Abstract and Keywords
The nineteenth century saw an upsurge in Marian devotion and Mariological enquiry in Western Europe. Of particular note is the Bull of Pope Pius IX, Ineffabilis Deus (1854), which defines the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception as an article of Catholic faith. Developments of this kind may be seen partly as an example of the Catholic Church’s reaction against increasing secularization. However, methodologically, Marian theology was part of the tendency towards a more historical approach to theology, with greater emphasis on the participation of the ordinary faithful in the articulation of doctrine. Attention is drawn to the importance of the tradition in which Mary is identified with the Old Testament figure of Wisdom, and the relevance of this for the understanding of Mary’s pre-election as the Mother of God, immaculately conceived. Finally, there is discussion of some of the nineteenth century’s most prominent Mariological thinkers, such as Newman and Scheeben.
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