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date: 26 February 2020

(p. 1021) Subject Index

(p. 1021) Subject Index

A
aberrant neuronal migration 877
absence of belief 550
abstraction effect in statistical learning 707
abstract letter identity hypothesis 49, 411–12
abstract meanings 78
abstract syntactic learning 181
abstract words 73, 88
accent 747
phrasal 8
pitch 18
accessibility effects in grammatical encoding 444–5
acoustic cues 12–13, 19
acoustic-phonetic information in spoken word recognition 33, 34, 36
acquired distinctiveness 716
acquisition
bilingualism 218
of novel phonotactic constraints 388
action-compatibility effect (ACE) 202
action comprehension task 323
Action Generation Hypothesis 595
Action Naming Test 247
action words 136
activation 18, 294
activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method 766
activation patterns 373
activation-verification model 54
active/passive voice alternation 230–1
additive factors logic 415
adjacent dependencies
artificial grammar learning (AGL) 771, 772, 773
statistical learning 699–701, 705–6
advance organizers 205
adverb modification 175–6
affective language comprehension (ALC) model 652–65
communicative intention 657
inferring bonus meaning 657
inferring speaker’s referential intention 655
inferring speaker’s social intention 656
inferring speaker’s stance 655–6
rude verbal insult, comprehension of 653–5
input: multimodal, composite signs 653
interpreting speaker’s communicative move 655
recognizing/parsing signs presented by speaker 653, 655
affective stance 656, 659
affordances 595, 857
Africa 675
African Gray parrot 848
age of acquisition
bilingualism 218, 231–2
first word learning 716
orthographic representations 50–2
sign languages and deaf populations 266
spelling/writing 401
spoken word production 338
visual word recognition 61
writing and speaking 406–7
age-related decline in speech perception and production 320–1
age-related differences in statistical learning 702, 706–8
agrammatism 245–9, 292
expressive 249
AI systems 210
algebraic rules in artificial grammar learning (AGL) 771, 772–3
alignment during interaction 573–86
at different levels 575–8
channels of alignment 573–4
and communicative success 580–2
compensatory proactive link 585
integration between levels 578–80
interactive 557–8
linguistic alignment 581–2
linguistic mechanisms 575–85
modulatory routes 582–4
non-linguistic alignment 582
semantics 577–8
situation-model alignment 581
social accounts 582–5
sound 575–6
strategic routes 584–5
syntactic alignment 574, 576–7, 579
allophones 906
allophonic cues 21, 22
allophonic theory 791
allophony 17, 23
alpha band 957, 995, 997
(p. 1022) Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language (ABSL) 852–3, 879, 903–4
alternative splicing 874
Alzheimer’s disease 77, 243
ambiguity 6, 19
advantage 99–102
disadvantage 102
grammatical encoding 445–6
lexico-semantic 79, 88, 486, 494
localist approach 99–101
pragmatics and inference 616
quantifier scope 184
reordered access model of ambiguity resolution 106
resolution, innate mechanism vs. experience-driven accounts of 175–6
resolution, reordered access model of 106
sentence comprehension 175–6, 178–9, 181, 184
syntactic 171, 173–5, 483–4, 496
word-class 486
American English
ambiguity 106–7
first word learning 715, 716, 718, 724
segmentation of speech 20, 21
American Sign Language (ASL) 259–62, 264, 266–8, 270, 272–3, 275, 444, 855
amodal approach to lexico-semantics 72, 75, 76, 77–9
amodal areas: anterior temporal lobe (ATL) 965–6
analysis-by-synthesis 308
analysis of variance (ANOVA) 918
anaphora 550
anaphoric expressions 611–12
animacy 224
animal models
apes 842–5
bats 845, 848, 858, 866
cetaceans 848
dolphins 845, 866
elephants 845, 848
genetics 880–3
mice: stuttering 882–3
songbirds: vocal learning 881–2
gibbon song 845
mice 866, 882–4
pinnipeds 848
sea lions 848
seals 845, 848
vervet monkeys 909
walruses 848
whales 845, 846
see also birds
anterior negativities (AN) 938, 942
anterior temporal lobe (ATL) 153, 155–6, 966
as graded hub 147–8
heteromodal semantic hub 146–7
input processing deficits 149–50
semantic deficit 145–9
anti-Gricean turn 629–31
apes 842–5
aphasia 205–6, 264, 815
artificial grammar learning 767
Broca’s aphasia 241–2, 244, 245, 320
conduction aphasia 241, 296–7, 301
connectionist principles and speech production 382
mixed transcortical or global aphasia 151
semantic aphasia 144–5, 151–3, 154, 156
speech errors 338, 344, 347, 349, 380
speech perception and production 299, 312, 323
transcortical sensory aphasia 151, 154
Wernicke’s aphasia (WA) 144, 150, 153, 156, 244, 320
word production and related processes 350, 352, 506–22
conflict model of monitoring 512–13
dark side model 513–14
interactive two-step model of naming 507–8
learning and monitoring 514–18
models 508–11
apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) 251
applied educational research 204–5
apraxia of speech in childhood 828
Arabic 42
arbitrary relations 722
arbitrary symbols 904–5
argumentation 208
arousal states 136
articulator 528
articulatory imprecision 19
articulatory/motoric processes 372
artificial grammar learning (AGL) 755–76
abstract visual shapes 757
auditory paradigms 757
BROCANTO grammar 758, 760, 769, 771
consonant-vowel (CV) syllables 757
context-sensitive grammars 760
elements of 757
explicit learning 762–4, 765
finite state grammars (FSGs) 758, 760, 769
formal grammars 759
hybrid languages 760
implicit learning 762–4, 765
indirect measures 763
infancy 771–5
adjacent dependencies 771, 772, 773
algebraic rules 771, 772–3
non-adjacent dependencies 771, 773–5
multiple context-free grammars 760
and natural language comparison 760, 764–5, 766, 767–71, 775, 776
hierarchically structured sequences and left dorsal language system 768–9
syntax and phonology 768
temporal lobe contributions vs. complex syntax 769–71
nested hierarchical grammars 771
neuroimaging meta-analysis 765–7 (p. 1023)
non-adjacent dependencies 764, 771, 773–5
in infancy 771, 773–5
performance as a trait 764–5
pseudowords 757
REBER grammar 757–8
regular grammars 759
simpler features 760–1
and statistical learning 762–3, 765, 766, 769–70
