- Oxford Handbooks in Linguistics
- Copyright Page
- List of Abbreviations
- The Contributors
- Language Attrition and the Competition Model
- Language Attrition and the Feature Reassembly Hypothesis
- The Interface Hypothesis as a Framework for Studying L1 Attrition
- Implications of the Bottleneck Hypothesis for Language Attrition
- A Complex Dynamic Systems Perspective on Personal Background Variables in L1 Attrition
- Introduction to Psycholinguistic and Neurolinguistic Approaches to Language Attrition
- Language Attrition as a Special Case of Processing Change: A wider cognitive perspective
- Memory Retrieval and Language Attrition: Language loss or manifestations of a dynamic system?
- How Bilingualism Affects Syntactic Processing in The Native Language: Evidence from eye movements
- First Language Attrition and Developmental Language Disorder
- Ageing as a Confound in Language Attrition Research: Lexical retrieval, language use, and cognitive and neural changes
- Linguistic Regression in Bilingual Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
- Electrophysiological Approaches to L1 Attrition
- Neuroimaging Perspectives on L1 Attrition and Language Change
- Introduction to Linguistic Factors in Language Attrition
- Phonetic Drift
- Phonetic Attrition
- Phonological Attrition
- Morphological Attrition
- Lexical Attrition
- Null and Overt Pronouns in Language Attrition
- Introduction to Extralinguistic Factors in Language Attrition
- Age Effects in Language Attrition
- The Impact of Frequency of Use and Length of Residence on L1 Attrition
- L1 Attrition, L2 Development, and Integration
- Language Contact and Language Attrition
- Introduction to L2 attrition
- Exploring the Impact of Extralinguistic Factors on L2/FL Attrition
- Syntax and Phonology in L2 Attrition: Modularity and resilience
- L2 Lexical Attrition
- Attrition studies on Japanese returnees
- Event-related Potentials as Metrics of Foreign Language Learning and Loss
- Introduction to Heritage Language Development
- Quantifying Language Experience in Heritage Language Development
- Intra-Generational Attrition: Contributions to heritage speaker competence
- 2L1 Simultaneous Bilinguals as Heritage Speakers
- Language Loss and Language Learning in Internationally Adopted Children: Evidence from behaviour and the brain
- Childhood Language Memory in Adult Heritage Language (Re)Learners
- Language Development in Bilingual Returnees
- Concluding remarks
- Annotated bibliography
- Oxford Handbooks in Linguistics
Abstract and Keywords
Internationally adopted (IA) children begin acquiring one language from birth (L1), but typically discontinue it in favour of their adoption language (L2). Language attrition occurs quickly with IA children unable to speak/understand their L1 within months of adoption. However, as adults IA test participants show certain advantages in this language compared to monolingual speakers never exposed to it, suggesting that certain elements of the L1 may be retained. Neuroimaging studies have found that IA participants exhibit brain activation patterns reflecting the retention of L1 representations and their influence on L2 processing. This chapter reviews research on L1 attrition in IA children, discussing whether/how elements of the L1 may be retained. It discusses how L1 attrition versus retention might influence subsequent language processing in the L1 and L2. Implications of language attrition versus retention patterns observed in IA participants for neuroplasticity and language acquisition are also discussed beyond this specific group.
Lara J. Pierce is a postdoctoral research fellow at Harvard Medical School/Boston Children’s Hospital. She received her PhD in Psychology from McGill University. Her research centres on the effects of early experience on development. In particular, how deviation from ‘typical’ early experiences (e.g., variation in the early language environment, exposure to early stress/adversity) inﬂuence the developing brain, and the extent to which the nature and timing of early experiences have a lasting effect on the brain and behaviour. She has received awards from the Canadian Psychological Association, NSERC, Centre for Research on Brain, Language, and Music, and McGill University.
Fred Genesee is Professor Emeritus in Psychology, McGill University. He has conducted extensive research on alternative forms of bilingual/immersion education for language minority and majority students, the academic development of at-risk students in bilingual programmes, language acquisition in typically-developing and at-risk pre-school bilingual children, and internationally adopted children. He has published numerous articles in scientiﬁc journals and magazines and has authored sixteen books on bilingualism. He is the recipient of the Canadian Psychology Association Gold Medal Award, Paul Pimsler Award for Research in Foreign Language Education, and the Canadian Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions to Community or Public Service.
Denise Klein is Director of the Centre for Research on Brain, Language and Music, and Associate Professor in Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University. She has been in the Cognitive Neuroscience Unit at the Montreal Neurological Institute since 1992 where she did her postdoctoral fellowship under Brenda Milner after completing her PhD at the University of Witwatersrand in South Africa. Denise’s early work pioneered the use of brain imaging for the study of bilingualism and provided a springboard for current debates about bilingual brain organization. Her current work focuses on ﬁnding behavioural and neural biomarkers that predict language-learning success and difﬁculty.
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