
adults25, 42, 60, 105, 1061, 1064
advanced beginners245, 313–16, 319, 323, 885, 1059
adversaries721, 724–5, 731, 982, 985, 987, 1132, 1135
adversity1110, 1197
advocacy722, 1024
groups370, 1147
affiliation1, 35, 56, 85, 765, 770
affordances175–6, 178, 244–53, 347–8, 742, 758
AFQT (Armed Forces Qualification Test)58, 68–71, 74
after-action review794, 1099
age104–6, 112–13, 131, 133, 569, 585–6, 1060–1, 1063–9, 1073, 1075–6
differences42, 1064–76
and expertise513, 576, 1064, 1073, 1076
of peak performance1064, 1068
agents16, 184–6, 253, 340, 1109, 1123–5
external227, 960, 1045
age-related differences1063, 1066–7, 1075
age-related variance1070–1
age-vulnerable abilities1066, 1075
aggression513, 768
aging25, 1062–3
and expertise1061–74
aging populations11, 1058–76
Air Force674, 679, 793–4, 883–6, 929
air traffic control (ATC)66, 341, 343, 662, 665, 669, 672, 675–6, 1071–2, 1074
airspace665–7, 672, 680
air-to-air combat793–4
alarms743, 1111, 1158
false726, 730
alerts710, 726–7, 731–2
positive726
algorithms112, 165, 223, 229, 252, 1179–80
all-source analysis979–80
altitude341, 664–5, 667–8, 670
required438–9
amateurs37, 39, 46, 303, 1141
ambiguity176–7, 458–9, 464, 1027, 1034, 1146, 1162, 1166
ambiguous situations985, 1162, 1167, 1174, 1206
American Crossword Puzzle Tournament, see ACPT
American Psychological Association766–7
anagrams61, 552, 561–3, 570
analogical problem solving264, 855
analogical reasoning532
analysis265, 324, 355–9, 361–4, 372–4, 435–7, 451–4, 482–3, 743–6, 749–51, 753–6, 775–7, 988–91
boundaries357–8
control tasks452–3
decompositional435–7
discourse414–15
functions356–7, 362, 373–4
integrative437–9, 447–8
intelligence, see intelligence, analysis
latent curve1087, 1091
qualitative324, 414, 447, 1122
social organizational453–4
sociological90, 1169, 1171
statistical36, 51, 69, 334–6, 532, 1167
strategies451–3, 458–63, 465
task18, 338–9, 342, 349, 394, 396–7
video931, 933
work domain451–3, 465
worker competency454, 461–2
analysts25, 354–5, 358, 435–6, 452–4, 731, 740–4, 746–59, 979–83, 986, 989–93
competencies979, 989
performance742, 977, 981–2
reasoning25, 990
senior472, 979, 990
analytic(al) methods/techniques338, 392, 399, 472, 991–3, 1166–8
analytical processes454, 728, 740, 991
analytical skills303, 980
anecdotal evidence158–9
anesthesiologists433–4
anger503, 512–13
annotation, video933–4
anomalies198–9, 201, 432–3, 726, 834, 984–5, 1123, 1197–8, 1202, 1204
potential199, 726
anonymity694, 769
anthropology21, 530, 878
antibiotics411, 419
anticipation595, 597–606, 608–12, 697, 699–700, 777, 783
accuracy605, 609
effective604, 611
schematic386–7
skilled594–612
in sport605, 609, 611, 783
superior595, 599, 601
anticipatory behavior598, 602, 610, 612, 699
anticipatory judgments603–4, 609
anticipatory thinking1159, 1168
anxiety396, 492–3, 499–501, 503–9, 512–14, 770, 776
detrimental effects506–7
high504, 508, 703
symptoms508–9
applied cognitive task analysis, see ACTA
applied concept mapping, see ACM
applied contexts346, 636, 1094
applied research50–1, 295, 443, 494, 855, 865–6
appraisals491–2, 494, 496, 503, 767, 1142
apprentices485, 757, 978, 1025, 1042–3, 1163
junior730, 1042
(p. 1232) apprenticeships766, 880, 931, 1024, 1046, 1171
cognitive252, 540, 1046
appropriateness273, 434, 534, 1200
aptitudes59, 110, 132, 330, 722, 1097
architecture112, 163, 338–9, 344, 650, 1073