symbols 757
tactile paradigms 757
violations 761–2
visual stimulus presentation 757
visual tiles 757
written consonants 757
artificial grammar learning task, auditory 764
artificial language
evolution of speech 852, 856
models of language evolution 902–3, 908
segmentation of speech 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 21
statistical learning 692–8, 703, 706–7, 709
artificial neural networks (ANNs) 294, 985–6
Asia 675
associative chunk strength (ACS) 761
associative priming 575
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 419, 785, 792, 796, 874
attention and structural choice in sentence production 527–41
linguistic stages 528, 530
perceptual priming 533–5, 536–7, 538–40, 541
interactive properties 538–40
positional vs. grammatical-role hypothesis 535–8
referential priming 532–3
attributional theories 72–3, 74, 76
audience design factors 445, 448, 549
auditory artificial grammar learning task 764
auditory brain response (ABR) 934, 937, 940
auditory deficit 796
auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) 937, 938, 940
auditory-motor weight 300
auditory naming task 34
auditory paradigms 757, 767
auditory processing impairments 792–4
Auditory Repetition Task (ART) 792–3
auditory stimuli 980, 986
auditory and visual compounds in first word learning 721
auditory-visual discrimination task 320
auditory word-picture matching task 320
Australia 798
Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS) 818–21, 825, 827
Australopithecus afarensis 849–50, 858
autism quotient (AQ) 639, 945
autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 738–9, 871, 873, 874, 878
autosegmental phonology 348–9
AXB discrimination/matching task 575, 923
B
babbling 714, 718
backpropagation of error 294, 385, 387
backward analysis 515, 517
backward transfer 224–5
‘bags of words’ models 74
Bantu language 678
baselines signs 262
base model 506, 507–8
bats 845, 848, 858, 866
Bayesian models 38, 40, 42
Bayes’ rule 181–2
behavioral priming paradigms 60
behavioral reaction time paradigms 270
behavioral semantic relatedness paradigm 126
behavioral studies/approach
ambiguity 111
attention and structural choice in sentence production 530
bilingualism 221
grammatical encoding 449
lexico-semantics 72
segmentation of speech 21
visual word recognition 49
in multilinguals 119, 123, 129
Bengalese finches 847
best guess 106–7
beta band 957, 961, 966, 995, 997
bidirectional connections 53
Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA) 134, 135
bilingualism
ambiguity 98
conceptual development 742
connectionist principles of speech production 391
deaf populations 260–1, 269–71
domains 218
dominance 218, 219
first word learning 726
fixation durations 219
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 983
perspective-taking 552
proficiency 219, 231–2
spoken word production 344
spoken word recognition 42
statistical learning 707
bilingual language production 461–75
‘hard problem’, origin of 461–2
language switching 467–72
blocked language switching task 472
trial-by-trial language switching task 467–72
mechanisms 462–5
language-non-specific selection models: inhibitory control model 464–5
language-specific selection models 463–4
picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm 465–7
(p. 1024) bilingual sentence processing 217–33
age of acquisition and proficiency 231–2
emergent properties 225–7
parsing 227–31
semantic processing 217–22
syntactic processing and competition model 222–5
binding problem 437
biological components 866
biological constraints 846
biological factors in developmental language disorder 823, 830
biological homeostasis 650
bipolar disorder 874
birds 845, 866
Bengalese finches 847
bird-song 845–6, 847–8, 908–9
budgerigars 848
chaffinches 847
cockatoos 848
humming birds 848
lyre birds 847
parrots 846, 848, 858
reed warblers 847
songbirds 846, 847–8, 858, 866, 881–2, 883, 908–9
song sparrows 847
white-rumped munias 847
zebra finches 846, 847, 848, 881, 909
bi- and trigrams 760–1
blank spaces 32
blindness and gesture 598
blocked language switching task 472, 474
blocked naming 340–1
bonus meanings 658, 660, 662, 664
bootstrapping language acquisition 19
Boston Naming Test 247, 462
boundaries see segmentation of speech
boundary-straddling sequences 20
bounded rationality 182, 561
brain damage 413
Brazilian Portugese 739
breathing control 850
British Lexicon Project 135
British Sign Language (BSL) 266
BROCANTO grammar 758, 760, 769, 771
Broca’s aphasia 241–2, 244, 245, 320
Broca’s area 309, 830, 960, 999–1000, 1003
ambiguity 109
speech perception and production 312
syntactic production and comprehension 499
budgerigars 848
C
Canadian-English 21
Canadian-French 20–1, 716
Cantonese 42, 788
cascading 339–40, 354
connectionist principles and speech production 380, 381, 383
emotion and sociality 649
grammatical encoding 439
spelling/writing 418
written language production 414–16
Catalan 9
categorical perception 790–1
categorization 736, 737, 742–4, 745
first word learning 720–1, 722, 725
pragmatics 628
category-specific deficits 72
CDP+ model 49
center-embedded or object relative clauses 177
chaffinches 847
CHILDES database 683
childhood apraxia of speech 828
children see first word learning
chin 850
China 798
Chinese 945
bilingualism 223
developmental dyslexia 788, 796, 797
dyslexia 786, 788
sign languages and deaf populations 273
spelling/writing 403, 404–5, 406–7, 415, 416–17
spoken word production 349
visual word recognition in multilinguals 122
Chinese-English 224, 226, 468
sign languages and deaf populations 270, 272
visual word recognition in multilinguals 127, 135
ChIP-Sequencing methodology 876
choice rule 34
Chomsky hierarchy 759, 771
chromatin 873
marks 870
remodelers 870
structure 869–71
chromosomes 870
chunking 179, 530, 760–1
clarity of domain 75
classifiers 265–6
coarticulation 41, 307
cockatoos 848
code overlap 127
code-switching 220, 391
cognates
ambiguity 98–9
bilingualism 221, 222
facilitation effect 126–7, 221, 461
grammatical encoding 439
identical 127–8, 129–30
non-identical 127–8, 129–30
visual word recognition in multilinguals 120, 122–3, 125–30, 133–6
(p. 1025) cognitive communication impairments 206
