- Light, Human Evolution, and the Palaeolithic
- The Role of Darkness in Ancient Greek Religion and Religious Practice
- Constructing the Invisible: Light and Darkness in the Topography of Hades
- Darkness and the Imagination: The Role of Environment in the Development of Spiritual Beliefs
- Rediscovering the Winter Solstice Alignment at Newgrange, Ireland
- Light and Shadow Effects in Megalithic Monuments in the Iberian Peninsula
- Sunlight, Divination, and the Dead in Aegean Ritual Tradition
- Illuminating Triangulations: Moonlight and the Mississippian World
- The Chacoan World: Light and Shadow, Stone and Sky
- Animate Shadows of Bears and Giants
- The Beautiful Face of Ra: The Role of Sunlight in the Architecture of Ancient Egypt
- The Handling of Light: Its Effect on Form and Space in the Greek Temple and the Byzantine Church
- In Visible Presence: The Role of Light in Shaping Religious Atmospheres
- Lighting in Muslim and Christian Religious Buildings: A Comparative Study
- Prehistoric Light in the Air: Celestial Symbols of the Bronze Age
- Phenomenology of Light: The Glitter of Salvation in Bessarion’s Cross
- The Light of the Flame: Use and Symbolism of Light and Lighting Devices in Traditional Greek Culture
- Encountering Photoamulets and the Use of Apotropaic Light in Late Antiquity
- Visibility, Privacy, and Missing Windows: Lighting Domestic Space in Ancient Mesopotamia
- Lighting the Good Life: The Role of Light in the Aristocratic Housing System duringLate Antiquity
- Thirty Days of Night: The Role of Light and Shadow in Inuit Architecture, North of the Arctic Circle
- Household Consumption of Artificial Light at Pompeii
- Industrializing Light: The Development and Deployment of Artificial Lighting in Early Factories
- Materializing Light, Making Worlds: Optical Image Projection within the Megalithic Passage Tombs of Britain and Ireland
- Light and Dark in Prehistoric Malta
- The Eleusinian Projector: The Hierophant’s Optical Method of Conjuring the Goddess
- Reconstructing Artificial Light in Ancient Greece
- Lighting in Reconstructed Contexts: Experiential Archaeology with Pyrotechnologies
- Çatalhöyük: A Study of Light and Darkness—A Photo-essay
- Light and its Interaction with Antiquities and Works of Art: A Conservator’s Perspective
- Lighting and Museum Exhibits
- Modalities of Meaning: Light and Shadow in Archaeological Images
- Commentary I: On Light
Abstract and Keywords
The Maltese islands offer an unusual opportunity for the analysis of the interplay of light and dark in a prehistoric context. The potential is provided by the excellent preservation of the architectural monuments which permit the framing of different scenarios of light and dark, tempered by the need to reconstruct tentatively some missing elements such as the roofs. A number of features, such as the intense sunshine and the dramatic storms, have probably remained reasonably constant since prehistory although the modern pluvial patterns may have only developed from about 2200 bc. Other components such as sources of artificial light require archaeological information for their reconstruction. The most difficult task, however, is to understand the reception of light and dark by the prehistoric communities; but the detailed evidence that survives has offered the best possible chance to achieve this objective.
Simon Stoddart is a Reader in Prehistory at the University of Cambridge and a fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge. His career had previously taken him to the British School at Rome and the universities of Michigan, York, Oxford and Bristol. His work in Malta started in 1987 and has included fieldwork (Brochtorff Xaghra Circle, Ggantija, Santa Verna, In Nuffara, Tac Cawla and Kordin) and 3D visualisation. He has undertaken fieldwork widely in Italy on multi-period projects in Umbria, Lazio and Sicily. His publications cover themes that range across the Etruscans, Celts, the Mediterranean Bronze Age and Iron Age, landscapes and state formation.
Caroline Malone is Professor of Prehistory at Queen’s University Belfast and the PI of the ERC Funded FRAGSUS project (2013-2018). She has worked in Malta since 1983, including fieldwork at number of the key sites mentioned here (Brochtorff Xaghra Circle, Santa Verna, Tac Cawla and Kordin). Her posts have included museums (Avebury and the British Museum), multi-tasking ritual specialist (the posts of proctor and senior tutor at the University of Cambridge), the inspectorate of English Heritage and academic positions at Bristol and Cambridge as well as Belfast. Her publications range widely over the Mediterranean and British Isles, focused on the Neolithic and Bronze Age.
Michael Anderson is Associate Professor in Classics at San Francisco State University who is a specialist in the interpretation of 3D visualisation, particularly in the Roman world. He received his PhD in 2004 from the University of Cambridge on the house in Pompeii and is director of the Via Consolare Project at Pompeii. His publications are focused on Digital and computing technology and its application to archaeology and Classical scholarship, especially 3D reconstruction, data-capture, and geographical information systems (GIS) analysis; Roman material culture, art, architecture, and primary fieldwork, specialising in Pompeii, Herculaneum, Rome, and Ostia; Ancient daily life, analysis of domestic space, the city, commerce and the arts in Classical literature and the material record.
Robert Barratt is a graduate student at the University of Cambridge working on the deployment of 3D visualisation as a research tool, currently focused on the Brochtorff Xaghra Circle. He is a graduate of the University of Cardiff, with wide experience in fieldwork, including on the island of Malta. He is experienced in the use of digital photography for 3D modelling as well as other forms of 3D digital reconstruction.
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