cognitive155, 334, 338–9, 341, 344, 350
social919
argumentation908, 910, 912, 915, 919, 921, 993
skills24, 539
armed and unarmed use-of-force tactics781
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, see ASVAB
arousal497, 502, 509
sympathetic498, 504
artifacts251, 253, 482–3, 631–2, 635, 741
artificial intelligence38, 1161, 1175, 1177, 1179, 1181
assertions197, 200, 205–6, 754, 1164, 1168, 1177
assessment201–2, 204–5, 271–2, 312–13, 317–18, 328–30, 433–4, 541, 643, 645–6, 648, 650–1, 860–1
formal858
gifted105, 120
objective301, 328, 643
reacquisition1091, 1094
risk356, 855, 857, 1120, 1123, 1125
subjective646, 652, 797
threat728, 780
tools320, 326–7, 329–30
updated1136, 1199
associationism383, 386–7, 390
associations
cue-based651, 653–4
semantic554, 556, 570
astronauts831–3, 836–9, 841–5
astronomy401, 718, 1169
ASVAB (Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery)59, 68
athletes508, 510, 595–6, 599–600, 605, 610–11, 928, 930, 1035–6, 1044–5
elite508, 1067
expert63, 298, 598, 611, 932, 937
less-skilled596, 599
skilled598–9, 601–2, 612, 937
attack patterns304, 732
attainment of expertise2, 13, 25, 109, 1001–3, 1095
attention
management191, 480, 703
selective178, 649, 941
attentional control58, 73–4, 77, 497, 507
attentional focus393, 508
attentional resources67, 137, 493, 498, 1067
attentional skills1066, 1068
attrition558, 1092
attunement175, 177–8, 181, 962, 1059, 1204
cognitive963–4
audit, knowledge19, 432–3, 441, 444–5, 883
auditory regions129–30, 133, 140
augmented reality (AR)755, 935, 1203
Australia358, 363–4, 369–70, 690, 692–3, 695
automated agents221–2
automated systems1178, 1181
automatic processing136, 1066
automaticity44, 671, 1059, 1065, 1090, 1096
autonomy166, 223, 1145, 1147, 1177, 1179
aviation73, 77, 305, 341, 662–82, 1060, 1063, 1074–5
commercial221–2, 341, 668–9
defining expertise663
domain general models66–7
expertise670–81
skills, non-technical680–1
tasks22, 664–70, 672, 678
aviation professionals22, 667–8
backward search42, 46
balance7, 13, 116, 227, 237, 412
ball flight248–9, 304, 596, 603, 605–8, 937
banks166, 664, 811, 822–3, 1134
basal ganglia129–30
baseball298, 303, 596, 609, 1060, 1067
basketball507–8, 599
shooting508, 510
battlefield experience799
Bayesian statistics346, 1166–7
(p. 1233) beginners39, 41, 44, 60
advanced245, 313–16, 319, 323, 885, 1059
behavioral models155, 161, 163
behavioral repertoires230–2, 234–5, 237–8
behaviorism19, 378–9, 383–5, 393
beliefs274, 746, 754, 1164, 1174, 1178
benchmarks378, 935
normative152, 237
benefits of expertise1060–1, 1067, 1075, 1109, 1114, 1125
BESD (binomial effect size display)76
best practices319, 722, 1172–5
bias, response501, 773
biases174–6, 746, 753–4, 757–9, 779, 981, 1013, 1163–6, 1168–9
cognitive754, 857, 981, 993, 1164, 1169
confirmation754, 964, 1013, 1148, 1165
judgment1163–4
negative753, 758
bibliographic analysis265–7, 279–80, 544
bibliometric analyses537, 543
Big Data1167, 1175, 1179–80
binomial effect size display, see BESD
biochemists63, 88
biological motion598–9, 603, 606, 612
black boxes159, 597, 808, 1208
blind spots155, 811–12, 814, 1009
blobbers992
blood pressure456, 502
blurring881, 1026, 1134
boards40, 154, 159, 177, 245, 662
Boeing342, 645, 1158
Boggle552–3
boom gates358, 365, 367–8
boomer generation889, 977
bottlenecks481, 819