cognitive constraints on planning 343
cognitive context in lexico-semantics 71
cognitive differences in perspective-taking 557
cognitive electrophysiology 930–46
language 935–6
time-domain averaging 934–5
cognitive embodiment 306
cognitive functions in text comprehension 203–4
cognitive models 43
cognitive neuropsychological research 399
cognitive neuroscience 23
of motor theories of speech perception 314–19
perceptual representations of speech in cortical motor system 314–17
task-dependency, environmental factors and turn-taking 317–19
of speech perception 308–14
motor cortex and speech 313–14
new Motor Theory: support and criticisms 312–13
cognitive psychology 31, 35
coherence 199, 204, 959–60
cohesion 199, 204–5
text 201
Coh-Metrix 204
cohort size 18
cohort theory/model 33, 34, 35, 37, 40, 261
Coltheart’s N 55
combinatoriality
conceptual development 740
evolution of speech 845, 852–5, 856
grammatical encoding 442
models of language evolution 899, 901, 903–4, 907, 908
semantics 965–6
common ground
emotion and sociality 657
evolution of speech 855
gesture 595
perspective-taking 550, 551–2, 553, 555–6, 559, 561, 563
pragmatics 632–3
strong 633–4
communication game tasks 851, 857, 858
Communicative Accommodation Theory (CAT) 584
communicative grunts 724
communicative intention 657, 722
communicative project 660
communicative signals 741
communicative success and alignment during interaction 580–2
community detection analysis 39–40
community membership 552, 559
comorbidity and developmental language disorder 818–19, 821–2, 825
compensatory proactive link 585
competence theories 646
competing constraints 681
competition 18
and syntactic processing 222–5
visual word recognition 54
competitor words 121
complex grammars 776
compositionality and models of language evolution 899, 900–1, 903, 905, 907, 908
comprehensive production models 335
computational adequacy 35–6
computational linguistics 73
computational models 37, 646
perspective-taking 560
sentence comprehension 173, 179, 180–2, 186
speech production 294
text comprehension 210
concepts
lexico-semantics 76
pre-existing 738
visual word recognition in multilinguals 120–1
concept selection account 462
conceptual development 736–48
combinatoriality 740
language builds on and reveals conceptual structure 736, 737–9
language invites categorization 736, 737, 742–4
language is a social marker 736, 737, 746–8
language is a tool for action and attention 736, 737, 741–2
language is a tool for thinking 736, 737, 739–40
specific languages have specific influences 736, 737, 744–6
conceptual information and decoding 967
conceptualization process 434
conceptualizer component 513, 527
conceptual knowledge and lexico-semantics 76
conceptual learning in first word learning 722
conceptual links 133
conceptual message in syntactic production and comprehension 482–3
conceptual pacts 558, 632
conceptual plan in attention and structural choice in sentence production 527–8
conceptual processing
bilingualism 218
connectionist principles and speech production 376
conceptual tasks in lexico-semantics 75
concreteness
bilingualism 218
lexico-semantics 74, 78
conditional probability 38
conditioned variation 907
(p. 1026) conduction aphasia 241, 296–7, 301
conflict model of monitoring 506, 512–13
conflict resolution account in ambiguity 111
congruent completion 220
conjoined noun phrase (CNP) 536
connectionist approach 372–92
ambiguity 102
connection weight parameter 382
distributed representations: learning and processing 384–91
connectionist principles outside localist framework 384–5
Gradient Symbolic Computation (GSC) 390–1
learning and syntactic priming 385–8
oscillator models 388–90
selection 388–91
grammatical encoding 449
inhibitory 10, 35–6, 53, 134
learning 372, 392
PARSYN connectionist model 37
pragmatics and inference 616
segmentation of speech 10
sentence comprehension 184, 185
speech production 372–3, 380, 382–3, 384
phonological errors 379–80, 383
semantic errors 379–80, 382, 383
spoken word recognition 35–7
spreading activation between localist representations 373–84
generic localist connectionist framework 374–6
impairments of speech production 377, 382–4
localist connectionist principles and empirical data 373–4, 377–84
mixed error effect 377, 379–81
semantic interference vs. phonological facilitation in picture naming 377, 378–9
visual word recognition 51
word production 506
connections, excitatory 35–6, 53
connectivity
and oscillations 957–60
speech perception and production 318
consensus model
grammatical encoding 432–8, 440, 441, 448, 451
content subprocesses 435
division and unity 437–8
message encoding 434
structure subprocesses 435–7
consonants
ambisyllabic 8, 17
artificial grammar learning (AGL) 757
consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) sequence 292, 680
consonant-vowel (CV) babbling 677
consonant-vowel (CV) syllables 757
lengthening 15
onset 14
segmentation of speech 15–16
word-initial 14
constituent structures 435–6
constraint-based models 174–5, 181, 553
constraint effect in bilingualism 219
construction-integration model 201, 616
constructivist processes 318
pragmatics and inference 612–15, 616, 618
content processing in grammatical encoding 438–40, 441–2
content of representations in lexico-semantics 77–9
content subprocesses and consensus model 435
context
bilingualism 220
-dependency 624
-flexible words 723
-limited words 723
-sensitive grammars 760
-sensitive lexical access hypothesis 119
spoken word production 342
visual word recognition in multilinguals 128–31
see also under lexico-semantics
contextual diversity in visual word recognition 51
contextual factors in segmentation of speech 12
contextual information in pragmatics and inference 609, 611
contextual reinstatement 561
continual learning 41
continuity thesis 510
control signal theory 388, 390
control words in bilingualism 221
conventionalization 904
conventions-constrained-by-concepts 738
convergence zones 76, 77, 78–9, 147, 965
Conversational Maxims 657
conversational pressure 343–4
conversation structure 610
cooperative behavior 581
Cooperative Principle 625–6, 635
co-ordination problem 437
