Abstract and Keywords
Over its long history, the Frankfurt School attempted to enrich its critique of modern society, largely rooted in its imaginative rereading of the Marxist tradition, by drawing on insights from psychoanalysis. Although the specific insights informing the work of Erich Fromm, Max Horkheimer, Herbert Marcuse, and Theodor W. Adorno may have been different, all supported the productive integration of Marx and Freud. In particular, the Frankfurt School used Freudian theory to explain the failure of the working class to assume its putative revolutionary mission, the unexpected rise of fascism, and the possible ways in which utopia might be envisaged. In addition, most explicitly in the work of Adorno, they pitted the materialist impulses of psychoanalysis against the consciousness philosophy they identified with the Idealist tradition.
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