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date: 17 September 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The slight evidence for Marian pilgrimage in Western Europe from the sixth century begins to increase by the tenth century. Pilgrimage shrines, often related with an apparition of Mary, mushroomed from the eleventh century, appearing in greater and greater numbers into the early modern period. Marian relics begin to appear, as well, in the eleventh century, but the vast majority of Marian pilgrimages focused on miraculous images, icons in Italy and Eastern Europe, statues elsewhere. As Mary became more embedded in affective devotion from the twelfth century onwards, Marian pilgrimage experienced dramatic escalation. Yet, much local pilgrimage, which rooted Mary’s presence in the landscape, was related to help in this life: cures, protection, security, etc. Despite the presence of some major international pilgrimage shrines, most Marian pilgrimage was very local by the late Middle Ages, creating a dense network of Marian shrines all over Europe.

Keywords: Virgin Mary, pilgrimage, healing, shrines, miraculous statues

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