cortical motor system and perceptual representations of speech 314–17
co-speech gesture integration 944
cost-free processing in spoken word recognition 34
covert shift 532
critical period in evolution of speech 846–7
cross-boundary decoarticulation 14
cross-boundary glottalization 15
cross-linguistic language production see bilingual language production
cross-modal lexical decision tasks 198
cross-modal priming 18, 33
fragment priming 11
identity-priming 12–13, 16 (p. 1027)
lexical priming (CMLP) 244
long-lasting repetition priming 405–6
semantic priming 105–6
cross-script similarities and differences in written language production 416–17
cueing paradigm 532
cues
auditory 535
in combination 18–19
cost 222
cultural 552
distributional 698, 700
endogenous 532
environmental 870
exogenous 532
explicit 6, 532, 534
implicit 532, 534, 537
infant-directed 741
lexical 13
linguistic 552
pedagogical 741–2
perceptual 536
phonological 697–8, 700
phonotactic 15–17, 694–6
prosodic 13, 21
semantic 13
strength 223
subject-verb agreement 225–6
unimodal and bimodal sensory 535
validity 222–3
visual 533–4, 537, 539, 552
word-initial pitch 18
cultural evolution/transmission 846, 900, 901–2, 904, 907–8, 909
cumulative frequency in orthographic representations 50–2
cumulative semantic interference (CSI) 340–1, 473–4, 513
cyclic blocked picture naming task 352
Czech 787
D
dark side model of cumulative semantic interference and incremental learning 507, 513–14, 521
dative alternation 230–1
declarative/explicit learning 764
declarative memory 726, 728
decoarticulation 18, 21
cross-boundary 14
decompositional models in spoken word production 336
deep dyslexia 246
deep learning 985
deficit hypothesis 829
delta band 23, 995
dependency distance 178
description schemes 577
descriptions theory 610
determiner-noun agreement 226–7
developmental deficits 419–21
developmental dysgraphia 419–21
developmental dyslexia 419, 784–803
in alphabetic orthographies 787–8
behavioral difficulties 802
Chinese 788, 796, 797
cognitive causes 789–95
auditory processing impairments 792–4
double deficit theory 789–90
phonological deficit account 789
speech perception 790–2
visual processing deficits 794–5
definition 785
emotional difficulties 802
environmental factors 800–1, 803
gene-environment interaction 801
genetic factors 798–800, 801
DCDC2 798–9
KIAA0319 798–9
molecular genetics 798–9
neural basis 799–800
reading network 799–800
twin studies 798
interventions 828–32
neural effects 802
large families 800
literacy-related activities in the home 800–1
magnocellular theory of dyslexia 794
manifestations 785–7
multiple-deficit theory 795–6
oral language program 802
procedural learning deficits 795–801
etiology 796–7
family-risk studies 796–7
multiple risk framework 795–6, 797
proximal cause 786
schooling 801
social disadvantage 800, 802
speech envelope modulations 793
spelling 786–7
surface dyslexia 786
developmental language disorder 785, 789, 814–31
age of child 823
approaches to studying child language 816, 818
autistic spectrum condition 821
behavioral adjustment 821
biological factors 823, 830
comorbidity 818–19, 821–2, 825
compensation 823
educational attainment 821
environmental factors 823, 827, 830
epigenetics 830
evidence from methods characterizing longitudinal change 822–8
(p. 1028) individual differences in growth trajectory 825–6
longitudinal latent class analyses 825
nature of change in child language development 823–6
non-verbal skills 827
predictors of change 826–8
reasons for characterizing change in abilities 822–3
receptive language 827–8
social gradient 826–7
stability of language status 824–5
evidence from population/epidemiological methods 818–22
comorbidity and co-occurring difficulties 821–2
prevalence in different social quintiles 819–21
social gradient 818–19
genetics 823, 827, 828, 830
growth curve analysis/growth trajectories 824, 825–6
heterogeneity 823
history of terminology 816–17
inattention 821
interactivity 823
labels 814–18
language impairment severity 821
late talkers 828
longitudinal latent class analyses 824, 826
low non-verbal IQ 821
neurobiological effects 830
neurodevelopmental immaturity 822
neuroimaging studies 828–30
neural correlates 829–30
paternal/maternal education 827
population samples 826
process of development 822
social gradient 818–19, 826–7
social risks 830
socioemotional difficulties 821, 822
specific language disorder 828, 829
specific language impairment (SLI) 814–15, 818
timing 823
developmental pathway 822
developmental phonological dysgraphia 420
developmental surface dysgraphia 420
DevLex-II 135
diagraphs 412–13
dialect 707, 747
dialogue contexts 448–9
diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) 251
digit span task 764
dipole modeling 956–7, 964
Direct Access view 636–7
Directions into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model of speech production 309
direct realist account 318
disambiguation 105, 110, 175, 944
discourse contexts in bilingualism 221
discreteness-versus-interactivity debate 440
discrimination task 791
discriminative learning 40–1
distance modification in sentence comprehension 175–6
distributed activation patterns 384
distributed areas: sensorimotor systems 966
distributed connectionist approach
ambiguity 111
visual word recognition 49
in multilinguals 135
distributed models
ambiguity 100–2
spoken word recognition 37
visual word recognition in multilinguals 135
distributed-plus-hub theory of semantic memory and semantic dementia 518
distributed representations 77
see also under connectionist approach
distributed semantic control network: convergent evidence 154–5
distributional cues 19, 698, 700
distributional information 74–5
distributional knowledge in statistical learning 705
distributional learning 715–16, 717
distributional theories in lexico-semantics 72, 73–4
dolphins 845, 866
domain-general executive control tasks 136, 468–9
domain-general task switching 467, 471
Doppler ultrasound imaging 315
double deficit theory (developmental dyslexia) 789–90
double indexing 609
doubling 391, 414
drawing task 902, 905
DRC model 49
duality of patterning 852, 899
dual-path mapping 539