boundaries190, 194, 1042, 1045, 1110, 1112, 1196, 1200
competency1115, 1199
fuzzy267, 280
national1134
boundary conditions1005, 1008, 1182
bounded rationality16, 38, 49, 149, 152–4, 1135
bowlers249, 606–8
box trainers936, 938
brain128–30, 132, 134, 246, 249, 251, 253, 256, 336–7
anatomy131, 134
regions129, 131–2, 135, 140–1, 343, 350
Brazil221, 907
brevity324, 468
bridge40, 137, 1061, 1067
budgets371, 619, 820, 841
building blocks152, 154–5, 160, 194, 440
building construction223, 228, 230
bureaucracy914, 1171
burglars162
business20, 23, 203, 1023–5, 1028, 1031
cases807, 1008
expertise23, 804, 807–27
future work826–7
research methods and findings809–26
experts808–11
models977, 996
plans163–4, 1040
cabin crew662, 669
calculation248–9, 1177
mental46–7
candidate schemas966, 968–70
capabilities247, 487, 649–51, 742, 757–9, 793, 796–8, 808–9, 863–4, 979–80, 1199
adaptive1112, 1196, 1199, 1204
cognitive236, 239, 800, 802, 809
computational38, 153
expert656, 792, 1166, 1168, 1177
technological757, 802
capacity40–1, 175, 235–6, 238, 412–13, 493, 498, 646–7, 651–3, 984–5, 1116–17
adaptive387, 1110, 1112, 1203
cognitive20, 744
computational16, 152, 167
limited50, 161, 409
loss492, 498
processing491–3, 512, 1065, 1069–70, 1076
for self-organization236, 238
capturers20, 474–5, 480, 486
capture-the-flag competitions723–4
cardiac activity502
cardiologists456–7, 626
career development535, 977, 1039–40, 1047
caregivers436
Carnegie Mellon University, see CMU
carpenters56, 766, 1098, 1110
case experience952, 957, 967
case-based hypertext learning environments957, 964
case-proficiency scaling1115, 1199
castings817–18, 820–1, 823
catalysts1, 13, 1001–2, 1008, 1014, 1210
categorization154, 186, 295, 299, 728, 731
causal effects131–2, 141–2
causal factors664, 674, 983
causal hypotheses392, 500
causal models500, 1095
causal reasoning25, 625, 982
causal relationships385, 655–6
causation88, 960, 983, 986
complex indeterminate982–3
CBT (computer-based training)941–2
CCUs (coronary care units)159–61, 165
CDS (clinical decision support)634
cells75, 129, 372, 557, 560, 759
central nervous system activity502
centralized coordination220, 226–8, 237
certifications619, 663, 670, 723, 799
Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)723
CESC (Central Emergency Support Centre)860
CFH design966–7
CFT (cognitive flexibility theory)24, 156, 951–72, 986, 1197, 1204
and adaptive skill959–64
learning environments963, 965, 967–8
and novelty paradox956–9
societal implications971–2
systems957, 968–9
CFT learning963, 965–6, 968, 970
chaos796, 838, 873
charismatic leadership1010
checklists340, 423, 1158, 1160, 1174–5, 1180–1
integrated831, 841
chess41–2, 47–9, 57, 59–62, 77, 137–8, 292–3, 297–8, 300–301, 349–50, 389–90, 930–1, 1067–8
Chase and Simon39–41
de Groot36–9
expertise5, 7, 57, 59–60, 132, 138, 1068–9, 1072
grandmasters166, 291–2, 301
masters345–6, 349, 810, 1182
patterns7, 177
players36, 39–40, 59–60, 138, 292, 307
positions41–2, 130, 292, 298, 345, 927
chest pain159–60, 460, 629, 632
child rearing265, 267
children42, 103–5, 107, 109–13, 117–19, 130, 574–6, 585, 906–7, 910
gifted104, 106–7, 120
choking20, 508–10
chronic stress492, 513
chunking7, 40, 42, 45, 178, 182
theory14, 35, 38–41, 45–6, 48, 51
citizens91–2, 780, 905, 920, 985, 1110
Civil Service1133, 1137, 1140–3, 1146
civilians766, 773, 779, 782–3, 943
