Abstract and Keywords
Recent theories of expertise and expert performance emphasize effort over talent. Specifically, the amount of deliberate practice that performers accumulate has been strongly correlated with their level of expertise in domains including chess, music, and sports. Indeed, it is widely accepted that becoming an expert requires an average of 10,000 hours, or 10 years, of deliberate practice—that is, activities directed by an instructor or coach that are designed to improve specific aspects of performance in measureable ways that offer timely feedback and refinement of skills through repetition. While it is easy to envision deliberate practice by aspiring athletes and musicians, however, many domains of performance do not have established cultures of practice. In particular, consciously incorporating deliberate practice during college-based professional education and deliberate performance during the career work of professionals (who typically have little time to “practice”) can accelerate the development of professionals to expert levels.
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