dual-path structure 58
dual-path system 540
dual-task paradigm 107, 628
dumb attentional mechanism 720
Dutch 597
alignment during interaction 576
ambiguity 98, 99, 106
bilingualism 223
dyslexia 787
emotion and sociality 663
first word learning 715, 716, 717
grammatical encoding 444
lexico-semantics 76
prosodic phonology 677, 680–1
segmentation of speech 9, 15, 16, 18
sign languages and deaf populations 270, 273
spoken word production 348, 352
visual word recognition in multilinguals 123, 127, 131
(p. 1029) Dutch-English 98, 221, 230
visual word recognition in multilinguals 120, 121, 122, 124–5, 128, 129–30
Dutch-English-French 127
Dutch Lexicon Project 135
dynamic causal modeling (DCM) 318, 959–60, 964, 965
dynamic systems theory 722
dysgraphia 412, 417, 420
dyslexia 419, 420, 829
comorbid motor impairments 785
deep 246
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 985
genetics 877
letter knowledge 786–7
phoneme awareness 786–7, 789–90, 796, 798, 802
phonological awareness 786, 787–8, 790, 797
speech production 292
statistical learning 701
dysphasia 815
dyspraxia, orofocial 873
E
Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS)(Australia) 818–21, 825, 827
early selections strategy in ambiguity 107
echoic mention account 637
edge artifacts 981
edit distance 761
egocentricity 551, 555, 633–4, 741
eLAN 942
electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) 993
electrocorticography (ECoG) 314, 316, 930, 993, 994, 995, 997, 1002
electroencephalography (EEG) 930, 931–3, 936, 937, 945
alpha waves 931–2, 934
artificial grammar learning 774
auditory brain stem response (ABR) 934
auditory evoked potential (AEP) 934
Bereitschafspotential (readiness potential) 934
contingent negative variation (CNV) 934
data acquisition, visualization and analysis 932
emotion and sociality 660
epilepsy 992–3
expectancy 934
frequency-following response (FFR) 934
gesture 600
lateralized readiness potential (LRP) 934–5
lexico-semantics 87
pragmatics 638
prosodic phonology 684
segmentation of speech 23
semantic deficit 147
speech perception and production 314, 319
spelling/writing 402, 407
steady state flicker-evoked brain potentials 932–3
steady state potentials 931, 933
stimulus-evoked potentials 934
text comprehension 206
time-domain averaging 934–5
time-frequency analysis 931
transient event-related brain potentials (ERPs) 932–3
transient potentials 931, 933
transient time-domain average event-related potentials (ERPs) 932–3
visual word recognition in multilinguals 124, 126, 136
word production in aphasia 512
electropalatography 315, 406
electrophysiological data
bilingualism 221, 468, 470
grammatical encoding 439
segmentation of speech 21
sign languages and deaf populations 262, 264, 270
spoken word recognition 43
text comprehension 206
visual word recognition 58, 60
elephants 845, 848
embedded words 10–11
embodied cognition 147
embodied theories of language 322–3
lexico-semantics 72–3, 76, 77–9, 83, 85
embodied variables in lexico-semantics 75
embodiment and inference 617–18
emotional Stroop task 81
emotion, comprehension and sociality 644–65
action tendencies 650
affective evaluation is low-intensity emotion 651
behavioral changes 650
code-cracking focus 646
code model position 647–8
cognitive changes 650
emotional conditioning 651
emotionally competent stimulus (ECS) 649, 654, 658–62
scope of model 661–2
emotions are not necessarily conscious 650
emotions are triggered by appraisal of something as relevant to our concerns 648–9
emotions briefly take control 650
emotions have ancient triggers but can hook up to new ones via learning 650–1
emotions involve a package of automatic, short-lived, synchronized changes in multiple systems 649–50
historical factors 645–7
inference 618–19
informing 656 (p. 1030)
modularity focus 646–7
mood 652
motivational changes 650
negative emotion 658
physiological changes 650
requesting or manipulating 656
sharing 656
technological systems focus 645–6
uniqueness focus 647
word valence 662–4
emotion grounding 78
emotion-laden words 136
empathy 659
encoding models 984–6
endophenotypes 797
English
ambiguity 96, 97, 98, 106
attention and structural choice in sentence production 529, 533, 536–7, 538, 540–1
bilingualism 222, 223–4, 226, 464
conceptual development 739, 740, 745, 746
connectionist principles and speech production 382, 391
dyslexia 786, 787, 788, 800
emotion, comprehension and sociality 663
first word learning 715, 716, 718, 723
gesture 594, 597–8
grammatical encoding 443–4, 447–8
lexico-semantics 76, 82
prosodic phonology 675, 676, 677–8, 680–2, 684–5
segmentation of speech 7, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22
sentence comprehension 171, 176, 177, 178, 183
sentence level aphasia 247
sign languages and deaf populations 270, 273, 274–5
speech perception and production 315
spelling/writing 403, 404, 406, 416, 420
spoken word production 348
spoken word recognition 42
statistical learning 692, 693, 696, 698, 709
text comprehension 203
visual word recognition 52, 56
in multilinguals 118, 123, 131
English-French 22, 224, 228
English-Portugese 229
English-Spanish 219, 226, 231
English-Welsh 124
enhancers 873
sequences 871
entropy 854
reduction 182–3
environmental factors 84–6
developmental dyslexia 800–1, 803
developmental language disorder 823, 827, 830
perception and production in speech 317–19
epigenetic mechanisms 830, 870, 873
epistemic stance 656
equal environment assumption 798
error-based learning 388
error-based learning rule (delta rule) 514, 517
error-driven learning algorithm 41
errors
backpropagation of 294, 385, 387
formal 508
fragment 516–17
mixed error effect 377, 379–81, 508
morphological substitution 292
non-word 382, 508
phonological 379–80, 383, 516–18, 520
prediction 957
root mean square (RMSE) 299
sampling 924–6, 928
segmental 349, 354
semantic-phonological 513
severity/error type interaction 508, 510
speech 349, 350, 354, 389, 391, 450
unrelated 382
word substitution 292
essentialism 743–5
Estonian 716, 723
European Union 118
evaluative stance 656
event indexing model 202, 617
event-related potential (ERP) 930–1, 933, 935–45
anterior negativities (AN) 938, 942