untrained779, 782
classic expertise approach6–9, 14, 35–51, 138, 195, 346
characteristics49–50
chess36–41
community of practice7–8
computational model of chess memory45–6
future50–1
key theoretical work45–7
classical expertise approach
computer programming43–4
physics42–3
writing43
classical music44, 579
classification85, 91, 160, 163, 719, 728
classmates904, 909
classroom learning920, 1051
classroom teaching24, 918, 933, 942, 1046
classrooms24, 319, 904–5, 909–12, 918–20, 922, 1046, 1049
regular105, 118, 326
clients409, 411, 413, 415, 810–11, 815, 817, 892, 943, 1023
climate872, 961
anthropogenic90
change655, 972, 1194–5
clinical decision support, see CDS
clinical environments627–8, 635
clinical information419, 635
clinical judgment1145–6, 1161, 1174–5
clinical knowledge620, 625
clinical practice416, 420, 619, 630, 1145
clinical psychologists770, 1182
clinical reasoning273, 621–2, 624, 631
clinical supervisors933
clinical workflow627, 631, 634
clips, video136, 303, 777, 782, 933–4
close-to-practice qualitative research methods9, 408–25, 435, 694
exemplar416–17
closure748, 991–2
cognitive990, 996
clusters41, 265, 267, 280, 553, 565
CMU (Carnegie Mellon University)7–8, 49, 730
coaching322, 329–30, 1022–8, 1036–7, 1039–40, 1045, 1047–9
activities1037, 1045
executive811, 1024
and mentoring1023–5
co-citation analysis265, 267
cockpit156, 295, 490, 675, 705, 1114
cockpit task management666–7, 679, 681
co-constructive processes382, 397, 1037
coders435–6, 439, 447
codes432–3, 435–6, 441, 447, 874, 876
ethical769, 771
coding359, 436, 439, 447–8, 967–8
benefits967–8
categories435, 876
process436, 439
coercion423, 771
cognition50–2, 173–5, 178–80, 190–3, 195, 210, 243, 247–51, 256, 338, 344, 1169–72, 1207–8
distributed252–3, 256, 705, 712, 1169
embedded250
embodied173, 249–50, 1203
enactive250–1
expert193, 378, 447, 809
medical618, 620–2
situated211, 251–2, 257, 344, 347–8, 1169
cognitive ability14–15, 56–77, 671, 673, 676–7, 680, 734–5, 1062–3, 1066–7, 1069
effects68, 72–3
evidence for role58–72
factors57, 68, 72–4, 77, 672
measures57, 59, 62, 65, 72, 74–8
cognitive activities17, 251, 253, 354, 357, 881, 886, 1170
cognitive adaptations213, 1207–8
cognitive apprenticeship252, 540, 1046
cognitive architectures155, 334, 338–44, 350, 497
cognitive biases754, 857, 981, 993, 1164, 1169
cognitive capabilities236, 239, 800, 802, 809
cognitive challenges432, 445–6, 951, 956, 1173
cognitive closure990, 996
cognitive demands209, 250, 298, 511, 651–2, 710
cognitive efficiency1059–60, 1065
cognitive expertise313, 504, 802
(p. 1236) cognitive flexibility263, 673, 776, 855, 951, 986–7
cognitive flexibility theory, see CFT
cognitive functions2, 202, 255, 475, 1062, 1065
cognitive interviewing475, 478, 482–3, 644–5, 887
cognitive load443, 504, 619, 630, 636, 1042
theory607–8
cognitive mechanisms175, 268, 300, 496, 726, 783
cognitive models193, 195–6, 338, 340, 349, 351, 733, 735, 1048–9
cognitive overload20, 491–2, 496–7, 633
cognitive performance192–5, 468–9, 471–5, 477–80, 482–5, 487, 496, 499, 701, 703
cognitive processes250–2, 355–6, 537–8, 612, 618, 620–1, 740–2, 744–7, 751–3, 775
higher-level609, 618
cognitive processing47, 490, 584, 779, 932, 1183
cognitive psychology3, 9, 14, 49, 244, 256, 268, 878–9
cognitive readiness22, 265, 268–9, 767, 797, 801–2
cognitive resources249, 1060, 1062, 1065–6, 1068, 1072–5