artificial grammar learning 765, 772, 773, 774, 775
attention and structural choice in sentence production 530, 531
auditory brain response (ABR) 934, 937, 940
auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) 937, 938, 940
bilingualism 220, 221, 226, 227, 231–2, 468, 472
CNV 942
eLAN 938, 942
FFR 937, 940
first word learning 717, 725, 726
gesture 600, 602
intracranial electrophysiology and epilepsy 1002
language proficiency 945
late positive complex (LPC) 935, 942
left anterior negativity (LAN) 938, 942, 945
mismatch negativity (MMN) 938, 940, 944–5
multisensory integration 944
N100 23, 704
N200 129, 468, 470, 472, 936
N250 132
no-go N200 effect 938, 943 (p. 1031)
nRef 938, 942
P300 935, 936
P600 936, 941–2, 945
perceptually grounded vs. amodal knowledge representation 943–4
PNP 938, 942
pragmatics 638
scalar implicatures 944–5
segmentation of speech 12, 14, 16, 23
sentence comprehension 172, 173, 938
sign languages and deaf populations 262, 264, 268
slow waves (SW) 935
statistical learning 702, 704, 706
text comprehension 200, 206, 209, 210
transient 932–3, 938–9
visual word recognition 57, 59
in multilinguals 119, 123, 124, 127, 129, 131, 132, 136
word 938
event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs) 1000–1
event semantics 386, 531
evolution of speech 841–58
air sacs 844
anatomical differences 843–4
artificial languages 852, 856
behavioral differences 844
breathing control 850
combinatoriality 845, 852–5, 856
comparative evidence 842–8
apes: evolutionary homologies 842–5
comparison with other species: evolutionary analogy 847–8, 858
comparison with other species: functional universals 845–6
critical period 846–7
domestication of species 847
experimental work 851–8
combinatorial structure 845, 852–5, 856
iconicity 855–7
modality 857–8
fossil evidence 849–50, 858
gestures 845, 857–8
hyoid bone 849–50
imitation 845
iterated learning 852–3, 856–7
larynx 849
modality 857–8
sign languages 852, 855–6
vocalizations 844–5
excitatory connections in visual word recognition in multilinguals 134
executive control impairments 153
executive control tasks, domain-general 136, 468–9
executive functions 210, 557
exemplars 42
exhaustive access model 105
expectations 719–20
experience-based accounts
sentence comprehension 175, 176, 177–80, 181, 182
statistical learning 708
experience-driven modification of connection weights 387
experimental pragmatics 623–40
informativeness and inference: scalar implicature 625–31
anti-Gricean turn 629–31
experimental turn 627–9
irony 635–9
intention 637–9
reference 631–5
egocentric approach 633–4
naming objects 632–3
ongoing debate and meta-analysis 634–5
explicit learning 762–4, 765
expressions of motion events 596–7
extended language network (ELN) 206–8
eye gaze 581, 741
eye-tracking
bilingualism 221, 227–8
first word learning 726
lexico-semantics 82
pragmatics 634
sentence comprehension 172–3, 186–7
sentence level aphasia 244
sign languages and deaf populations 271, 274–5
text comprehension 209–10
visual word recognition in multilinguals 119, 129–30
F
facilitation effects 466
visual word recognition 55–7
in multilinguals 125, 129–30
faculty of language in the broad sense (FLB) 866
faculty of language in the narrow sense (FLN) 866
false belief 550, 557, 739–40
task 550
false friends 98, 220
visual word recognition in multilinguals 120, 121–2, 124–6, 127, 129–30, 133–4, 136
false positive rates 924–5, 927
familiarity effect 716, 721
Farsi 738
feature layer 36
feature model 984–5
feedback
connectionist principles and speech production 380–1
grammatical encoding 439
feed-forward models 37, 350
FFR 937, 940
figurative language 610–11
filler stories (decoys) 638
filler syllables 681–2
(p. 1032) filtering of information 532
finite state automata 759
finite state grammars (FSGs) 758, 760, 769
Finnish
attention and structural choice in sentence production 536–7, 541
dyslexia 787
segmentation of speech 13, 17, 18
spelling/writing 416
first and second language acquisition 19–23
infant-directed speech 19–20
infant sensitivity to segmentation cues 20–2
non-native segmentation 22–3
segmentation of speech 23
first word learning 714–28
babbling 714
referential function of language 722–7
word forms 715–19
word meanings 719–22
FishFilm paradigm 534, 536–7
fixed effects 921
fixed word order languages 436
fluent aphasia see Wernicke’s aphasia
fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) 251
formal error 508
formal grammar 759, 768
formal pragmatics of indexicals 613
format of representations in lexico-semantics 75, 77–9
format-specific hypothesis 411
form priming 352, 354
formulation processes 372
forward models 313, 984
forward transfer 224–5, 228–9
fragment error 516–17
frame-and-slot models 292
frame-based view 441–2
frame-filling theories of phonological encoding 349
free recall 218
free word order languages 436
French
alignment during interaction 576
bilingualism 222, 223
dyslexia 787
first word learning 716
gesture 597
prosodic phonology 678, 679, 680, 683
segmentation of speech 7–8, 9, 21
spelling/writing 415, 416, 418
visual word recognition in multilinguals 122
French-English 124, 132, 221, 229
frequency
ambiguity 108, 110
bilingualism 218
cumulative 50–2
lexico-semantics 82, 88
orthographic representations 50–2
sentence comprehension 178–9
sequential 22
spoken word recognition 32, 35
visual word recognition, in multilinguals 126, 134
word 36, 38, 338
writing and speaking 406–7
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 975–86
adaptation paradigm 500–2
alignment during interaction 579
ambiguity 107, 109
artificial grammar learning 765–6, 776
artificial neural networks (ANNs) 985–6
attention and structural choice in sentence production 530
auditory stimuli 980, 986
bilingualism 226, 468, 472
blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) 84, 322, 770, 978
activation patterns 985
curve (hemodynamic response function) 976–7, 979
response 87, 315, 318–19, 324, 410, 601, 976–7, 979, 980, 981, 984, 997
signal 321, 975, 977
time course 978
continuous stimuli 976–80
developmental language disorder 830
dyslexia 790, 793
edge artifacts 981
encoding models 984–6
feature model 984–5
forward model 984