cognitive rigidity987, 1115, 1124, 1199–200
cognitive science265, 337, 618, 621–2, 630, 636
radical embodied249, 255–6
cognitive skills502–3, 561, 598–603, 610, 612, 858, 860–1, 931–2, 936–8, 944
acquisition18, 20, 313–14, 316, 1206
cognitive strategies231, 237, 272, 275, 277, 279
cognitive structures238, 543, 618, 860
cognitive support439, 630, 633–4, 955
cognitive systems10–11, 14, 16, 219–21, 223, 225, 227, 229, 237, 1169–70
cognitive systems engineering (CSE)14, 16, 200, 207, 219–39, 1135, 1138
community of practice10–11
cognitive task analysis (CTA)195–6, 378, 469, 471, 477, 727–8, 733–4, 743–4, 748, 883, 887, 1048, 1201–2
cognitive tasks276, 399, 740, 742, 745–6, 754
cognitive transformation theory156, 955, 1009, 1197
cognitive tunneling668, 1061
cognitive underpinnings556, 734
cognitive work analysis, see CWA
cognitive workload502, 753
cognitive-psychological perspective498
collaboration96–7, 455, 734, 784, 831–4, 837, 839, 841, 992–3, 1074
collaborative work536, 839, 917–18, 1170
collage881–2
collective evaluation25, 1003
collective tacit knowledge88
college students117, 192, 561, 727, 1165
collegial interactions915–16
collisions159, 177, 363–4, 699
color302, 652, 699, 709, 812
comfort248, 483, 647, 1035
command201, 226, 795–7, 800, 803, 831, 861, 1071–2
commanders742, 750–1, 836
military197, 222, 865
commercial aviation221–2, 341, 668–9
commitment201, 209, 212, 256, 1033, 1118–19
common ground487, 706–7, 839, 843, 1119, 1122, 1125, 1178
commonalities156, 165, 183, 269, 295, 795–6
communications
failures364, 862
radio693, 702–3, 707
skills662, 669, 982, 990
voice665, 680, 743
communities of practice1–11, 17, 197, 316, 318, 1043
classic expertise approach7–8
cognitive systems engineering (CSE)10–11
deliberate practice (DP)9
Dreyfus-ian8
individual differences6–7
knowledge approach7–8
macrocognition10
naturalistic decision making (NDM)10
perceptual–motor expertise9–10
skill acquisition5–6
social studies of science8–9
compensation1029–30, 1039, 1062, 1073
strategies1062, 1066, 1068–9, 1071, 1073, 1075–6
compensatory strategies162–3, 1068–70, 1072–3
competence8, 410, 491–5, 498–9, 799–800, 857–8, 861, 1021, 1023, 1201–2
daily1069, 1075
competencies111–12, 317, 319, 451, 454, 461–3, 725, 728, 855–6, 979–80
cognitive733–4, 980
competency models316–17, 330
competition(s)506, 508, 514, 553–5, 681, 724, 1035
capture-the-flag723–4
direct930, 944
competitiveness164, 564
complacency1113
complementarity191, 211, 401, 1208–9
complete processing models1207–8
completeness222, 382, 385, 389, 398, 693–4
complex domains12, 19, 1066, 1071, 1194, 1199, 1201
complex environments1, 10, 208, 210, 626, 630
complex interactions601, 673, 1022
complex knowledge23, 894, 916, 1101
complex performance domains1095, 1098, 1100–1102
complex problems193, 207, 211, 386, 531, 542
complex real-world performance domains26, 1089, 1097, 1103
complex reasoning916, 1049
complex situations211, 419, 421, 424, 984, 1173
complex skills77, 275, 278, 280, 312, 1066
complex systems26, 220, 226, 295, 690, 693
complex tasks295–6, 339–40, 1048–9, 1086, 1088, 1090, 1093, 1095, 1113, 1207
complexity22–3, 26, 195–6, 222, 294–5, 410–12, 725–6, 953–4, 958–60, 967, 970–2, 1042–3, 1207–8
functional12, 1115, 1199
preservation960, 1115, 1199, 1208
compliance371–2, 769, 855, 864, 915, 917
procedural856, 1116