general linear model approach (GLM) 982–3, 984, 986
gesture 600–1, 602
head movements and stabilization methods 981, 986
hyperalignment 984
hyperscanning 982
interleaved silent steady state imaging (ISSS) 980
intersubject correlation analysis 980
intertrial interval 977–8
multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) 960, 982–3
Procrustean transform 984
rapid event-related 976–7
regions of interest (ROIs) 959, 982–3
representational similarity analysis (RSA) 983, 984–5
search-light approach 982
semantic deficit 146–8, 154
slow event-related 976
speech perception and production 307, 310, 312, 314, 315–17, 321, 323, 325, 981–2
spelling/writing 408, 412
statistical learning 702–4
surprisal value 979
syntactic production and comprehension 485, 497
take home message 979 (p. 1033)
text comprehension 206, 209
time to repetition (TR) 976, 979
visual word recognition in multilinguals 119, 125, 136
functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) 16, 765, 772, 773
functional phrases 343
functional processing 435
function assignment 436
function words 435
Fuzzy Logical model 313
G
gabbling foreigner effect 22
gamma band 957, 965, 968, 995
high-gamma activity 997–1002
Garden Path model 174–5, 183, 227–8, 483, 941
gating activation 263, 264, 375
gaze-contingent boundary paradigm 273
generalization
models of language evolution 899, 901–2
statistical learning 700, 707, 709
Generalized Estimation Equations 928
generalized word use 727
generalizing over encounters 917–28
analysis of variance (ANOVA) 918
by-item and by-subject analysis 918, 920–1, 927
false positive rates 924–5, 927
fixed effects 921
F1x F2 918, 919
house effect 919
language-as-fixed-effect fallacy 918–19
linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs) 918
lme4 package for R 918–19
maximal random effects structure 927
min-F 918, 919
mixed-effects models 919, 921, 922, 926–7, 928
Monte Carlo simulations 919, 925
random intercept variance 919, 926–7
random slope variance 919, 927, 928
replication 923–5
sample size 924
sampling error 928
statistical issues 924–7
repetition amplifies impact of sampling error 924–6
sampling variation 926–7
structure of encounter 923
subject-by-stimulus interaction 927n
three-party encounters 922–3
treatment variation 926
types of encounters 921–4
types of entities 923
general linear model approach (GLM) 982–3, 984, 986
general theory of signs 609
generation effect 561
generic statements 743–4
genetics 865–84
animal models 866, 880–3
mice: stuttering 882–3
songbirds: vocal learning 881–2
ARHGEF39 875
axons 877
CASPR2 878
CNTNAP2 878–9
DCDC2 877
dendrites 877
developmental deficits 420
developmental dyslexia 798–800, 801
molecular genetics 798–9
neural basis 799–800
twin studies 798
developmental language disorder 823, 827, 828, 830
DYX1C1 877
FOXP2 869n, 873, 874, 876, 877, 878–9, 881
FOXP1 873
genome 867–75
chromatin structure 869–71
genes and proteins 868–9
non-coding DNA as gate-keeper for gene expression 871–3
post-transcriptional regulation (controlling the message) 873–5
genome-wide association studies (GWAS) 876
GNPTAB 882–3
GNPTG 882
KIAA0319 877
MECP2 871
MTRNR1 879
MYO15A 879
NAGPA 882
neurites 877
nucleotides 867
RBFOXs 874
ROBO1 877
synapse 877
systems 875–80
genome-wide variation and coordinated molecular networks 875–6
migration and neurite outgrowth 876–7
peripheral mechanisms 879–80
synapses and neural circuits 878–9
TBR1 873
3’UTR (3’ Un-Translated Region) 874–5
genome see genetics
German
ambiguity 99
artificial grammar learning 774
bilingualism 222, 223–4
dyslexia 787
grammatical encoding 444
segmentation of speech 16
sign languages and deaf populations 270
spelling/writing 416, 420
text comprehension 202
visual word recognition in multilinguals 122, 127
(p. 1034) German-English 22, 129, 220, 230
gesture 6, 592–604
beats 592
communicative 601, 602–3
complementary 601
conceptual development 737
co-speech gesture integration 944
evolution of speech 845, 857–8
first word learning 724, 727
Gesture as Simulated Action (GSA) 595, 597
grooming (self-adaptors) 601
hand 581
incongruent 602
integration of 603
interactive, pragmatic 592
models 593–8
pointing 592, 595–6
preparation 593
redundant 601
retraction (hold) 593
sign languages and deaf populations 262
silent 907–8
stroke 593, 602
unified account 603–4
gibbon song 845
Gibson’s Dependency Locality Theory 177
GingerALE method 766
global damage mechanisms 382–4
global discourse context 129
glottalization, cross-boundary 15
goal-oriented action observation in speech perception and production 322
Good Enough approach 175, 617–18
goodness of fit 10
graded activation account 355
graded effects 11
graded hub hypothesis 149, 156
Graded Salience hypothesis 636–7
gradient representations in perspective-taking 561
Gradient Symbolic Computation (GSC) 388, 390–1, 392
grammar
BROCANTO 758, 760, 769, 771
complex 760, 768, 776
context-sensitive 760
finite state 758, 760, 769
formal 759, 768
lexicalized tree-adjoining 441
natural 760
nested hierarchical 771
REBER 757–8
regular 759
story 198, 200
universal
grammatical encoding 291–2, 432–51
accessibility 442
combinatoriality 442
consensus model 432–8, 440, 441, 448, 451
content subprocesses 435
division and unity 437–8
message encoding 434
structure subprocesses 435–7
content 432, 437–40, 441–2
dialogue contexts 448–9
emerging debates 446–9
fundamental debates 438–42
fundamental insights 449–51
grammatical category labels 437
grammatical functions 435
incrementality 432, 442–4
linguistic knowledge and non-linguistic knowledge distinction 449–50
ongoing debates 442–6
ongoing learning effects 447–8
rational models of sentence production 446–7
retrieval 432, 437
scope 432, 442–4
selection 432, 437
selection-then-retrieval 432, 439–40
stages 438–41
structure 432, 437–8, 440–2
grammaticality judgment test 697
grammatical role assignment 529–30, 537–8, 540–1
grammatical structure (functional level representation) 483
Granger Causality 959–60, 999–1000
Granger connectivity analysis 968
graphical communication task 904, 905
Greek 746, 787
Greek-French 127
grounding 556
emotion 78
perspective-taking 552, 561
pragmatics and inference 617