complicated, processes383, 852
component analyses299, 598, 1050
component teams832–3
composite measures64, 72, 508
comprehension21, 61, 618, 620, 728, 1069–74
comprehensive review128, 313, 674, 752, 931
computation173, 394, 1062, 1073
computational capacities16, 152, 167
computational model of chess memory45–6
computational modeling18, 50, 333–5, 337, 344–6, 348–50
research334, 345, 348
state of science348–9
techniques335, 337
computational models6, 18, 38–40, 333–50, 394, 556
domain-specific344–8
future research directions349–50
computer models39, 47, 50–1, 891, 1175–6
computer programming40, 48, 137, 1046
classical expertise approach43–4
computer programs38–9, 46, 50, 263, 795
computer science1, 37, 397, 723, 725, 1175–80
computer security720, 723–4
computer simulations37, 46, 155, 158, 164–5, 338
computer-based training (CBT)941–2
computerized physician order entry (CPOE)633
computers93–4, 469, 720, 943–4, 1176, 1183
concept maps473, 475–7, 482–3, 485, 992
conceptual models211, 539, 701, 759, 889–90
conceptual understanding263–4, 269, 272, 915, 919, 957, 960, 1196
conceptual variability957, 964, 966
conceptual variability search957, 964
concurrent verbal protocols36, 358–9
confidence game1167
confirmation301, 756, 1025
bias754, 964, 1013, 1148, 1165
confirmatory evidence630, 634
conflict resolution778, 780
conformity174–5, 325
confusion175, 431, 645, 669, 844, 893
connectivity, functional15, 57, 128, 140–1
conscious deliberation199, 988
consciousness377, 388–90
consensus87, 90, 154, 436, 447, 1013
consent, informed423, 445
consistency67, 423, 494, 754, 756, 775
internal165, 206, 274
constraints152–3, 174, 176–7, 182–4, 186–7, 234, 272, 452, 552–3, 798–9, 1044–5, 1203
contextual400, 601, 1042, 1050
ecological176, 186
external179, 195
functional177, 183, 185
goal-relevant1059, 1202, 1206
internal174, 177, 179, 182
letter554, 556
organizational233, 235, 238, 400, 883
resource441, 750
rule-based555, 1066
construction176, 348, 362–3, 648, 653, 655
social90, 119, 1171
constructive feedback1032, 1035, 1040
constructivism88, 176, 178, 184, 186, 314
constructivist approaches86, 175–6, 178, 181–3
consultants264, 270–1, 305, 411, 916, 939
consumers436, 475, 740, 748, 879, 1148
content23–4, 92–3, 317–18, 392–3, 774–5, 840, 963, 965, 1063
knowledge913, 932, 935
schemas958
validity317, 328
content-blind norms152–3
context independence962, 1204
contextual cues694, 1072
contextual information605–10
contingencies438, 446, 674, 962, 1066
local226, 228
continuity87, 150, 313, 656
continuous improvement371, 918–21
continuous process operations851–4
continuous processes208, 642, 651, 878
continuous variables73, 160, 1064
contractors831, 852–3
contributory expertise92–3, 97, 1202
control181, 205–6, 246–7, 347, 507–8, 664, 691, 708–9, 773, 818, 935–6, 1093–4, 1183–4
conditions41, 531, 943, 1076, 1086
executive498–9, 514
experimental293, 643, 646–8, 655–6, 769, 774
gaze502, 782
human712, 1183
mission23, 795, 830–2, 834–5, 839–45
motor9, 130, 134–5, 182, 248, 510
process19, 995, 1205
riot646, 783
supervisory347, 713, 743
vocal135, 578
control rooms841, 852, 856–7, 863, 1111
control tasks451–3, 699, 1099
analysis452–3
control trials, randomized444, 1142, 1145, 1173
controlled conditions11–12, 291–2, 296, 298, 302, 1166, 1168
controlled experiments191, 381, 531, 963, 968, 1162
controlled processing136, 1096
controllers665–7, 669–70, 672, 676, 831, 833–6, 841, 845
flight830–5, 837, 839, 841, 843–5
frontroom833, 835
mission831, 835, 838, 842
convenience299, 474
cooperating teams705–8
cooperation796, 839, 841, 1114, 1159
coordination129–30, 133, 246, 851–2, 1062, 1119, 1122, 1170–1
centralized220, 226–8, 237
coordinative structures181–3, 186
co-pilots490, 669, 675
coping253, 491–2, 494, 499, 511, 514
skills494, 497
strategies499, 1111
coronary care units, see CCUs
(p. 1239) corporals795–6, 799
correction60–1, 68–9, 278, 560, 627–8
corrective feedback938, 982, 1047
correctness1090, 1165, 1181
correlational design1094–5
correlations59–70, 72–5, 133, 141–2, 576, 673, 676, 989, 1093
positive64, 673, 854
strong24, 931
correspondence41, 174–5, 206, 296, 749, 756
dyads174, 184
cortical thickness129–30, 141
cortisol497, 502, 504, 510
salivary502, 511
costs794–5, 817, 821, 1058, 1060–1, 1075, 1097, 1099–102
cognitive1066, 1068
human264, 277
reduced817, 1179
reputational1134
counseling1023–5
course of action (COA)195, 197–9, 201, 204, 314–16, 419, 796, 1196–7
court positioning605–6, 611
co-workers130–40, 222, 1073, 1171
CPOE (computerized physician order entry)633
CPTs (cyber protection teams)727
creative thinking301, 796, 798, 989
creativity36, 111, 114–18, 578, 797, 802
scientific1038, 1203
credentials91, 535, 979
credibility86, 880, 1157, 1170
crew and mission control831–2, 839–40, 842, 844
crew autonomy837, 844–5
crew communication839–40
crew resource management, see CRM
crewmembers832–3, 836–8, 840, 842–4
crews, train691, 693, 695, 698, 701–8, 710–12
crew-to-ground communications840, 843
crime253, 722, 782, 814
crime scene examination253–4
criminal investigators782
crisis work225, 228
criterion variables75, 326
criterion-based training1089–90
critical cues202, 431, 437, 439–40
critical decision method (CDM)255, 389, 391–2, 396, 431–3, 440, 443–6, 474–5, 477–8, 480–4, 486–7, 743, 1044
critical incidents204, 439, 775, 874, 933, 1208
critical thinking skills724, 755
CRM (crew resource management)22, 662, 669, 680–1, 858, 1114–15
training1114–15, 1120
crossing environments364, 368–9
crossing systems18, 364, 369
operation362, 364, 369, 372
crossroads cases968–70
crosswords551, 553, 555–7, 560, 566–70
expert solution times as function of difficulty557–9
players554, 556, 565–6, 569–70
skill555–6
strategy v memory skills560–1
cryptograms552–3
crystallized intelligence59, 73, 109–10, 569
C-sections1172
cue hierarchy151, 160, 164
cue recognition775, 1071–2
cue utilization437, 610, 649–52, 655–6
cue-based associations651, 653–4
cued-retrospective interviews19, 434–5, 447
cues151, 156, 160–4, 166–7, 305–6, 432, 434–5, 437, 440, 650–4, 780, 985–8, 1071–2
contextual694, 1072
critical202, 431, 437, 439–40
diagnostic1059–60
environmental299, 346
memory46, 570
movement-related299–300
musical134
perceptual45, 610, 679
postural595, 597–8, 601, 604–6, 610–11
proximal342
remote553, 556
visual65, 602
cultural norms92, 269–71, 274, 698
cultural psychology381, 1203
culturally valued domains104, 120–1
(p. 1240) culture24, 930–3, 939, 944, 987, 994, 1141, 1146
organizational759, 891
curricula118, 300, 415, 993, 1043, 1050
cutlery1111–12
cut-scores107, 120
CWA (cognitive work analysis)11, 19, 233, 451–66, 696, 743–4, 748
cyber analysts722, 731
cyber attacks720–1, 725
cyber defense722–3
cyber domains22,