Growing Up in Scotland (GUS)(UK) study 818–21
growth curve analysis/growth trajectories 824
H
handwritten production model 402
Hanoi problem 595
head-turn preference procedure 701, 716
hearing sensitivity 850
Hebbian learning phase 135
Hebrew 50, 223, 245, 420
Hebrew-English 127
herpes simplex encephalitis 149
heteromodal semantic hub in anterior temporal lobes 146–7
heteromodal semantic impairment 151
heuristics 227, 552, 560, 564
hierarchical state feedback control (HSFC) theory 295
hierarchical structure
artificial grammar learning (AGL) 776
and natural language comparison 768–9 (p. 1035)
Chomsky 759, 771
sentence level aphasia 239–40
high frequency band (HFB) 997
Hindi 223, 738
Hindi-English 224
histone modifications 870
holistics
approach 876
labels 901–2
learnability 901, 904, 909
mapping mechanism 529
representations of word meanings 336
signals 900, 903–4, 909
specifications in sign language 265
Homo ergaster 850, 858
homographs 97, 104, 120, 221
interlingual 124–6, 127, 128, 129, 131, 220
intralingual 121–3
Homo heidelbergensis 849–50, 858
homonyms 98, 101
homophones 58, 97, 120, 127
interlingual 125
intralingual 121–2
Homo sapiens 850
HSVE 156
hub-and-spokes model 145, 147–8, 149, 155–6
humming birds 848
Hungarian 223, 787
Hungarian-English 22
hybrid and combined models 74–5, 78
hybrid languages 760
hyoid bone 849–50
hyperarticulation/hypoarticulation 8, 19
hyperscanning 982
hypertext systems (World Wide Web) 204
hypoglossal canal 850
I
iambic words 20–1
iconicity
evolution of speech 855–7
models of language evolution 904–5
sign languages and deaf populations 265–7
ideational apraxia following stroke 149
identification task 791
identification point (IP) 944
ignition stage 440
Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities 815
imageability 74, 75, 78
imitation 573, 845
Immersed Experiencer 201–2
implemented models 49
implicatures 550, 610–13, 635–6
conventional 625
conversational 625, 635
generalized 625, 626
local 631
particularized 625, 626
implicit causality 614
implicit learning 762–4, 765
implicit priming 347, 349–52, 405
inconsistency paradigm 200
incrementality 183, 348, 432, 442–4
independent components analysis 325
indeterminacy hypothesis 624
indexicals 609
indirect speech act 610–11
individual difference studies 243, 272
individual (role of experience and current cognitive context) 80–2
individual words 337–8
Indo-European languages 50, 61
inductive inferences 742, 744
infancy
artificial grammar learning (AGL) 771–5
adjacent dependencies 771, 772, 773
algebraic rules 771, 772–3
non-adjacent dependencies 771, 773–5
infant-directed cues 741
infant-directed intonation 741
infant-directed speech
first and second language acquisition 19–20
first word learning 716
segmentation of speech 6, 13
statistical learning 693–4
infant sensitivity to segmentation cues 20–2
inference 611–18
and bonus meaning 657
Bransford’s three ideas 611–13
causal 617
coherence-creating 613–14
elaborative 613
embodiment and good-enough representations 617–18
and emotions 618–19
inductive 742, 744
and intentions 658
mental models and situation models 615–16
necessary 613
perspective-taking 560
referential 617
and referential intention 655
scalar-like 629–30
and social intention 656
and stance 655–6
text comprehension 199–200, 202, 207, 208, 210
inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)
gesture 600–1
semantic deficit 154
speech perception and production 309, 312
statistical learning 703
syntactic production and comprehension 495–6, 497, 499, 501, 502
(p. 1036) inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) 148, 496
information questions 562–3
information structure 436, 482–3, 610–11
Information Theory 182–3
information transmission model 6
informativeness see under experimental pragmatics
inhibition
spoken word production 341
visual word recognition 55–7
in multilinguals 125–6
inhibitory connections 10, 35–6, 53, 134
inhibitory control model (ICM) 464–5, 468–71
innate mechanism vs. experience-driven accounts of ambiguity resolution 175–6
innovative approaches in spoken word recognition 37–41
input coding: letters and letter positions 49–50
input layer in spoken word recognition 41
input processing deficits in anterior temporal lobe (ATL) 149–50
Integrated Systems hypothesis 603
integration 612–13
during production of full sentences 341–5
controlling lexical access 344–5
planning scope 342–4
producing words in sentences 341–2
pragmatics and inference 613–14, 618
speech production 295–7
statistical learning 706–7
intellectual disability (ID) 874, 878
intelligence quotient (IQ) 785, 797, 815, 821, 830
intensifiers 657
intention 623
communicative 657, 722
inferred 658
and irony 637–9
referential 655, 661
social 656, 658–9, 662, 663
interaction 510
gesture 596
interactive-activation 36–7, 53–4, 55–7, 134, 346
interactive alignment 557–8
interactive hypothesis 538
interactive two-step model of naming 507–8, 519
Interface Hypothesis 595–6
interfacing representations 433
interference
bilingualism 466
paradigmatic 344
phonological form repetition 352
position-dependent interference effects of form overlap 352
semantic 103, 377, 378–9, 445, 513
sentence level aphasia 243, 244
interjections 657
interleaved silent steady state imaging (ISSS) 980
internalizing and externalizing difficulties 785
internal merge operation 768
interpersonal relationships 747
interpreting the present 183–4
interpreting speaker’s communicative move 655
intersensory redundancy 720
intersubject correlation analysis 980
intonation 6, 676
boundaries 15
infant-directed 741
intracranial electrophysiology and epilepsy 992–1003
BOLD response 997
electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) 993
electrocorticography (ECoG) 993, 994, 995, 997, 1002
electroencephalography (EEG) 992–3
event-related potentials (ERP) 1002
event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs) 1000–1
high frequency band (HFB) 997
high-gamma activity 997–1002
history of epilepsy surgery 992–3
intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) 993, 1003
intracranial event-related potentials (iERPs) 996
Local Field Potential (LFP) 995
methodological considerations